Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3346

Search results for: wireless sensor network.

3346 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: Malicious nodes, network security, soft encryption, threats, wireless sensor networks.

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3345 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol.

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3344 Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Muazzam A. Khan, Ghalib A. Shah, Muhammad Sher

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.

Keywords: Wireless senor networks (WSNs), security, denial of service, black hole, cryptography, stenography.

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3343 Concepts for Designing Low Power Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Bahareh Gholamzadeh, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have been used in wide areas of application and become an attractive area for researchers in recent years. Because of the limited energy storage capability of sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging aspects of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals with this area. This paper presents general methods for designing low power wireless sensor network. Different sources of energy consumptions in these networks are discussed here and techniques for alleviating the consumption of energy are presented.

Keywords: Energy consumption, MAC protocol, Routing protocol, Sensor node, Topology control, Wireless sensor network.

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3342 Review of Trust Models in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: V. Uma Rani, K. Soma Sundaram

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by wireless sensor networks is security. Because of dynamic and collaborative nature of sensor networks the connected sensor devices makes the network unusable. To solve this issue, a trust model is required to find malicious, selfish and compromised insiders by evaluating trust worthiness sensors from the network. It supports the decision making processes in wireless sensor networks such as pre key-distribution, cluster head selection, data aggregation, routing and self reconfiguration of sensor nodes. This paper discussed the kinds of trust model, trust metrics used to address attacks by monitoring certain behavior of network. It describes the major design issues and their countermeasures of building trust model. It also discusses existing trust models used in various decision making process of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Attacks, Security, Trust, Trust model, Wireless sensor network.

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3341 Increasing Lifetime of Target Tracking Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Khin Thanda Soe

Abstract:

A model to identify the lifetime of target tracking wireless sensor network is proposed. The model is a static clusterbased architecture and aims to provide two factors. First, it is to increase the lifetime of target tracking wireless sensor network. Secondly, it is to enable good localization result with low energy consumption for each sensor in the network. The model consists of heterogeneous sensors and each sensing member node in a cluster uses two operation modes–active mode and sleep mode. The performance results illustrate that the proposed architecture consumes less energy and increases lifetime than centralized and dynamic clustering architectures, for target tracking sensor network.

Keywords: Network lifetime, Target Localization, TargetTracking, Wireless Sensor Networks.

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3340 A Nobel Approach for Campus Monitoring

Authors: Rashmi Priyadarshini, S. R. N. Reddy, R. M. Mehra

Abstract:

This paper presents one of the best applications of wireless sensor network for campus Monitoring. With the help of PIR sensor, temperature sensor and humidity sensor, effective utilization of energy resources has been implemented in one of rooms of Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. The RISC microcontroller is used here for analysis of output of sensors and providing proper control using ZigBee protocol. This wireless sensor module presents a tremendous power saving method for any campus

Keywords: PIC microcontroller, wireless sensor network, ZigBee.

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3339 Wireless Sensor Networks for Long Distance Pipeline Monitoring

Authors: Augustine C. Azubogu, Victor E. Idigo, Schola U. Nnebe, Obinna S. Oguejiofor, Simon E.

Abstract:

The main goal of this seminal paper is to introduce the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in long distance infrastructure monitoring (in particular in pipeline infrastructure monitoring) – one of the on-going research projects by the Wireless Communication Research Group at the department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The current sensor network architectures for monitoring long distance pipeline infrastructures are previewed. These are wired sensor networks, RF wireless sensor networks, integrated wired and wireless sensor networks. The reliability of these architectures is discussed. Three reliability factors are used to compare the architectures in terms of network connectivity, continuity of power supply for the network, and the maintainability of the network. The constraints and challenges of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and protecting long distance pipeline infrastructure are discussed.

Keywords: Connectivity, maintainability, reliability, wireless sensor networks.

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3338 A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Wireless Network Attacks, Wireless Network Security.

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3337 Performance of a Connected Random Covered Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Mahdavi, M. Ismail, K. Jumari, Z. M. Hanapi

Abstract:

For the sensor network to operate successfully, the active nodes should maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity. Furthermore, scheduling sleep intervals plays critical role for energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks. Traditional methods for sensor scheduling use either sensing coverage or network connectivity, but rarely both. In this paper, we use random scheduling for sensing coverage and then turn on extra sensor nodes, if necessary, for network connectivity. Simulation results have demonstrated that the number of extra nodes that is on with upper bound of around 9%, is small compared to the total number of deployed sensor nodes. Thus energy consumption for switching on extra sensor node is small.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, energy efficient network, performance analysis, network coverage.

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3336 An Innovative Wireless Sensor Network Protocol Implementation using a Hybrid FPGA Technology

Authors: Danielle Reichel, Antoine Druilhe, Tuan Dang

Abstract:

Traditional development of wireless sensor network mote is generally based on SoC1 platform. Such method of development faces three main drawbacks: lack of flexibility in terms of development due to low resource and rigid architecture of SoC; low capability of evolution and portability versus performance if specific micro-controller architecture features are used; and the rapid obsolescence of micro-controller comparing to the long lifetime of power plants or any industrial installations. To overcome these drawbacks, we have explored a new approach of development of wireless sensor network mote using a hybrid FPGA technology. The application of such approach is illustrated through the implementation of an innovative wireless sensor network protocol called OCARI.

Keywords: Hybrid FPGA, Embedded system, Mote, flexibility, durability, OCARI protocol, SoC, Wireless Sensor Network

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3335 Location Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, clustering, energy efficient, localization.

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3334 Design and Implementation of Active Radio Frequency Identification on Wireless Sensor Network-Based System

Authors: Che Z. Zulkifli, Nursyahida M. Noor, Siti N. Semunab, Shafawati A. Malek

Abstract:

Wireless sensors, also known as wireless sensor nodes, have been making a significant impact on human daily life. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two complementary technologies; hence, an integrated implementation of these technologies expands the overall functionality in obtaining long-range and real-time information on the location and properties of objects and people. An approach for integrating ZigBee and RFID networks is proposed in this paper, to create an energy-efficient network improved by the benefits of combining ZigBee and RFID architecture. Furthermore, the compatibility and requirements of the ZigBee device and communication links in the typical RFID system which is presented with the real world experiment on the capabilities of the proposed RFID system.

Keywords: Mesh network, RFID, wireless sensor network, zigbee.

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3333 Hybrid MAC Protocols Characteristics in Multi-hops Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Miladi, T. Ezzedine, R. Bouallegue

Abstract:

In the current decade, wireless sensor networks are emerging as a peculiar multi-disciplinary research area. By this way, energy efficiency is one of the fundamental research themes in the design of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks. Thus, in order to optimize the energy consumption in these networks, a variety of MAC protocols are available in the literature. These schemes were commonly evaluated under simple network density and a few results are published on their robustness in realistic network-s size. We, in this paper, provide an analytical study aiming to highlight the energy waste sources in wireless sensor networks. Then, we experiment three energy efficient hybrid CSMA/CA based MAC protocols optimized for wireless sensor networks: Sensor-MAC (SMAC), Time-out MAC (TMAC) and Traffic aware Energy Efficient MAC (TEEM). We investigate these protocols with different network densities in order to discuss the end-to-end performances of these schemes (i.e. in terms of energy efficiency, delay and throughput). Through Network Simulator (NS- 2) implementations, we explore the behaviors of these protocols with respect to the network density. In fact, this study may help the multihops sensor networks designers to design or select the MAC layer which matches better their applications aims.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, medium access control, network density, wireless sensor networks.

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3332 Challenges to Enable Quick Start of an Environmental Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Technology

Authors: Masaki Ito, Hideyuki Tokuda, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

With the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, its practical utilization is becoming an important challange. This paper overviews my past environmental monitoring project, and discusses the process of starting the monitoring by classifying it into four steps. The steps to start environmental monitoring can be complicated, but not well discussed by researchers of wireless sensor network technology. This paper demonstrates our activity and challenges in each of the four steps to ease the process, and argues future challenges to enable quick start of environmental monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, Field Experiment and Research Challenges.

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3331 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.

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3330 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using a Line-Topology Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Dae Il Kim, Jungho Moon, Tae Yun Chung

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using a wireless sensor network. The presented sensor network has a line-shaped topology and adopts a TDMA-based protocol for allowing multi-hop communications. Sensor nodes are deployed in the ground of an outdoor parking lot in such a way that a sensor node monitors a parking space. Each sensor node detects the availability of the associated parking space and transmits the detection result to a sink node via intermediate sensor nodes existing between the source sensor node and the sink node. We evaluate the feasibility of the presented sensor network and the TDMA-based communication protocol through experiments using 11 sensor nodes deployed in a real parking lot. The result shows that the presented car parking monitoring system is robust to changes in the communication environments and efficient for monitoring parking spaces of outdoor parking lots.

Keywords: Multi-hop communication, parking monitoring system, TDMA, wireless sensor network.

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3329 A Study of Dynamic Clustering Method to Extend the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Kun-Jie Huang, Li-Zhong Deng, Kun-Rong Hsie, Mingteh Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, the research in wireless sensor network has increased steadily, and many studies were focusing on reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to extend their lifetimes. In this paper, the issue of energy consumption is investigated and two adaptive mechanisms are proposed to extend the network lifetime. This study uses high-energy-first scheme to determine cluster heads for data transmission. Thus, energy consumption in each cluster is balanced and network lifetime can be extended. In addition, this study uses cluster merging and dynamic routing mechanisms to further reduce energy consumption during data transmission. The simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively extend the lifetime of wireless sensor network, and it is suitable for different base station locations.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, high-energy-first scheme, adaptive mechanisms, network lifetime

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3328 A Comparative Study on Available IPv6 Platforms for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Usman Sarwar, Gopinath Sinniah Rao, Zeldi Suryady, Reza Khoshdelniat

Abstract:

The low power wireless sensor devices which usually uses the low power wireless private area network (IEEE 802.15.4) standard are being widely deployed for various purposes and in different scenarios. IPv6 low power wireless private area network (6LoWPAN) was adopted as part of the IETF standard for the wireless sensor devices so that it will become an open standard compares to other dominated proprietary standards available in the market. 6LoWPAN also allows the integration and communication of sensor nodes with the Internet more viable. This paper presents a comparative study on different available IPv6 platforms for wireless sensor networks including open and close sources. It also discusses about the platforms used by these stacks. Finally it evaluates and provides appropriate suggestions which can be use for selection of required IPv6 stack for low power devices.

Keywords: 6LoWPAN Stacks, 6LoWPAN Platforms, m-Stack, NanoStack, uIPv6, PhyNet 6LoWPAN, Jennic 6LoWPAN.

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3327 Greedy Geographical Void Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Chiang Tzu-Chiang, Chang Jia-Lin, Tsai Yue-Fu, Li Sha-Pai

Abstract:

With the advantage of wireless network technology, there are a variety of mobile applications which make the issue of wireless sensor networks as a popular research area in recent years. As the wireless sensor network nodes move arbitrarily with the topology fast change feature, mobile nodes are often confronted with the void issue which will initiate packet losing, retransmitting, rerouting, additional transmission cost and power consumption. When transmitting packets, we would not predict void problem occurring in advance. Thus, how to improve geographic routing with void avoidance in wireless networks becomes an important issue. In this paper, we proposed a greedy geographical void routing algorithm to solve the void problem for wireless sensor networks. We use the information of source node and void area to draw two tangents to form a fan range of the existence void which can announce voidavoiding message. Then we use source and destination nodes to draw a line with an angle of the fan range to select the next forwarding neighbor node for routing. In a dynamic wireless sensor network environment, the proposed greedy void avoiding algorithm can be more time-saving and more efficient to forward packets, and improve current geographical void problem of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, internet routing, wireless network, greedy void avoiding algorithm, bypassing void.

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3326 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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3325 A Taxonomy of Internal Attacks in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Muhammad R Ahmed, Xu Huang, Dharmendra Sharma

Abstract:

Developments in communication technologies especially in wireless have enabled the progress of low-cost and lowpower wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The features of such WSN are holding minimal energy, weak computational capabilities, wireless communication and an open-medium nature where sensors are deployed. WSN is underpinned by application driven such as military applications, the health sector, etc. Due to the intrinsic nature of the network and application scenario, WSNs are vulnerable to many attacks externally and internally. In this paper we have focused on the types of internal attacks of WSNs based on OSI model and discussed some security requirements, characterizers and challenges of WSNs, by which to contribute to the WSN-s security research.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, internal attacks, security, OSI model.

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3324 An Energy-Efficient Protocol with Static Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amir Sepasi Zahmati, Bahman Abolhassani, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi, Ali Shojaee Bakhtiari

Abstract:

A wireless sensor network with a large number of tiny sensor nodes can be used as an effective tool for gathering data in various situations. One of the major issues in wireless sensor networks is developing an energy-efficient routing protocol which has a significant impact on the overall lifetime of the sensor network. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical with static clustering routing protocol called Energy-Efficient Protocol with Static Clustering (EEPSC). EEPSC, partitions the network into static clusters, eliminates the overhead of dynamic clustering and utilizes temporary-cluster-heads to distribute the energy load among high-power sensor nodes; thus extends network lifetime. We have conducted simulation-based evaluations to compare the performance of EEPSC against Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH). Our experiment results show that EEPSC outperforms LEACH in terms of network lifetime and power consumption minimization.

Keywords: Clustering methods, energy efficiency, routingprotocol, wireless sensor networks.

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3323 The Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: B. Juhasova, I. Halenar, M. Juhas

Abstract:

The wireless communication is one of the widely used methods of data transfer at the present days. The benefit of this communication method is the partial independence of the infrastructure and the possibility of mobility. In some special applications it is the only way how to connect. This paper presents some problems in the implementation of a sensor network connection for measuring environmental parameters in the area of manufacturing plants.

Keywords: Network, communication, reliability, sensors.

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3322 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali

Abstract:

The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, ad hoc topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements.

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3321 Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime

Authors: Vrince Vimal, Madhav J. Nigam

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.

Keywords: WSN, random deployment, clustering, isolated nodes, network lifetime.

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3320 Energy and Distance Based Clustering: An Energy Efficient Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Mojtaba Hajimohammadi, Ali Movaghar

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an energy efficient cluster based communication protocol for wireless sensor network. Our protocol considers both the residual energy of sensor nodes and the distance of each node from the BS when selecting cluster-head. This protocol can successfully prolong the network-s lifetime by 1) reducing the total energy dissipation on the network and 2) evenly distributing energy consumption over all sensor nodes. In this protocol, the nodes with more energy and less distance from the BS are probable to be selected as cluster-head. Simulation results with MATLAB show that proposed protocol could increase the lifetime of network more than 94% for first node die (FND), and more than 6% for the half of the nodes alive (HNA) factor as compared with conventional protocols.

Keywords: Clustering methods, energy efficiency, routing protocol, wireless sensor networks.

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3319 Improving Multi-storey Building Sensor Network with an External Hub

Authors: Malka N. Halgamuge, Toong-Khuan Chan, Priyan Mendis

Abstract:

Monitoring and automatic control of building environment is a crucial application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in which maximizing network lifetime is a key challenge. Previous research into the performance of a network in a building environment has been concerned with radio propagation within a single floor. We investigate the link quality distribution to obtain full coverage of signal strength in a four-storey building environment, experimentally. Our results indicate that the transitional region is of particular concern in wireless sensor network since it accommodates high variance unreliable links. The transitional region in a multi-storey building is mainly due to the presence of reinforced concrete slabs at each storey and the fac┬©ade which obstructs the radio signal and introduces an additional absorption term to the path loss.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, building monitoring

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3318 Tree Based Data Aggregation to Resolve Funneling Effect in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Rajesh, B. Vinayaga Sundaram, C. Aarthi

Abstract:

In wireless sensor network, sensor node transmits the sensed data to the sink node in multi-hop communication periodically. This high traffic induces congestion at the node which is present one-hop distance to the sink node. The packet transmission and reception rate of these nodes should be very high, when compared to other sensor nodes in the network. Therefore, the energy consumption of that node is very high and this effect is known as the “funneling effect”. The tree based-data aggregation technique (TBDA) is used to reduce the energy consumption of the node. The throughput of the overall performance shows a considerable decrease in the number of packet transmissions to the sink node. The proposed scheme, TBDA, avoids the funneling effect and extends the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. The average case time complexity for inserting the node in the tree is O(n log n) and for the worst case time complexity is O(n2).

Keywords: Data Aggregation, Funneling Effect, Traffic Congestion, Wireless Sensor Network.

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3317 Design of Smart Energy Monitoring System for Green IT Life

Authors: Min Goo Lee, Yong Kuk Park, Kyung Kwon Jung, Jun Jae Yoo

Abstract:

This paper describes the smart energy monitoring system with a wireless sensor network for monitoring of electrical usage in smart house. Proposed system is composed of wireless plugs and energy control wallpad server. The wireless plug integrates an AC power socket, a relay to switch the socket ON/OFF, a Hall effect sensor to sense current of load appliance and a Kmote. The Kmote is a wireless communication interface based on TinyOS. We evaluated wireless plug in a laboratory, analyzed and presented energy consumption data from electrical appliances for 3 months in home.

Keywords: smart house, energy monitoring, wireless plug, wireless sensor network, current consumption.

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