Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Data Aggregation

18 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: Data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional.

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17 Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Krishna Veni, R.Geetha

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.

Keywords: Aggregation, lifetime, network security, wireless sensor network.

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16 A Spanning Tree for Enhanced Cluster Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Saravanan, M. Madheswaran

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) clustering architecture enables features like network scalability, communication overhead reduction, and fault tolerance. After clustering, aggregated data is transferred to data sink and reducing unnecessary, redundant data transfer. It reduces nodes transmitting, and so saves energy consumption. Also, it allows scalability for many nodes, reduces communication overhead, and allows efficient use of WSN resources. Clustering based routing methods manage network energy consumption efficiently. Building spanning trees for data collection rooted at a sink node is a fundamental data aggregation method in sensor networks. The problem of determining Cluster Head (CH) optimal number is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, we combine cluster based routing features for cluster formation and CH selection and use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for intra-cluster communication. The proposed method is based on optimizing MST using Simulated Annealing (SA). In this work, normalized values of mobility, delay, and remaining energy are considered for finding optimal MST. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the packet delivery ratio and reducing the end to end delay.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, clustering, minimum spanning tree, genetic algorithm, low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy, simulated annealing.

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15 An Energy Aware Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Using Connected Dominant Set

Authors: M. Santhalakshmi, P Suganthi

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many advantages. Their deployment is easier and faster than wired sensor networks or other wireless networks, as they do not need fixed infrastructure. Nodes are partitioned into many small groups named clusters to aggregate data through network organization. WSN clustering guarantees performance achievement of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes energy consumption is reduced by eliminating redundant energy use and balancing energy sensor nodes use over a network. The aim of such clustering protocols is to prolong network life. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a popular protocol in WSN. LEACH is a clustering protocol in which the random rotations of local cluster heads are utilized in order to distribute energy load among all sensor nodes in the network. This paper proposes Connected Dominant Set (CDS) based cluster formation. CDS aggregates data in a promising approach for reducing routing overhead since messages are transmitted only within virtual backbone by means of CDS and also data aggregating lowers the ratio of responding hosts to the hosts existing in virtual backbones. CDS tries to increase networks lifetime considering such parameters as sensors lifetime, remaining and consumption energies in order to have an almost optimal data aggregation within networks. Experimental results proved CDS outperformed LEACH regarding number of cluster formations, average packet loss rate, average end to end delay, life computation, and remaining energy computation.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, connected dominant set, clustering, data aggregation.

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14 Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection

Authors: D. Naga Ravi Kiran, C. G. Dethe

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), LEACH, Clustering, Tabu Search.

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13 Soft Computing Based Cluster Head Selection in Wireless Sensor Network Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

Authors: A. Rajagopal, S. Somasundaram, B. Sowmya, T. Suguna

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enable new applications and need non-conventional paradigms for the protocol because of energy and bandwidth constraints, In WSN, sensor node’s life is a critical parameter. Research on life extension is based on Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) scheme, which rotates Cluster Head (CH) among sensor nodes to distribute energy consumption over all network nodes. CH selection in WSN affects network energy efficiency greatly. This study proposes an improved CH selection for efficient data aggregation in sensor networks. This new algorithm is based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) incorporated in LEACH.

Keywords: Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO), Cluster Head (CH), Data-aggregation protocols, Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH).

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12 Tree Based Data Aggregation to Resolve Funneling Effect in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Rajesh, B. Vinayaga Sundaram, C. Aarthi

Abstract:

In wireless sensor network, sensor node transmits the sensed data to the sink node in multi-hop communication periodically. This high traffic induces congestion at the node which is present one-hop distance to the sink node. The packet transmission and reception rate of these nodes should be very high, when compared to other sensor nodes in the network. Therefore, the energy consumption of that node is very high and this effect is known as the “funneling effect”. The tree based-data aggregation technique (TBDA) is used to reduce the energy consumption of the node. The throughput of the overall performance shows a considerable decrease in the number of packet transmissions to the sink node. The proposed scheme, TBDA, avoids the funneling effect and extends the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. The average case time complexity for inserting the node in the tree is O(n log n) and for the worst case time complexity is O(n2).

Keywords: Data Aggregation, Funneling Effect, Traffic Congestion, Wireless Sensor Network.

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11 Review of Trust Models in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: V. Uma Rani, K. Soma Sundaram

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by wireless sensor networks is security. Because of dynamic and collaborative nature of sensor networks the connected sensor devices makes the network unusable. To solve this issue, a trust model is required to find malicious, selfish and compromised insiders by evaluating trust worthiness sensors from the network. It supports the decision making processes in wireless sensor networks such as pre key-distribution, cluster head selection, data aggregation, routing and self reconfiguration of sensor nodes. This paper discussed the kinds of trust model, trust metrics used to address attacks by monitoring certain behavior of network. It describes the major design issues and their countermeasures of building trust model. It also discusses existing trust models used in various decision making process of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Attacks, Security, Trust, Trust model, Wireless sensor network.

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10 Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Surender Kumar Soni

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are wireless networks consisting of number of tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to monitor various physical phenomena like temperature, pressure, vibration, landslide detection, presence of any object, etc. The major limitation in these networks is the use of nonrechargeable battery having limited power supply. The main cause of energy consumption WSN is communication subsystem. This paper presents an efficient grid formation/clustering strategy known as Grid based level Clustering and Aggregation of Data (GCAD). The proposed clustering strategy is simple and scalable that uses low duty cycle approach to keep non-CH nodes into sleep mode thus reducing energy consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed GCAD protocol performs better in various performance metrics.

Keywords: Ad hoc network, Cluster, Grid base clustering, Wireless sensor network.

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9 Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Data Aggregation Trees in Wireless Sensor Networks and Comparison with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ladan Darougaran, Hossein Shahinzadeh, Hajar Ghotb, Leila Ramezanpour

Abstract:

In ad hoc networks, the main issue about designing of protocols is quality of service, so that in wireless sensor networks the main constraint in designing protocols is limited energy of sensors. In fact, protocols which minimize the power consumption in sensors are more considered in wireless sensor networks. One approach of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks is to reduce the number of packages that are transmitted in network. The technique of collecting data that combines related data and prevent transmission of additional packages in network can be effective in the reducing of transmitted packages- number. According to this fact that information processing consumes less power than information transmitting, Data Aggregation has great importance and because of this fact this technique is used in many protocols [5]. One of the Data Aggregation techniques is to use Data Aggregation tree. But finding one optimum Data Aggregation tree to collect data in networks with one sink is a NP-hard problem. In the Data Aggregation technique, related information packages are combined in intermediate nodes and form one package. So the number of packages which are transmitted in network reduces and therefore, less energy will be consumed that at last results in improvement of longevity of network. Heuristic methods are used in order to solve the NP-hard problem that one of these optimization methods is to solve Simulated Annealing problems. In this article, we will propose new method in order to build data collection tree in wireless sensor networks by using Simulated Annealing algorithm and we will evaluate its efficiency whit Genetic Algorithm.

Keywords: Data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm.

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8 A New Protocol for Concealed Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Abbasi Dezfouli, S. Mazraeh, M. H. Yektaie

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes that are placed on unattended environments such as military sites in order to collect important information. Implementing a secure protocol that can prevent forwarding forged data and modifying content of aggregated data and has low delay and overhead of communication, computing and storage is very important. This paper presents a new protocol for concealed data aggregation (CDA). In this protocol, the network is divided to virtual cells, nodes within each cell produce a shared key to send and receive of concealed data with each other. Considering to data aggregation in each cell is locally and implementing a secure authentication mechanism, data aggregation delay is very low and producing false data in the network by malicious nodes is not possible. To evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol, we have presented computational models that show the performance and low overhead in our protocol.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Concealed Data Aggregation.

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7 The New Method of Concealed Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor: A Case Study

Authors: M. Abbasi Dezfouli, S. Mazraeh, M. H. Yektaie

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes that are placed on unattended environments such as military sites in order to collect important information. Implementing a secure protocol that can prevent forwarding forged data and modifying content of aggregated data and has low delay and overhead of communication, computing and storage is very important. This paper presents a new protocol for concealed data aggregation (CDA). In this protocol, the network is divided to virtual cells, nodes within each cell produce a shared key to send and receive of concealed data with each other. Considering to data aggregation in each cell is locally and implementing a secure authentication mechanism, data aggregation delay is very low and producing false data in the network by malicious nodes is not possible. To evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol, we have presented computational models that show the performance and low overhead in our protocol.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Concealed Data Aggregation.

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6 Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Deepali Virmani , Satbir Jain

Abstract:

To meet the demands of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where data are usually aggregated at a single source prior to transmitting to any distant user, there is a need to establish a tree structure inside any given event region. In this paper , a novel technique to create one such tree is proposed .This tree preserves the energy and maximizes the lifetime of event sources while they are constantly transmitting for data aggregation. The term Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree (DLMT) is used to denote this tree. DLMT features in nodes with higher energy tend to be chosen as data aggregating parents so that the time to detect the first broken tree link can be extended and less energy is involved in tree maintenance. By constructing the tree in such a way, the protocol is able to reduce the frequency of tree reconstruction, minimize the amount of data loss ,minimize the delay during data collection and preserves the energy.

Keywords: branch energy, decentralized, energy level , lifetime, tree energy, wireless sensor networks.

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5 An Energy Efficient Cluster Formation Protocol with Low Latency In Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Allirani, M. Suganthi

Abstract:

Data gathering is an essential operation in wireless sensor network applications. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network. Similarly, clustering is also an effective technique to improve the energy efficiency and network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an energy efficient cluster formation protocol is proposed with the objective of achieving low energy dissipation and latency without sacrificing application specific quality. The objective is achieved by applying randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation and localized control for data transfers. It involves application - specific data processing, such as data aggregation or compression. The cluster formation algorithm allows each node to make independent decisions, so as to generate good clusters as the end. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol utilizes minimum energy and latency for cluster formation, there by reducing the overhead of the protocol.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Low latency, Energy sorting protocol, data processing, Cluster formation.

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4 Secure Data Aggregation Using Clusters in Sensor Networks

Authors: Prakash G L, Thejaswini M, S H Manjula, K R Venugopal, L M Patnaik

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network can be applied to both abominable and military environments. A primary goal in the design of wireless sensor networks is lifetime maximization, constrained by the energy capacity of batteries. One well-known method to reduce energy consumption in such networks is data aggregation. Providing efcient data aggregation while preserving data privacy is a challenging problem in wireless sensor networks research. In this paper, we present privacy-preserving data aggregation scheme for additive aggregation functions. The Cluster-based Private Data Aggregation (CPDA)leverages clustering protocol and algebraic properties of polynomials. It has the advantage of incurring less communication overhead. The goal of our work is to bridge the gap between collaborative data collection by wireless sensor networks and data privacy. We present simulation results of our schemes and compare their performance to a typical data aggregation scheme TAG, where no data privacy protection is provided. Results show the efficacy and efficiency of our schemes.

Keywords: Aggregation, Clustering, Query Processing.

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3 Tree-on-DAG for Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks

Authors: Prakash G L, Thejaswini M, S H Manjula, K R Venugopal, L M Patnaik

Abstract:

Computing and maintaining network structures for efficient data aggregation incurs high overhead for dynamic events where the set of nodes sensing an event changes with time. Moreover, structured approaches are sensitive to the waiting time that is used by nodes to wait for packets from their children before forwarding the packet to the sink. An optimal routing and data aggregation scheme for wireless sensor networks is proposed in this paper. We propose Tree on DAG (ToD), a semistructured approach that uses Dynamic Forwarding on an implicitly constructed structure composed of multiple shortest path trees to support network scalability. The key principle behind ToD is that adjacent nodes in a graph will have low stretch in one of these trees in ToD, thus resulting in early aggregation of packets. Based on simulations on a 2,000-node Mica2- based network, we conclude that efficient aggregation in large-scale networks can be achieved by our semistructured approach.

Keywords: Aggregation, Packet Merging, Query Processing.

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2 Energy Efficient In-Network Data Processing in Sensor Networks

Authors: Prakash G L, Thejaswini M, S H Manjula, K R Venugopal, L M Patnaik

Abstract:

The Sensor Network consists of densely deployed sensor nodes. Energy optimization is one of the most important aspects of sensor application design. Data acquisition and aggregation techniques for processing data in-network should be energy efficient. Due to the cross-layer design, resource-limited and noisy nature of Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs), it is challenging to study the performance of these systems in a realistic setting. In this paper, we propose optimizing queries by aggregation of data and data redundancy to reduce energy consumption without requiring all sensed data and directed diffusion communication paradigm to achieve power savings, robust communication and processing data in-network. To estimate the per-node power consumption POWERTossim mica2 energy model is used, which provides scalable and accurate results. The performance analysis shows that the proposed methods overcomes the existing methods in the aspects of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Data Aggregation, Directed Diffusion, Partial Aggregation, Packet Merging, Query Plan.

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1 EEIA: Energy Efficient Indexed Aggregation in Smart Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mohamed Watfa, William Daher, Hisham Al Azar

Abstract:

The main idea behind in network aggregation is that, rather than sending individual data items from sensors to sinks, multiple data items are aggregated as they are forwarded by the sensor network. Existing sensor network data aggregation techniques assume that the nodes are preprogrammed and send data to a central sink for offline querying and analysis. This approach faces two major drawbacks. First, the system behavior is preprogrammed and cannot be modified on the fly. Second, the increased energy wastage due to the communication overhead will result in decreasing the overall system lifetime. Thus, energy conservation is of prime consideration in sensor network protocols in order to maximize the network-s operational lifetime. In this paper, we give an energy efficient approach to query processing by implementing new optimization techniques applied to in-network aggregation. We first discuss earlier approaches in sensors data management and highlight their disadvantages. We then present our approach “Energy Efficient Indexed Aggregation" (EEIA) and evaluate it through several simulations to prove its efficiency, competence and effectiveness.

Keywords: Sensor Networks, Data Base, Data Fusion, Aggregation, Indexing, Energy Efficiency

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