Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 428

Search results for: Memory Forensics.

428 Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

Authors: Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad, Sapiee Haji Jamel, Mustafa Mat Deris

Abstract:

Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compiler on Windows XP with 512 MB of physical memory.

Keywords: Digital Evidence, Memory Forensics.

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427 Data Acquisition from Cell Phone using Logical Approach

Authors: Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong, Kyoil Chung, Jae-Cheol Ryou

Abstract:

Cell phone forensics to acquire and analyze data in the cellular phone is nowadays being used in a national investigation organization and a private company. In order to collect cellular phone flash memory data, we have two methods. Firstly, it is a logical method which acquires files and directories from the file system of the cell phone flash memory. Secondly, we can get all data from bit-by-bit copy of entire physical memory using a low level access method. In this paper, we describe a forensic tool to acquire cell phone flash memory data using a logical level approach. By our tool, we can get EFS file system and peek memory data with an arbitrary region from Korea CDMA cell phone.

Keywords: Forensics, logical method, acquisition, cell phone, flash memory.

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426 Hybrid Approach for Memory Analysis in Windows System

Authors: Khairul Akram Zainol Ariffin, Ahmad Kamil Mahmood, Jafreezal Jaafar, Solahuddin Shamsuddin

Abstract:

Random Access Memory (RAM) is an important device in computer system. It can represent the snapshot on how the computer has been used by the user. With the growth of its importance, the computer memory has been an issue that has been discussed in digital forensics. A number of tools have been developed to retrieve the information from the memory. However, most of the tools have their limitation in the ability of retrieving the important information from the computer memory. Hence, this paper is aimed to discuss the limitation and the setback for two main techniques such as process signature search and process enumeration. Then, a new hybrid approach will be presented to minimize the setback in both individual techniques. This new approach combines both techniques with the purpose to retrieve the information from the process block and other objects in the computer memory. Nevertheless, the basic theory in address translation for x86 platforms will be demonstrated in this paper.

Keywords: Algorithms, Digital Forensics, Memory Analysis, Signature Search.

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425 Memory and Higher Cognition

Authors: A. Páchová

Abstract:

Working memory (WM) can be defined as the system which actively holds information in the mind to do tasks in spite of the distraction. Contrary, short-term memory (STM) is a system that represents the capacity for the active storing of information without distraction. There has been accumulating evidence that these types of memory are related to higher cognition (HC). The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between HC and memory (visual STM and WM, auditory STM and WM). 59 primary school children were tested by intelligence test, mathematical tasks (HC) and memory subtests. We have shown that visual but not auditory memory is a significant predictor of higher cognition. The relevance of these results are discussed.

Keywords: higher cognition, long-term memory, short-term memory, working memory

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424 The Application of Specialized Memory Manager in Interactive CAD Systems

Authors: Wei Song, Lian-he Yang

Abstract:

Interactive CAD systems have to allocate and deallocate memory frequently. Frequent memory allocation and deallocation can play a significant role in degrading application performance. An application may use memory in a very specific way and pay a performance penalty for functionality it does not need. We could counter that by developing specialized memory managers.

Keywords: Interactive CAD systems, Specialized Memory Manager.

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423 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh

Abstract:

Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer forensics, multimedia forensics, image ballistics, camera source identification, forgery detection.

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422 Memory Leak Detection in Distributed System

Authors: Roohi Shabrin S., Devi Prasad B., Prabu D., Pallavi R. S., Revathi P.

Abstract:

Due to memory leaks, often-valuable system memory gets wasted and denied for other processes thereby affecting the computational performance. If an application-s memory usage exceeds virtual memory size, it can leads to system crash. Current memory leak detection techniques for clusters are reactive and display the memory leak information after the execution of the process (they detect memory leak only after it occur). This paper presents a Dynamic Memory Monitoring Agent (DMMA) technique. DMMA framework is a dynamic memory leak detection, that detects the memory leak while application is in execution phase, when memory leak in any process in the cluster is identified by DMMA it gives information to the end users to enable them to take corrective actions and also DMMA submit the affected process to healthy node in the system. Thus provides reliable service to the user. DMMA maintains information about memory consumption of executing processes and based on this information and critical states, DMMA can improve reliability and efficaciousness of cluster computing.

Keywords: Dynamic Memory Monitoring Agent (DMMA), Cluster Computing, Memory Leak, Fault Tolerant Framework, Dynamic Memory Leak Detection (DMLD).

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421 Research and Development of a Biomorphic Robot Driven by Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Y.J. Lai, H.Y. Peng, M.W. Wu, J. Shaw

Abstract:

In this study, we used shape memory alloys as actuators to build a biomorphic robot which can imitate the motion of an earthworm. The robot can be used to explore in a narrow space. Therefore we chose shape memory alloys as actuators. Because of the small deformation of a wire shape memory alloy, spiral shape memory alloys are selected and installed both on the X axis and Y axis (each axis having two shape memory alloys) to enable the biomorphic robot to do reciprocating motion. By the mechanism we designed, the robot can increase the distance as it moves in a duty cycle. In addition, two shape memory alloys are added to the robot head for controlling right and left turns. By sending pulses through the I/O card from the controller, the signals are then amplified by a driver to heat the shape memory alloys in order to make the SMA shrink to pull the mechanism to move.

Keywords: Biomorphic Robot, Shape Memory Alloy.

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420 Real-Time Episodic Memory Construction for Optimal Action Selection in Cognitive Robotics

Authors: Deon de Jager, Yahya Zweiri, Dimitrios Makris

Abstract:

The three most important components in the cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics is memory representation, memory recall, and action-selection performed by the executive. In this paper, action selection, performed by the executive, is defined as a memory quantification and optimization process. The methodology describes the real-time construction of episodic memory through semantic memory optimization. The optimization is performed by set-based particle swarm optimization, using an adaptive entropy memory quantification approach for fitness evaluation. The performance of the approach is experimentally evaluated by simulation, where a UAV is tasked with the collection and delivery of a medical package. The experiments show that the UAV dynamically uses the episodic memory to autonomously control its velocity, while successfully completing its mission.

Keywords: Cognitive robotics, semantic memory, episodic memory, maximum entropy principle, particle swarm optimization.

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419 The Characterisation of TLC NAND Flash Memory, Leading to a Definable Endurance/Retention Trade-Off

Authors: Sorcha Bennett, Joe Sullivan

Abstract:

Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory at, and below, 20nm (nanometer) is still largely unexplored by researchers, and with the ever more commonplace existence of Flash in consumer and enterprise applications there is a need for such gaps in knowledge to be filled. At the time of writing, there was little published data or literature on TLC, and more specifically reliability testing, with a further emphasis on both endurance and retention. This paper will give an introduction to NAND Flash memory, followed by an overview of the relevant current research on the reliability of Flash memory, along with the planned future work which will provide results to help characterise the reliability of TLC memory.

Keywords: TLC NAND flash memory, reliability, endurance, retention, trade-off, raw flash, patterns.

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418 The Forensic Swing of Things: The Current Legal and Technical Challenges of IoT Forensics

Authors: Pantaleon Lutta, Mohamed Sedky, Mohamed Hassan

Abstract:

The inability of organizations to put in place management control measures for Internet of Things (IoT) complexities persists to be a risk concern. Policy makers have been left to scamper in finding measures to combat these security and privacy concerns. IoT forensics is a cumbersome process as there is no standardization of the IoT products, no or limited historical data are stored on the devices. This paper highlights why IoT forensics is a unique adventure and brought out the legal challenges encountered in the investigation process. A quadrant model is presented to study the conflicting aspects in IoT forensics. The model analyses the effectiveness of forensic investigation process versus the admissibility of the evidence integrity; taking into account the user privacy and the providers’ compliance with the laws and regulations. Our analysis concludes that a semi-automated forensic process using machine learning, could eliminate the human factor from the profiling and surveillance processes, and hence resolves the issues of data protection (privacy and confidentiality).

Keywords: Cloud forensics, data protection laws, GDPR, IoT forensics, machine learning.

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417 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev

Abstract:

This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of shape-memory products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: Elastic deformation, heating, shape-memory polymers, stress-strain behavior.

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416 Design and Implementation of a Memory Safety Isolation Method Based on the Xen Cloud Environment

Authors: Dengpan Wu, Dan Liu

Abstract:

In view of the present cloud security problem has increasingly become one of the major obstacles hindering the development of the cloud computing, put forward a kind of memory based on Xen cloud environment security isolation technology implementation. And based on Xen virtual machine monitor system, analysis of the model of memory virtualization is implemented, using Xen memory virtualization system mechanism of super calls and grant table, based on the virtual machine manager internal implementation of access control module (ACM) to design the security isolation system memory. Experiments show that, the system can effectively isolate different customer domain OS between illegal access to memory data.

Keywords: Cloud security, memory isolation, Xen, virtual machine.

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415 Oxide Based Resistive Random Access Memory Device for High Density Non Volatile Memory Applications

Authors: Z. Fang, X. P. Wang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrated vertical RRAM device fabricated at the sidewall of contact hole structures for possible future 3-D stacking integrations. The fabricated devices exhibit polarity dependent bipolar resistive switching with small operation voltage of less than 1V for both set and reset process. A good retention of memory window ~50 times is maintained after 1000s voltage bias.

Keywords: Bipolar switching, non volatile memory, resistive random access memory, 3-D stacking.

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414 Implementation of an Associative Memory Using a Restricted Hopfield Network

Authors: Tet H. Yeap

Abstract:

An analog restricted Hopfield Network is presented in this paper. It consists of two layers of nodes, visible and hidden nodes, connected by directional weighted paths forming a bipartite graph with no intralayer connection. An energy or Lyapunov function was derived to show that the proposed network will converge to stable states. By introducing hidden nodes, the proposed network can be trained to store patterns and has increased memory capacity. Training to be an associative memory, simulation results show that the associative memory performs better than a classical Hopfield network by being able to perform better memory recall when the input is noisy.

Keywords: Associative memory, Hopfield network, Lyapunov function, Restricted Hopfield network.

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413 Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics

Authors: Daniel Gonzales, Zev Winkelman, Trung Tran, Ricardo Sanchez, Dulani Woods, John Hollywood

Abstract:

We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.

Keywords: Cloud computing, cybersecurity, digital forensics, Kafka, Kubernetes, Spark.

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412 Digital Forensics for Electronic Commerce on the Web

Authors: Ryuya Uda

Abstract:

On existing online shopping on the web, SSL and password are usually used to achieve the secure trades. SSL shields communication from the third party who is not related with the trade, and indicates that the trader's web site is authenticated by one of the certification authority. Password certifies a customer as the same person who has visited the trader's web site before, and protects the customer's privacy such as what the customer has bought on the site. However, there is no forensics for the trades in those cased above. With existing methods, no one can prove what is ordered by customers, how many products are ordered and even whether customers have ordered or not. The reason is that the third party has to guess what were traded with logs that are held by traders and by customers. The logs can easily be created, deleted and forged since they are electronically stored. To enhance security with digital forensics for electronic commerce on the web, I indicate a secure method with cellular phones.

Keywords: Cellular Phone, Digital Forensics, ElectronicCommerce, Information Security

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411 From Individual Memory to Organizational Memory (Intelligence of Organizations)

Authors: A. Bencsik, 1V. Lıre, 2, I. Marosi

Abstract:

Intensive changes of environment and strong market competition have raised management of information and knowledge to the strategic level of companies. In a knowledge based economy only those organizations are capable of living which have up-to-date, special knowledge and they are able to exploit and develop it. Companies have to know what knowledge they have by taking a survey of organizational knowledge and they have to fix actual and additional knowledge in organizational memory. The question is how to identify, acquire, fix and use knowledge effectively. The paper will show that over and above the tools of information technology supporting acquisition, storage and use of information and organizational learning as well as knowledge coming into being as a result of it, fixing and storage of knowledge in the memory of a company play an important role in the intelligence of organizations and competitiveness of a company.

Keywords: Individual memory, organizational memory, knowledge management, organizational intelligence.

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410 A Comparative Study of Main Memory Databases and Disk-Resident Databases

Authors: F. Raja, M.Rahgozar, N. Razavi, M. Siadaty

Abstract:

Main Memory Database systems (MMDB) store their data in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular characteristics of disk storage mechanisms. Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper provides a brief overview on MMDBs and one of the memory resident systems named FastDB and compares the processing time of this system with a typical disc resident database based on the results of the implementation of TPC benchmarks environment on both.

Keywords: Disk-Resident Database, FastDB, Main MemoryDatabase.

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409 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: Aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films.

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408 Self-Assembling Hypernetworks for Cognitive Learning of Linguistic Memory

Authors: Byoung-Tak Zhang, Chan-Hoon Park

Abstract:

Hypernetworks are a generalized graph structure representing higher-order interactions between variables. We present a method for self-organizing hypernetworks to learn an associative memory of sentences and to recall the sentences from this memory. This learning method is inspired by the “mental chemistry" model of cognition and the “molecular self-assembly" technology in biochemistry. Simulation experiments are performed on a corpus of natural-language dialogues of approximately 300K sentences collected from TV drama captions. We report on the sentence completion performance as a function of the order of word-interaction and the size of the learning corpus, and discuss the plausibility of this architecture as a cognitive model of language learning and memory.

Keywords: Linguistic recall memory, sentence completion task, self-organizing hypernetworks, cognitive learning and memory.

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407 Improving Cache Memory Utilization

Authors: Sami I. Serhan, Hamed M. Abdel-Haq

Abstract:

In this paper, an efficient technique is proposed to manage the cache memory. The proposed technique introduces some modifications on the well-known set associative mapping technique. This modification requires a little alteration in the structure of the cache memory and on the way by which it can be referenced. The proposed alteration leads to increase the set size virtually and consequently to improve the performance and the utilization of the cache memory. The current mapping techniques have accomplished good results. In fact, there are still different cases in which cache memory lines are left empty and not used, whereas two or more processes overwrite the lines of each other, instead of using those empty lines. The proposed algorithm aims at finding an efficient way to deal with such problem.

Keywords: Modified Set Associative Mapping, Locality of Reference, Miss Ratio, Hit Ratio, Cache Memory, Clustered Behavior, Index Address, Tag Field, Status Field, and Complement of Index Address.

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406 The Role of Planning and Memory in the Navigational Ability

Authors: Greeshma Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal

Abstract:

Navigational ability requires spatial representation, planning, and memory. It covers three interdependent domains, i.e. cognitive and perceptual factors, neural information processing, and variability in brain microstructure. Many attempts have been made to see the role of spatial representation in the navigational ability, and the individual differences have been identified in the neural substrate. But, there is also a need to address the influence of planning, memory on navigational ability. The present study aims to evaluate relations of aforementioned factors in the navigational ability. Total 30 participants volunteered in the study of a virtual shopping complex and subsequently were classified into good and bad navigators based on their performances. The result showed that planning ability was the most correlated factor for the navigational ability and also the discriminating factor between the good and bad navigators. There was also found the correlations between spatial memory recall and navigational ability. However, non-verbal episodic memory and spatial memory recall were also found to be correlated with the learning variable. This study attempts to identify differences between people with more and less navigational ability on the basis of planning and memory.

Keywords: Memory, planning navigational ability, virtual reality.

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405 Memory Types in Hemodialysis Patients: A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan, South East of Iran

Authors: B. Sabayan, A. Alidadi, S. Ebrahimi, N. M. Bakhshani

Abstract:

Neuropsychological problems are more common in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on memory types of HD patients. To assess the different type of memory, we used memory parts of the Persian Papers and Pencil Cognitive assessment package (PCAP) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R). Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients and another group which had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% of them were female. The scores of patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had lower score in anterograde, explicit, visual, recall and recognition memory (5.44±1.07, 9.49±3.472, 22.805±6.6913, 5.59±10.435, 11.02±3.190 score) than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, where the median time was 3 to 5 months (P<0.01). The regression result shows that, by increasing the HD duration, all memory types are reduced (R2=0.600, P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a long time had significantly lower scores in the different types of memory. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: Hemodialysis patients, duration of hemodialysis, memory types, Zahedan.

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404 Autobiographical Memory and Flexible Remembering: Gender Differences

Authors: A. Aizpurua, W. Koutstaal

Abstract:

In this study, we examined gender differences in: (1) a flexible remembering task, that asked for episodic memory decisions at an item-specific versus category-based level, and (2) the retrieval specificity of autobiographical memory during free recall. Differences favouring women were found on both measures. Furthermore, a significant association was observed, across gender groups, between level of specificity in the autobiographical memory interview and sensitivity to gist on the flexible remembering task. These results suggest that similar cognitive processes may partially contribute to both the ability for specific autobiographical recall and the capacity for inhibition of gist-information on the flexible remembering task.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, flexible remembering, gender, specificity.

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403 Thermal Post-buckling of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Plates under Non-uniform Temperature Distribution

Authors: Z.A. Rasid, R. Zahari, A. Ayob, D.L. Majid, A.S.M. Rafie

Abstract:

Aerospace vehicles are subjected to non-uniform thermal loading that may cause thermal buckling. A study was conducted on the thermal post-buckling of shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to the non-uniform tent-like temperature field. The shape memory alloy wires were embedded within the laminated composite plates to add recovery stress to the plates. The non-linear finite element model that considered the recovery stress of the shape memory alloy and temperature dependent properties of the shape memory alloy and composite matrix along with its source codes were developed. It was found that the post-buckling paths of the shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to various tentlike temperature fields were stable within the studied temperature range. The addition of shape memory alloy wires to the composite plates was found to significantly improve the post-buckling behavior of laminated composite plates under non-uniform temperature distribution.

Keywords: Post-buckling, shape memory alloy, temperaturedependent property, tent-like temperature distribution

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402 Bandwidth, Area Efficient and Target Device Independent DDR SDRAM Controller

Authors: T. Mladenov, F. Mujahid, E. Jung, D. Har

Abstract:

The application of the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) has gone beyond the scope of personal computers for quite a long time. It comes into hand whenever a big amount of low price and still high speed memory is needed. Most of the newly developed stand alone embedded devices in the field of image, video and sound processing take more and more use of it. The big amount of low price memory has its trade off – the speed. In order to take use of the full potential of the memory, an efficient controller is needed. Efficient stands for maximum random accesses to the memory both for reading and writing and less area after implementation. This paper proposes a target device independent DDR SDRAM pipelined controller and provides performance comparison with available solutions.

Keywords: DDR SDRAM, controller, effective implementation

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401 Behavioral Modeling Accuracy for RF Power Amplifier with Memory Effects

Authors: Chokri Jebali, Noureddine Boulejfen, Ali Gharsallah, Fadhel M. Ghannouchi

Abstract:

In this paper, a system level behavioural model for RF power amplifier, which exhibits memory effects, and based on multibranch system is proposed. When higher order terms are included, the memory polynomial model (MPM) exhibits numerical instabilities. A set of memory orthogonal polynomial model (OMPM) is introduced to alleviate the numerical instability problem associated to MPM model. A data scaling and centring algorithm was applied to improve the power amplifier modeling accuracy. Simulation results prove that the numerical instability can be greatly reduced, as well as the model precision improved with nonlinear model.

Keywords: power amplifier, orthogonal model, polynomialmodel , memory effects.

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400 Towards a Proof Acceptance by Overcoming Challenges in Collecting Digital Evidence

Authors: Lilian Noronha Nassif

Abstract:

Cybercrime investigation demands an appropriated evidence collection mechanism. If the investigator does not acquire digital proofs in a forensic sound, some important information can be lost, and judges can discard case evidence because the acquisition was inadequate. The correct digital forensic seizing involves preparation of professionals from fields of law, police, and computer science. This paper presents important challenges faced during evidence collection in different perspectives of places. The crime scene can be virtual or real, and technical obstacles and privacy concerns must be considered. All pointed challenges here highlight the precautions to be taken in the digital evidence collection and the suggested procedures contribute to the best practices in the digital forensics field.

Keywords: Digital evidence, digital forensic processes and procedures, mobile forensics, cloud forensics.

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399 Testing Loaded Programs Using Fault Injection Technique

Authors: S. Manaseer, F. A. Masooud, A. A. Sharieh

Abstract:

Fault tolerance is critical in many of today's large computer systems. This paper focuses on improving fault tolerance through testing. Moreover, it concentrates on the memory faults: how to access the editable part of a process memory space and how this part is affected. A special Software Fault Injection Technique (SFIT) is proposed for this purpose. This is done by sequentially scanning the memory of the target process, and trying to edit maximum number of bytes inside that memory. The technique was implemented and tested on a group of programs in software packages such as jet-audio, Notepad, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft Outlook. The results from the test sample process indicate that the size of the scanned area depends on several factors. These factors are: process size, process type, and virtual memory size of the machine under test. The results show that increasing the process size will increase the scanned memory space. They also show that input-output processes have more scanned area size than other processes. Increasing the virtual memory size will also affect the size of the scanned area but to a certain limit.

Keywords: Complex software systems, Error detection, Fault tolerance, Injection and testing methodology, Memory faults, Process and virtual memory.

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