Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Metadata

34 Universal Metadata Definition

Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Mohammad Haseeb Anwer, Nadeem Iftikhar

Abstract:

The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.

Keywords: Metadata, Standard, Universal, XML.

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33 Tool for Metadata Extraction and Content Packaging as Endorsed in OAIS Framework

Authors: Payal Abichandani, Rishi Prakash, Paras Nath Barwal, B. K. Murthy

Abstract:

Information generated from various computerization processes is a potential rich source of knowledge for its designated community. To pass this information from generation to generation without modifying the meaning is a challenging activity. To preserve and archive the data for future generations it’s very essential to prove the authenticity of the data. It can be achieved by extracting the metadata from the data which can prove the authenticity and create trust on the archived data. Subsequent challenge is the technology obsolescence. Metadata extraction and standardization can be effectively used to resolve and tackle this problem. Metadata can be categorized at two levels i.e. Technical and Domain level broadly. Technical metadata will provide the information that can be used to understand and interpret the data record, but only this level of metadata isn’t sufficient to create trustworthiness. We have developed a tool which will extract and standardize the technical as well as domain level metadata. This paper is about the different features of the tool and how we have developed this.  

Keywords: Digital Preservation, Metadata, OAIS, PDI, XML.

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32 Metadata Update Mechanism Improvements in Data Grid

Authors: S. Farokhzad, M. Reza Salehnamadi

Abstract:

Grid environments include aggregation of geographical distributed resources. Grid is put forward in three types of computational, data and storage. This paper presents a research on data grid. Data grid is used for covering and securing accessibility to data from among many heterogeneous sources. Users are not worry on the place where data is located in it, provided that, they should get access to the data. Metadata is used for getting access to data in data grid. Presently, application metadata catalogue and SRB middle-ware package are used in data grids for management of metadata. At this paper, possibility of updating, streamlining and searching is provided simultaneously and rapidly through classified table of preserving metadata and conversion of each table to numerous tables. Meanwhile, with regard to the specific application, the most appropriate and best division is set and determined. Concurrency of implementation of some of requests and execution of pipeline is adaptability as a result of this technique.

Keywords: Grids, data grid, metadata, update.

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31 Multi-level Metadata Integration System: XML, RDF and RuleML

Authors: Messaouda Fareh, Omar Boussaid, Rachid Challal

Abstract:

Our work is part of the heterogeneous data integration, with the definition of a structural and semantic mediation model. Our aim is to propose architecture for the heterogeneous sources metadata mediation, represented by XML, RDF and RuleML models, providing to the user the metadata transparency. This, by including data structures, of natures fundamentally different, and allowing the decomposition of a query involving multiple sources, to queries specific to these sources, then recompose the result.

Keywords: Mediator, Metadata, Query, RDF, RuleML, XML, Xquery.

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30 Prediction of a Human Facial Image by ANN using Image Data and its Content on Web Pages

Authors: Chutimon Thitipornvanid, Siripun Sanguansintukul

Abstract:

Choosing the right metadata is a critical, as good information (metadata) attached to an image will facilitate its visibility from a pile of other images. The image-s value is enhanced not only by the quality of attached metadata but also by the technique of the search. This study proposes a technique that is simple but efficient to predict a single human image from a website using the basic image data and the embedded metadata of the image-s content appearing on web pages. The result is very encouraging with the prediction accuracy of 95%. This technique may become a great assist to librarians, researchers and many others for automatically and efficiently identifying a set of human images out of a greater set of images.

Keywords: Metadata, Prediction, Multi-layer perceptron, Human facial image, Image mining.

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29 Describing Learning Features of Reusable Resources: A Proposal

Authors: Serena Alvino, Paola Forcheri, Maria Grazia Ierardi, Luigi Sarti

Abstract:

One of the main advantages of the LO paradigm is to allow the availability of good quality, shareable learning material through the Web. The effectiveness of the retrieval process requires a formal description of the resources (metadata) that closely fits the user-s search criteria; in spite of the huge international efforts in this field, educational metadata schemata often fail to fulfil this requirement. This work aims to improve the situation, by the definition of a metadata model capturing specific didactic features of shareable learning resources. It classifies LOs into “teacher-oriented" and “student-oriented" categories, in order to describe the role a LO is to play when it is integrated into the educational process. This article describes the model and a first experimental validation process that has been carried out in a controlled environment.

Keywords: Learning object, pedagogical metadata, experimental validation.

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28 Semi-Automatic Approach for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Mehran Mohsenzadeh

Abstract:

The third phase of web means semantic web requires many web pages which are annotated with metadata. Thus, a crucial question is where to acquire these metadata. In this paper we propose our approach, a semi-automatic method to annotate the texts of documents and web pages and employs with a quite comprehensive knowledge base to categorize instances with regard to ontology. The approach is evaluated against the manual annotations and one of the most popular annotation tools which works the same as our tool. The approach is implemented in .net framework and uses the WordNet for knowledge base, an annotation tool for the Semantic Web.

Keywords: Semantic Annotation, Metadata, Information Extraction, Semantic Web, knowledge base.

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27 Web Information System for e-Learning

Authors: Anna Angelini, Enrica Gentile, Paola Plantamura, Vito Leonardo Plantamura

Abstract:

A suitable e-learning system management needs to carry out a web-information system in order to allow integrated fruition of data and metadata concerning the activities typical of elearning environment. The definition of a “web information system" for e-learning takes advantage of the potentialities of Web technologies both as for the access to metadata present on the several platforms, and as for the implementation of courseware which make up the relative didactic environment. What information systems have in common is the technological environment on which they are generally implemented and the use of metadata in order to structure information at all cognitive and organization levels. In this work we are going to define a methodology for the implementation of a specific web information system for an e-learning environment.

Keywords: e-learning, information systems, coursemanagement, web-based system.

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26 A Metametadata Architecture forPedagogic Data Description

Authors: A. Ismail, M. S. Joy, J. E. Sinclair, M. I. Hamzah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a novel method for semantic searching and retrieval of information about learning materials. Metametadata encapsulate metadata instances by using the properties and attributes provided by ontologies rather than describing learning objects. A novel metametadata taxonomy has been developed which provides the basis for a semantic search engine to extract, match and map queries to retrieve relevant results. The use of ontological views is a foundation for viewing the pedagogical content of metadata extracted from learning objects by using the pedagogical attributes from the metametadata taxonomy. Using the ontological approach and metametadata (based on the metametadata taxonomy) we present a novel semantic searching mechanism.These three strands – the taxonomy, the ontological views, and the search algorithm – are incorporated into a novel architecture (OMESCOD) which has been implemented.

Keywords: Metadata, metametadata, semantic, ontologies.

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25 Video Mining for Creative Rendering

Authors: Mei Chen

Abstract:

More and more home videos are being generated with the ever growing popularity of digital cameras and camcorders. For many home videos, a photo rendering, whether capturing a moment or a scene within the video, provides a complementary representation to the video. In this paper, a video motion mining framework for creative rendering is presented. The user-s capture intent is derived by analyzing video motions, and respective metadata is generated for each capture type. The metadata can be used in a number of applications, such as creating video thumbnail, generating panorama posters, and producing slideshows of video.

Keywords: Motion mining, semantic abstraction, video mining, video representation.

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24 A Semantic Assistant Agent for Digital Libraries

Authors: Mohamed Kholif, Suaad Awad Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper we present semantic assistant agent (SAA), an open source digital library agent which takes user query for finding information in the digital library and takes resources- metadata and stores it semantically. SAA uses Semantic Web to improve browsing and searching for resources in digital library. All metadata stored in the library are available in RDF format for querying and processing by SemanSreach which is a part of SAA architecture. The architecture includes a generic RDF-based model that represents relationships among objects and their components. Queries against these relationships are supported by an RDF triple store.

Keywords: Digital Library, Dublin Core, Ontology, Semantic web.

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23 Effects of Network Dynamics on Routing Efficiency in P2P Networks

Authors: Mojca Ciglaric, Andrej Krevl, Matjaž Pancur, Tone Vidmar

Abstract:

P2P Networks are highly dynamic structures since their nodes – peer users keep joining and leaving continuously. In the paper, we study the effects of network change rates on query routing efficiency. First we describe some background and an abstract system model. The chosen routing technique makes use of cached metadata from previous answer messages and also employs a mechanism for broken path detection and metadata maintenance. Several metrics are used to show that the protocol behaves quite well even with high rate of node departures, but above a certain threshold it literally breaks down and exhibits considerable efficiency degradation.

Keywords: Network dynamics, overlay network, P2P system, routing efficiency.

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22 Fortification for P2P Grid Computing Used for Resource Discovery

Authors: Bhawneet Singh Marwah, Rishabh Rastogi, Shinon Kochar

Abstract:

Grid computing provides an effective infrastructure for massive computation among flexible and dynamic collection of individual system for resource discovery. The major challenge for grid computing is to prevent breaches and secure the data from trespassers. To overcome such conflicts a semantic approach can be designed which will filter the access requests of peers by checking the resource description specifying the data and the metadata as factual statements. Between every node in the grid a semantic firewall as a middleware will be present The intruder will be required to present an application specifying there needs to the firewall and hence accordingly the system will grant or deny the application request.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Metadata, Semantic, Peers, Resource Discovery, Firewall.

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21 A Dynamic Composition of an Adaptive Course

Authors: S. Chiali, Z.Eberrichi, M.Malki

Abstract:

The number of framework conceived for e-learning constantly increase, unfortunately the creators of learning materials and educational institutions engaged in e-formation adopt a “proprietor" approach, where the developed products (courses, activities, exercises, etc.) can be exploited only in the framework where they were conceived, their uses in the other learning environments requires a greedy adaptation in terms of time and effort. Each one proposes courses whose organization, contents, modes of interaction and presentations are unique for all learners, unfortunately the latter are heterogeneous and are not interested by the same information, but only by services or documents adapted to their needs. Currently the new tendency for the framework conceived for e-learning, is the interoperability of learning materials, several standards exist (DCMI (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative)[2], LOM (Learning Objects Meta data)[1], SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model)[6][7][8], ARIADNE (Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe)[9], CANCORE (Canadian Core Learning Resource Metadata Application Profiles)[3]), they converge all to the idea of learning objects. They are also interested in the adaptation of the learning materials according to the learners- profile. This article proposes an approach for the composition of courses adapted to the various profiles (knowledge, preferences, objectives) of learners, based on two ontologies (domain to teach and educational) and the learning objects.

Keywords: Adaptive educational hypermedia systems (AEHS), E-learning, Learner's model, Learning objects, Metadata, Ontology.

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20 RDFGraph: New Data Modeling Tool for Semantic Web

Authors: Daniel Siahaan, Aditya Prapanca

Abstract:

The emerging Semantic Web has been attracted many researchers and developers. New applications have been developed on top of Semantic Web and many supporting tools introduced to improve its software development process. Metadata modeling is one of development process where supporting tools exists. The existing tools are lack of readability and easiness for a domain knowledge expert to graphically models a problem in semantic model. In this paper, a metadata modeling tool called RDFGraph is proposed. This tool is meant to solve those problems. RDFGraph is also designed to work with modern database management systems that support RDF and to improve the performance of the query execution process. The testing result shows that the rules used in RDFGraph follows the W3C standard and the graphical model produced in this tool is properly translated and correct.

Keywords: CASE tool, data modeling, semantic web

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19 An Experiment on Personal Archiving and Retrieving Image System (PARIS)

Authors: Pei-Jeng Kuo, Terumasa Aoki, Hiroshi Yasuda

Abstract:

PARIS (Personal Archiving and Retrieving Image System) is an experiment personal photograph library, which includes more than 80,000 of consumer photographs accumulated within a duration of approximately five years, metadata based on our proposed MPEG-7 annotation architecture, Dozen Dimensional Digital Content (DDDC), and a relational database structure. The DDDC architecture is specially designed for facilitating the managing, browsing and retrieving of personal digital photograph collections. In annotating process, we also utilize a proposed Spatial and Temporal Ontology (STO) designed based on the general characteristic of personal photograph collections. This paper explains PRAIS system.

Keywords: Ontology, Databases and Information Retrieval, MPEG-7, Spatial-Temporal, Digital Library Designs l, metadata, Semantic Web, semi-automatic annotation

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18 An Evaluation Model for Semantic Enablement of Virtual Research Environments

Authors: Tristan O'Neill, Trina Myers, Jarrod Trevathan

Abstract:

The Tropical Data Hub (TDH) is a virtual research environment that provides researchers with an e-research infrastructure to congregate significant tropical data sets for data reuse, integration, searching, and correlation. However, researchers often require data and metadata synthesis across disciplines for crossdomain analyses and knowledge discovery. A triplestore offers a semantic layer to achieve a more intelligent method of search to support the synthesis requirements by automating latent linkages in the data and metadata. Presently, the benchmarks to aid the decision of which triplestore is best suited for use in an application environment like the TDH are limited to performance. This paper describes a new evaluation tool developed to analyze both features and performance. The tool comprises a weighted decision matrix to evaluate the interoperability, functionality, performance, and support availability of a range of integrated and native triplestores to rank them according to requirements of the TDH.

Keywords: Virtual research environment, Semantic Web, performance analysis, tropical data hub.

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17 Performance Trade-Off of File System between Overwriting and Dynamic Relocation on a Solid State Drive

Authors: Choulseung Hyun, Hunki Kwon, Jaeho Kim, Eujoon Byun, Jongmoo Choi, Donghee Lee, Sam H. Noh

Abstract:

Most file systems overwrite modified file data and metadata in their original locations, while the Log-structured File System (LFS) dynamically relocates them to other locations. We design and implement the Evergreen file system that can select between overwriting or relocation for each block of a file or metadata. Therefore, the Evergreen file system can achieve superior write performance by sequentializing write requests (similar to LFS-style relocation) when space utilization is low and overwriting when utilization is high. Another challenging issue is identifying performance benefits of LFS-style relocation over overwriting on a newly introduced SSD (Solid State Drive) which has only Flash-memory chips and control circuits without mechanical parts. Our experimental results measured on a SSD show that relocation outperforms overwriting when space utilization is below 80% and vice versa.

Keywords: Evergreen File System, Overwrite, Relocation, Solid State Drive.

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16 A Decision Matrix for the Evaluation of Triplestores for Use in a Virtual Research Environment

Authors: Tristan O’Neill, Trina Myers, Jarrod Trevathan

Abstract:

The Tropical Data Hub (TDH) is a virtual research environment that provides researchers with an e-research infrastructure to congregate significant tropical data sets for data reuse, integration, searching, and correlation. However, researchers often require data and metadata synthesis across disciplines for cross-domain analyses and knowledge discovery. A triplestore offers a semantic layer to achieve a more intelligent method of search to support the synthesis requirements by automating latent linkages in the data and metadata. Presently, the benchmarks to aid the decision of which triplestore is best suited for use in an application environment like the TDH are limited to performance. This paper describes a new evaluation tool developed to analyze both features and performance. The tool comprises a weighted decision matrix to evaluate the interoperability, functionality, performance, and support availability of a range of integrated and native triplestores to rank them according to requirements of the TDH.

Keywords: Virtual research environment, Semantic Web, performance analysis, tropical data hub.

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15 Defining Programming Problems as Learning Objects

Authors: José Paulo Leal, Ricardo Queirós

Abstract:

Standards for learning objects focus primarily on content presentation. They were already extended to support automatic evaluation but it is limited to exercises with a predefined set of answers. The existing standards lack the metadata required by specialized evaluators to handle types of exercises with an indefinite set of solutions. To address this issue existing learning object standards were extended to the particular requirements of a specialized domain. A definition of programming problems as learning objects, compatible both with Learning Management Systems and with systems performing automatic evaluation of programs, is presented in this paper. The proposed definition includes metadata that cannot be conveniently represented using existing standards, such as: the type of automatic evaluation; the requirements of the evaluation engine; and the roles of different assets - tests cases, program solutions, etc. The EduJudge project and its main services are also presented as a case study on the use of the proposed definition of programming problems as learning objects.

Keywords: Content Packaging, eLearning Services, Interoperability, Learning Objects.

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14 A New Version of Annotation Method with a XML-based Knowledge Base

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Somayeh Khosravi

Abstract:

Machine-understandable data when strongly interlinked constitutes the basis for the SemanticWeb. Annotating web documents is one of the major techniques for creating metadata on the Web. Annotating websitexs defines the containing data in a form which is suitable for interpretation by machines. In this paper, we present a better and improved approach than previous [1] to annotate the texts of the websites depends on the knowledge base.

Keywords: Knowledge base, ontology, semantic annotation, XML.

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13 Performance Analysis of Search Medical Imaging Service on Cloud Storage Using Decision Trees

Authors: González A. Julio, Ramírez L. Leonardo, Puerta A. Gabriel

Abstract:

Telemedicine services use a large amount of data, most of which are diagnostic images in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7) formats. Metadata is generated from each related image to support their identification. This study presents the use of decision trees for the optimization of information search processes for diagnostic images, hosted on the cloud server. To analyze the performance in the server, the following quality of service (QoS) metrics are evaluated: delay, bandwidth, jitter, latency and throughput in five test scenarios for a total of 26 experiments during the loading and downloading of DICOM images, hosted by the telemedicine group server of the Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia. By applying decision trees as a data mining technique and comparing it with the sequential search, it was possible to evaluate the search times of diagnostic images in the server. The results show that by using the metadata in decision trees, the search times are substantially improved, the computational resources are optimized and the request management of the telemedicine image service is improved. Based on the experiments carried out, search efficiency increased by 45% in relation to the sequential search, given that, when downloading a diagnostic image, false positives are avoided in management and acquisition processes of said information. It is concluded that, for the diagnostic images services in telemedicine, the technique of decision trees guarantees the accessibility and robustness in the acquisition and manipulation of medical images, in improvement of the diagnoses and medical procedures in patients.

Keywords: Cloud storage, decision trees, diagnostic image, search, telemedicine.

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12 Research and Development of Net-Centric Information Sharing Platform

Authors: Xiaoqing Wang, Fang Youyuan, Zheng Yanxing, Gu Tianyang, Zong Jianjian, Tong Jinrong

Abstract:

Compared with traditional distributed environment, the net-centric environment brings on more demanding challenges for information sharing with the characteristics of ultra-large scale and strong distribution, dynamic, autonomy, heterogeneity, redundancy. This paper realizes an information sharing model and a series of core services, through which provides an open, flexible and scalable information sharing platform.

Keywords: Net-centric environment, Information sharing, Metadata registry and catalog, Cross-domain data access control.

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11 Schema and Data Migration of a Relational Database RDB to the Extensible Markup Language XML

Authors: Alae El Alami, Mohamed Bahaj

Abstract:

This article discusses the passage of RDB to XML documents (schema and data) based on metadata and semantic enrichment, which makes the RDB under flattened shape and is enriched by the object concept. The integration and exploitation of the object concept in the XML uses a syntax allowing for the verification of the conformity of the document XML during the creation. The information extracted from the RDB is therefore analyzed and filtered in order to adjust according to the structure of the XML files and the associated object model. Those implemented in the XML document through a SQL query are built dynamically. A prototype was implemented to realize automatic migration, and so proves the effectiveness of this particular approach.

Keywords: RDB, XML, DTD, semantic enrichment.

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10 A New Approach to Annotate the Text's of the Websites and Documents with a Quite Comprehensive Knowledge Base

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Mashalla Abbasi-Dezfuli

Abstract:

Machine-understandable data when strongly interlinked constitutes the basis for the SemanticWeb. Annotating web documents is one of the major techniques for creating metadata on the Web. Annotating websites defines the containing data in a form which is suitable for interpretation by machines. In this paper, we present a new approach to annotate websites and documents by promoting the abstraction level of the annotation process to a conceptual level. By this means, we hope to solve some of the problems of the current annotation solutions.

Keywords: Knowledge base, ontology, semantic annotation, semantic web.

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9 Decision Support System Based on Data Warehouse

Authors: Yang Bao, LuJing Zhang

Abstract:

Typical Intelligent Decision Support System is 4-based, its design composes of Data Warehouse, Online Analytical Processing, Data Mining and Decision Supporting based on models, which is called Decision Support System Based on Data Warehouse (DSSBDW). This way takes ETL,OLAP and DM as its implementing means, and integrates traditional model-driving DSS and data-driving DSS into a whole. For this kind of problem, this paper analyzes the DSSBDW architecture and DW model, and discusses the following key issues: ETL designing and Realization; metadata managing technology using XML; SQL implementing, optimizing performance, data mapping in OLAP; lastly, it illustrates the designing principle and method of DW in DSSBDW.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Data Warehouse, Data Mining.

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8 A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensic in the Absence of Sufficient Evidence in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fahad Alanazi, Andrew Jones

Abstract:

Digital forensics seeks to achieve the successful investigation of digital crimes through obtaining acceptable evidence from digital devices that can be presented in a court of law. Thus, the digital forensics investigation is normally performed through a number of phases in order to achieve the required level of accuracy in the investigation processes. Since 1984 there have been a number of models and frameworks developed to support the digital investigation processes. In this paper, we review a number of the investigation processes that have been produced throughout the years and introduce a proposed digital forensic model which is based on the scope of the Saudi Arabia investigation process. The proposed model has been integrated with existing models for the investigation processes and produced a new phase to deal with a situation where there is initially insufficient evidence.

Keywords: Digital forensics, Process, Metadata, Traceback, Saudi Arabia.

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7 Design and Implementation a Virtualization Platform for Providing Smart Tourism Services

Authors: Nam Don Kim, Jungho Moon, Tae Yun Chung

Abstract:

This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based virtualization platform for providing smart tourism services. The virtualization platform provides a consistent access interface to various types of data by naming IoT devices and legacy information systems as pathnames in a virtual file system. In the other words, the IoT virtualization platform functions as a middleware which uses the metadata for underlying collected data. The proposed platform makes it easy to provide customized tourism information by using tourist locations collected by IoT devices and additionally enables to create new interactive smart tourism services focused on the tourist locations. The proposed platform is very efficient so that the provided tourism services are isolated from changes in raw data and the services can be modified or expanded without changing the underlying data structure.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT platform, service platform, virtual file system.

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6 MNECLIB2 – A Classical Music Digital Library

Authors: Zoran Constantinescu, Monica Vlâdoiu

Abstract:

Lately there has been a significant boost of interest in music digital libraries, which constitute an attractive area of research and development due to their inherent interesting issues and challenging technical problems, solutions to which will be highly appreciated by enthusiastic end-users. We present here a DL that we have developed to support users in their quest for classical music pieces within a particular collection of 18,000+ audio recordings. To cope with the early DL model limitations, we have used a refined socio-semantic and contextual model that allows rich bibliographic content description, along with semantic annotations, reviewing, rating, knowledge sharing etc. The multi-layered service model allows incorporation of local and distributed information, construction of rich hypermedia documents, expressing the complex relationships between various objects and multi-dimensional spaces, agents, actors, services, communities, scenarios etc., and facilitates collaborative activities to offer to individual users the needed collections and services.

Keywords: audio recordings, music metadata, music digitallibrary, socio-semantic model

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5 A Non-Parametric Based Mapping Algorithm for Use in Audio Fingerprinting

Authors: Analise Borg, Paul Micallef

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the online multimedia collection has grown at a fast pace. Several companies showed interest to study the different ways to organise the amount of audio information without the need of human intervention to generate metadata. In the past few years, many applications have emerged on the market which are capable of identifying a piece of music in a short time. Different audio effects and degradation make it much harder to identify the unknown piece. In this paper, an audio fingerprinting system which makes use of a non-parametric based algorithm is presented. Parametric analysis is also performed using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The feature extraction methods employed are the Mel Spectrum Coefficients and the MPEG-7 basic descriptors. Bin numbers replaced the extracted feature coefficients during the non-parametric modelling. The results show that nonparametric analysis offer potential results as the ones mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: Audio fingerprinting, mapping algorithm, Gaussian Mixture Models, MFCC, MPEG-7.

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