Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 131

Search results for: Cellular Phone

131 Effectiveness of Cellular Phone with Active RFID Tag for Evacuation - The Case of Evacuation from the Underground Shopping Mall of Tenjin

Authors: Masatora Daito, Noriyuki Tanida

Abstract:

The underground shopping mall has the constructional problem of the fire evacuation. Also, the people sometimes lose their direction and information of current time in the mall. If the emergencies such as terrorist explosions or gas explosions are happened, they have to go out soon. Under such circumstances, inside of the mall has high risk for life. In this research, the authors propose a way that he/she can go out from the underground shopping mall quickly. If the narrow exits are discovered by using active RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags and using cellular phones, they can evacuate as soon as possible. To verify this hypothesis, the authors design the model and carry out the agent-based simulation. They treat, as a case study, the Tenjin mall in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan. The result of the simulation is that the case of the pedestrian with using active RFID tags and cellular phones reduced the amount of time to spend on the evacuation. Even if the diffusion of RFID tags and cellular phones was not perfect, they could show the effectiveness of reducing the time of evacuation.

Keywords: Evacuation, active RFID tag and cellular phone, underground shopping mall, agent-based simulation.

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130 The Use of Mobile Phone as Enhancement to Mark Multiple Choice Objectives English Grammar and Literature Examination: An Exploratory Case Study of Preliminary National Diploma Students, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State, Nigeria

Authors: T. Abdulkadir

Abstract:

Most often, marking and assessment of multiple choice kinds of examinations have been opined by many as a cumbersome and herculean task to accomplished manually in Nigeria. Usually this may be in obvious nexus to the fact that mass numbers of candidates were known to take the same examination simultaneously. Eventually, marking such a mammoth number of booklets dared and dread even the fastest paid examiners who often undertake the job with the resulting consequences of stress and boredom. This paper explores the evolution, as well as the set aim to envision and transcend marking the Multiple Choice Objectives- type examination into a thing of creative recreation, or perhaps a more relaxing activity via the use of the mobile phone. A more “pragmatic” dimension method was employed to achieve this work, rather than the formal “in-depth research” based approach due to the “novelty” of the mobile-smartphone e-Marking Scheme discovery. Moreover, being an evolutionary scheme, no recent academic work shares a direct same topic concept with the ‘use of cell phone as an e-marking technique’ was found online; thus, the dearth of even miscellaneous citations in this work. Additional future advancements are what steered the anticipatory motive of this paper which laid the fundamental proposition. However, the paper introduces for the first time the concept of mobile-smart phone e-marking, the steps to achieve it, as well as the merits and demerits of the technique all spelt out in the subsequent pages.

Keywords: Cell phone, e-marking scheme, mobile phone, mobile-smart phone, multiple choice objectives, smartphone.

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129 Digital Forensics for Electronic Commerce on the Web

Authors: Ryuya Uda

Abstract:

On existing online shopping on the web, SSL and password are usually used to achieve the secure trades. SSL shields communication from the third party who is not related with the trade, and indicates that the trader's web site is authenticated by one of the certification authority. Password certifies a customer as the same person who has visited the trader's web site before, and protects the customer's privacy such as what the customer has bought on the site. However, there is no forensics for the trades in those cased above. With existing methods, no one can prove what is ordered by customers, how many products are ordered and even whether customers have ordered or not. The reason is that the third party has to guess what were traded with logs that are held by traders and by customers. The logs can easily be created, deleted and forged since they are electronically stored. To enhance security with digital forensics for electronic commerce on the web, I indicate a secure method with cellular phones.

Keywords: Cellular Phone, Digital Forensics, ElectronicCommerce, Information Security

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128 Cellular Phone Users- Willingness to Shop Online

Authors: Norazah Mohd Suki, Norbayah Mohd Suki

Abstract:

This study aims to identify cellular phone users- shopping motivating factors towards online shopping. 100 university students located in Klang Valley, Malaysia were involved as the respondents. They were required to complete a set of questionnaire and had to own a cellular phone in order to be selected as sample in this study. Three from five proposed hypotheses were supported: purchasing information, shopping utilities and service quality. As a result, marketers and retailers should concentrate more on the less important factors in order to encourage and create willingness of the consumers to purchase online. Recommendation for future research is also presented.

Keywords: Motivation, Online Shopping, Purchasing.

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127 User-s Hand Effect on TIS of Different GSM900/1800 Mobile Phone Models Using FDTD Method

Authors: Salah I. Al-Mously, Marai M. Abousetta

Abstract:

This paper predicts the effect of the user-s hand-hold position on the Total Isotropic Sensitivity (TIS) of GSM900/1800 mobile phone antennas of realistic in-use conditions, where different semi-realistic mobile phone models, i.e., candy bar and clamshell, as well as different antenna types, i.e., external and internal, are simulated using a FDTD-based platform. A semi-realistic hand model consisting of three tissues and the SAM head are used in simulations. The results show a considerable impact on TIS of the adopted mobile phone models owing to the user-s hand presence at different positions, where a maximum level of TIS is obtained while grasping the upper part of the mobile phone against head. Maximum TIS levels are recorded in talk position for mobile phones with external antenna and maximum differences in TIS levels due to the hand-hold alteration are recorded for clamshell-type phones.

Keywords: FDTD, mobile phone, phantoms, TIS.

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126 Use of Cell Phone by Farmers and its Implication on Farmers- Production Capacity in Oyo State Nigeria

Authors: Bolarinwa, K. K., Oyeyinka, R. A.

Abstract:

Relevant agricultural information disseminator (extension agent) ratio of 1:3500 farm families which become a menace to agricultural production capacity in developing countries necessitate this study. Out of 4 zones in the state, 24 extension agents in each zone, 4 extension agents using cell phones and 120 farmers using cell phone and 120 other farmers not using cell phone were purposively selected to give 240 farmers that participated in the research. Data were collected using interview guide and analysized using frequency, percentage and t-test.. Frequency of contact with agricultural information centers revealed that cell phone user farmers had greater means score of X 41.43 contact as against the low mean X19.32 contact recorded by farmers receiving agricultural information from extension agents not using cell phone and their production was statistically significant at P < 0.05. Usage of cell phone increase extension agent contact and increase farmers- production capacity.

Keywords: Cell phone, contact, extension agents and production.

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125 Data Acquisition from Cell Phone using Logical Approach

Authors: Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong, Kyoil Chung, Jae-Cheol Ryou

Abstract:

Cell phone forensics to acquire and analyze data in the cellular phone is nowadays being used in a national investigation organization and a private company. In order to collect cellular phone flash memory data, we have two methods. Firstly, it is a logical method which acquires files and directories from the file system of the cell phone flash memory. Secondly, we can get all data from bit-by-bit copy of entire physical memory using a low level access method. In this paper, we describe a forensic tool to acquire cell phone flash memory data using a logical level approach. By our tool, we can get EFS file system and peek memory data with an arbitrary region from Korea CDMA cell phone.

Keywords: Forensics, logical method, acquisition, cell phone, flash memory.

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124 Accidents and Close Call Situations Due to Cell Phone Use While Moving, Driving, and Working

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

Accidents and close call situations involving cell phones are nowadays possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the accidents and close call situations due to cell phone use while moving, driving, and working among Finns aged between 18 and 65. This work is part of a large cross-sectional study that was carried out on 15,000 working-age Finns. About 26% of people who had an accident, and about half of the people including close call situation with the mobile phone, answered that use of the phone influenced. In the future, it is important to take into account that the use of a mobile phone can be distracting while driving.

Keywords: Blue-collar workers, accident, cell phone, close call situation.

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123 Transfer of Information Heritage between Algerian Veterinarians and Breeders: Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Using Mobile Phone

Authors: R. Bernaoui, P. Ohly

Abstract:

Our research shows the use of the mobile phone that consolidates the relationship between veterinarians, and that between breeders and veterinarians. On the other hand it asserts that the tool in question is a means of economic development. The results of our survey reveal a positive return to the veterinary community, which shows that the mobile phone has become an effective means of sustainable development through the transfer of a rapid and punctual information inheritance via social networks; including many Internet applications. Our results show that almost all veterinarians use the mobile phone for interprofessional communication. We therefore believe that the use of the mobile phone by livestock operators has greatly improved the working conditions, just as the use of this tool contributes to a better management of the exploitation as long as it allows limit travel but also save time. These results show that we are witnessing a growth in the use of mobile telephony technologies that impact is as much in terms of sustainable development. Allowing access to information, especially technical information, the mobile phone, and Information and Communication of Technology (ICT) in general, give livestock sector players not only security, by limiting losses, but also an efficiency that allows them a better production and productivity.

Keywords: Algeria, Breeder-veterinarian, Digital Heritage, Networking, Mobile phone.

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122 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: Cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification.

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121 The Study on the Conversed Remediation between Old and New Media in Case of Smart Phone and PC in South Korea

Authors: Jinhwan Yu, Jooyeon Yook

Abstract:

After Apple's first introduction its smart phone, iPhone in the end of 2009 in Korea, the number of Korean smarphone users had been rapidly increasing so that the half of Korean population became smart phone users as of February, 2012. Currently, smart phones are positioned as a major digital media with powerful influences in Korea. And, now, Koreans are leaning new information, enjoying games and communicating other people every time and everywhere. As smart phone devices' performances increased, the number of usable services became more while adequate GUI developments are required to implement various functions with smart phones. The strategy to provide similar experiences on smart phones through familiar features based on employment of existing media's functions mostly contributed to smart phones' popularization in connection with smart phone devices' iconic GUIs. The spread of Smart phone increased mobile web accesses. Therefore, the attempts to implement PC's web in the smart phone's web are continuously made. The mobile web GUI provides familiar experiences to users through designs adequately utilizing the smart phone's GUIs. As the number of users familiarized to smart phones and mobile web GUIs, opposite to reversed remediation from many parts of PCs, PCs are starting to adapt smart phone GUIs. This study defines this phenomenon as the reversed remediation, and reviews the reversed remediation cases of Smart phone GUI' characteristics of PCs. For this purpose, the established study issues are as under: · what is the reversed remediation? · what are the smart phone GUI's characteristics? · what kind of interrelationship exist s between the smart phone and PC's web site? It is meaningful in the forecast of the future GUI's change by understanding of characteristics in the paradigm changes of PC and smart phone's GUI designs. This also will be helpful to establish strategies for digital devices' development and design.

Keywords: Graphic User Interface, Remediation, Smart Phone, South Korea, Web Site

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120 Image Transmission via Iterative Cellular-Turbo System

Authors: Ersin Gose, Kenan Buyukatak, Onur Osman, Osman N. Ucan

Abstract:

To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.

Keywords: Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA), Turbo Coding, Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS), Image Compression.

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119 The Factors that Affect to the Overall Attitude toward SMS Advertising of Thai Mobile Phone Users

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to: (1) measure the overall attitudes of Thai mobile phone users toward SMS advertisements, and (2) identify demographic factors that affect the overall attitudes toward SMS advertisements of Thai mobile phone users. The sample in this study consists of 100 individuals who possess at least one mobile phone and who either live, work or study in Bangkok. Thirty-three respondents are male, while the other 67 respondents are female. The respondents are aged between 21 years and 45 years old. Convenient sampling technique was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that Thai mobile phone users in general hold negative attitudes toward SMS advertisements, and that negative attitudes prevailed in nearly all different demographic groups. The results also suggest that Thai mobile phone users find SMS advertisements irritating, but are indifferent as to whether SMS ads are informative, credible and entertaining as well.

Keywords: Credibility, consumer attitudes, SMS advertising, Thai mobile phone users.

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118 Mobile Phone as a Tool for Data Collection in Field Research

Authors: Sandro Mourão, Karla Okada

Abstract:

The necessity of accurate and timely field data is shared among organizations engaged in fundamentally different activities, public services or commercial operations. Basically, there are three major components in the process of the qualitative research: data collection, interpretation and organization of data, and analytic process. Representative technological advancements in terms of innovation have been made in mobile devices (mobile phone, PDA-s, tablets, laptops, etc). Resources that can be potentially applied on the data collection activity for field researches in order to improve this process. This paper presents and discuss the main features of a mobile phone based solution for field data collection, composed of basically three modules: a survey editor, a server web application and a client mobile application. The data gathering process begins with the survey creation module, which enables the production of tailored questionnaires. The field workforce receives the questionnaire(s) on their mobile phones to collect the interviews responses and sending them back to a server for immediate analysis.

Keywords: Data Gathering, Field Research, Mobile Phone, Survey.

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117 Mimicking Morphogenesis for Robust Behaviour of Cellular Architectures

Authors: David Jones, Richard McWilliam, Alan Purvis

Abstract:

Morphogenesis is the process that underpins the selforganised development and regeneration of biological systems. The ability to mimick morphogenesis in artificial systems has great potential for many engineering applications, including production of biological tissue, design of robust electronic systems and the co-ordination of parallel computing. Previous attempts to mimick these complex dynamics within artificial systems have relied upon the use of evolutionary algorithms that have limited their size and complexity. This paper will present some insight into the underlying dynamics of morphogenesis, then show how to, without the assistance of evolutionary algorithms, design cellular architectures that converge to complex patterns.

Keywords: Morphogenesis, regeneration, robustness, convergence, cellular automata.

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116 Factors Influencing the Success of Mobile Phone Entrepreneurs at Central Plaza

Authors: NattapongTecharattanased

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the factors that influenced the success of mobile phone entrepreneurs at Central Plaza. The sample group included 187 entrepreneurs at Central Plaza. A questionnaire was utilized as a tool to collect data. Statistics used in this research included frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Independent- sample t- test, one way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.The findings disclosed that the majority of respondents were male between 25-40 years old, and held an undergraduate degree. The average income of respondents was between 15,001-25,000 baht. The majority of respondents had less than 5 years of working experience. In terms of personality, the findings revealed that expression and agreement were ranked at the highest level. Whereas, emotion stability, consciousness, open to new experience were ranked at high. From the hypotheses testing, the findings revealed that different genders had different success in their mobile phone business with different income from the last 6 months. However, difference in age, income, level of education, and experience affected the success in terms of income, number of customers, and overall success of business. Moreover, the factors of personalities included expression, agreement, emotion stability, consciousness, open to new experience, and competitive strategy. From the findings, these factors were able to predict mobile phone business success at 66.9 percent.

Keywords: Entrepreneur, Influencing Factors, Success, Mobile Phone Business.

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115 The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

Authors: The Jaya Suteja, Stephany Tedjohartoko

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Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the second stage, some word pairs as design attributes of the mobile phone are chosen to represent the user perception of mobile phone. At the final stage, a survey is conducted to investigate the influence of the developed form alternatives to the user perception. Based on the research, users perceive mobile phone's form with curved top and straight bottom shapes and mobile phone's form with slider and antenna as the most negative form. Meanwhile, mobile phone's form with curved top and bottom shapes and mobile phone-s form without slider and antenna are perceived by the user as the most positive form.

Keywords: Influence, mobile phone, form, user perception.

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114 A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human

Authors: Salah I. Al-Mously, Marai M. Abousetta

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of the hand-hold positions on both antenna performance and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the user-s head. A cellular handset with external antenna operating at GSM-900 frequency is modeled and simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD)-based platform SEMCAD-X. A specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) is adopted to simulate the user-s head, whereas a semirealistic CAD-model of three-tissues is designed to simulate the user-s hand. The results show that in case of the handset in hand close to head at different positions; the antenna total efficiency gets reduced to (14.5% - 5.9%) at cheek-position and to (27.5% to 11.8%) at tilt-position. The peak averaged SAR1g values in head close to handset without hand, are 4.67 W/Kg and 2.66 W/Kg at cheek and tilt-position, respectively. Due to the presence of hand, the SAR1g in head gets reduced to (3.67-3.31 W/Kg) at cheek-position and to (1.84-1.64 W/Kg) at tilt-position, depending on the hand-hold position.

Keywords: FDTD, phantom, specific absorption rate (SAR), cellular handset exposure.

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113 Improved Artificial Immune System Algorithm with Local Search

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh., Zahra Afsahi, MohammadReza Meybodi

Abstract:

The Artificial immune systems algorithms are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Artificial Immune System Algorithm is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems of artificial immune system. That use of the small size of a local search around the memory antibodies is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the standard artificial immune system algorithms

Keywords: Artificial immune system, Cellular Automata, Cellular learning automata, Cellular learning automata, , Local search, Optimization.

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112 Mobile Phone Services in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed T. Simsim

Abstract:

This paper discusses telecominication market developments in Saudi Arabia. Empirical research was carried in the holy city of Makkah to study the customer's preference for mobile cellular service and  the factor influencing their subscription of the mobile phone service. Results indicate that the financial factor sicnificantly influence the customer's selection of the service provider.                                                                              

Keywords: Customer, Makkah, Mobile phone, Operator, Saudi Arabia

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111 Study of Measures to Secure Video Phone Service Safety through a Preliminary Evaluationof the Information Security of the New IT Service

Authors: DongHoon Shin, Yunmook Nah, HoSeong Kim, Gang Shin Lee, Jae-Il Lee

Abstract:

The rapid advance of communication technology is evolving the network environment into the broadband convergence network. Likewise, the IT services operated in the individual network are also being quickly converged in the broadband convergence network environment. VoIP and IPTV are two examples of such new services. Efforts are being made to develop the video phone service, which is an advanced form of the voice-oriented VoIP service. However, the new IT services will be subject to stability and reliability vulnerabilities if the relevant security issues are not answered during the convergence of the existing IT services currently being operated in individual networks within the wider broadband network environment. To resolve such problems, this paper attempts to analyze the possible threats and identify the necessary security measures before the deployment of the new IT services. Furthermore, it measures the quality of the encryption algorithm application example to describe the appropriate algorithm in order to present security technology that will have no negative impact on the quality of the video phone service.

Keywords: BcN, Security Measures, Video Phone.

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110 A Performance Evaluation of Cellular Network Suitability for VANET

Authors: Ho-Yeon Kim, Dong-Min Kang, Jun-Ho Lee, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Recently, a vehicular ad-hoc networks(VANETs) for Intelligent Transport System(ITS) have become able safety and convenience services surpassing the simple services such as an electronic toll collection system. To provide the proper services, VANET needs infrastructure over the country infrastructure. Thus, we have to spend a huge sum of human resources. In this reason, several studies have been made on the usage of cellular networks instead of new protocols this study is to assess a performance evaluation of the cellular network for VANET. In this paper, the result of a for the suitability of cellular networks for VANET experiment, The LTE(Long Term Evolution) of cellular networks found to be most suitable among the others cellular networks

Keywords: Vehicle communication, VANET, Cellular network

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109 Location Management in Cellular Networks

Authors: Bhavneet Sidhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Cellular networks provide voice and data services to the users with mobility. To deliver services to the mobile users, the cellular network is capable of tracking the locations of the users, and allowing user movement during the conversations. These capabilities are achieved by the location management. Location management in mobile communication systems is concerned with those network functions necessary to allow the users to be reached wherever they are in the network coverage area. In a cellular network, a service coverage area is divided into smaller areas of hexagonal shape, referred to as cells. The cellular concept was introduced to reuse the radio frequency. Continued expansion of cellular networks, coupled with an increasingly restricted mobile spectrum, has established the reduction of communication overhead as a highly important issue. Much of this traffic is used in determining the precise location of individual users when relaying calls, with the field of location management aiming to reduce this overhead through prediction of user location. This paper describes and compares various location management schemes in the cellular networks.

Keywords: Cellular Networks, Location Area, MobilityManagement, Paging.

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108 Mobile Velocity Based Bidirectional Call Overflow Scheme in Hierarchical Cellular System

Authors: G. M. Mir, Moinuddin, N. A. Shah

Abstract:

In the age of global communications, heterogeneous networks are seen to be the best choice of strategy to ensure continuous and uninterruptible services. This will allow mobile terminal to stay in connection even they are migrating into different segment coverage through the handoff process. With the increase of teletraffic demands in mobile cellular system, hierarchical cellular systems have been adopted extensively for more efficient channel utilization and better QoS (Quality of Service). This paper presents a bidirectional call overflow scheme between two layers of microcells and macrocells, where handoffs are decided by the velocity of mobile making the call. To ensure that handoff calls are given higher priorities, it is assumed that guard channels are assigned in both macrocells and microcells. A hysteresis value introduced in mobile velocity is used to allow mobile roam in the same cell if its velocity changes back within the set threshold values. By doing this the number of handoffs is reduced thereby reducing the processing overhead and enhancing the quality of service to the end user.

Keywords: Hierarchical cellular systems, hysteresis, overflow, threshold.

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107 Dynamic Cellular Remanufacturing System (DCRS) Design

Authors: Tariq Aljuneidi, Akif Asil Bulgak

Abstract:

An efficient remanufacturing network lead to an efficient design of sustainable manufacturing enterprise. In remanufacturing network, products are collected from the customer zone, disassembled and remanufactured at a suitable remanufacturing facility. In this respect, another issue to consider is how the returned product to be remanufactured, in other words, what is the best layout for such facility. In order to achieve a sustainable manufacturing system, Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) designs are highly recommended, CMSs combine high throughput rates of line layouts with the flexibility offered by functional layouts (job shop). Introducing the CMS while designing a remanufacturing network will benefit the utilization of such a network. This paper presents and analyzes a comprehensive mathematical model for the design of Dynamic Cellular Remanufacturing Systems (DCRSs). In this paper, the proposed model is the first one to date that considers CMS and remanufacturing system simultaneously. The proposed DCRS model considers several manufacturing attributes such as multi period production planning, dynamic system reconfiguration, duplicate machines, machine capacity, available time for workers, worker assignments, and machine procurement, where the demand is totally satisfied from a returned product. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed model.

Keywords: Cellular Manufacturing System, Remanufacturing, Mathematical Programming, Sustainability.

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106 Problems of Innovation Development of Wireless Data Transfer Branch in the Cellular Market of Kazakhstan

Authors: Yessengeldy Kuanyshpayev

Abstract:

Now in some countries of the world the cellular market is on the point of saturation, in others - positive dynamics of development kept on. The reasons for it are also different, but there are united by their general susceptibility to innovation changes, if they are really innovative. If to take as an example the cellular market of Kazakhstan it is defined by the low percent of smart phones at consumers, the low population density, undercapacity of the 3G channel, and absence of universal access to the LTE technology that limits dynamical growth of this branch. These moments are aggravated by failures of starting commercial projects by private companies which prevent to be implemented and widely adopted to a new product among consumers. The object of the research is possible integration of wireless and program technologies at which introduction the idea can regenerate in an innovation. The analysis of existing projects in the market and the possible union of the technologies through a prism of theoretical bases of innovative activity shows that efficiency of the company by development and introduction of innovations is possible only thanks to strict observance of all terms and conditions of the innovative process which main term is profit. Despite that fact that on a global scale the innovativeness issue of companies is very popular, there are no researches about possibility of innovative breaks in the field of wireless access to the Internet in the cellular market of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Cellular market, commercialization, innovation, the effectiveness of company.

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105 A Mobile Multihop Relay Dynamic TDD Scheme for Cellular Networks

Authors: Jong-Moon Chung, Hyung-Weon Cho, Ki-Yong Jin, Min-Hee Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical framework for the evaluation of the uplink performance of multihop cellular networks based on dynamic time division duplex (TDD). New wireless broadband protocols, such as WiMAX, WiBro, and 3G-LTE apply TDD, and mobile communication protocols under standardization (e.g., IEEE802.16j) are investigating mobile multihop relay (MMR) as a future technology. In this paper a novel MMR TDD scheme is presented, where the dynamic range of the frame is shared to traffic resources of asymmetric nature and multihop relaying. The mobile communication channel interference model comprises of inner and co-channel interference (CCI). The performance analysis focuses on the uplink due to the fact that the effects of dynamic resource allocation show significant performance degradation only in the uplink compared to time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes due to CCI [1-3], where the downlink results to be the same or better.The analysis was based on the signal to interference power ratio (SIR) outage probability of dynamic TDD (D-TDD) and TDMA systems,which are the most widespread mobile communication multi-user control techniques. This paper presents the uplink SIR outage probability with multihop results and shows that the dynamic TDD scheme applying MMR can provide a performance improvement compared to single hop applications if executed properly.

Keywords: Co-Channel Interference, Dynamic TDD, MobileMultihop Reply, Cellular Network, Time Division Multiple Access.

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104 Augmentation Opportunity of Transmission Control Protocol Performance in Wireless Networks and Cellular Systems

Authors: Ghassan A. Abed, Samir I. Badrawi

Abstract:

The advancement in wireless technology with the wide use of mobile devices have drawn the attention of the research and technological communities towards wireless environments, such as Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs), and mobile systems and ad-hoc networks. Unfortunately, wired and wireless networks are expressively different in terms of link reliability, bandwidth, and time of propagation delay and by adapting new solutions for these enhanced telecommunications, superior quality, efficiency, and opportunities will be provided where wireless communications were otherwise unfeasible. Some researchers define 4G as a significant improvement of 3G, where current cellular network’s issues will be solved and data transfer will play a more significant role. For others, 4G unifies cellular and wireless local area networks, and introduces new routing techniques, efficient solutions for sharing dedicated frequency bands, and an increased mobility and bandwidth capacity. This paper discusses the possible solutions and enhancements probabilities that proposed to improve the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over different wireless networks and also the paper investigated each approach in term of advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: TCP, Wireless Networks, Cellular Systems, WLAN.

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103 Cellular Automata Based Robust Watermarking Architecture towards the VLSI Realization

Authors: V. H. Mankar, T. S. Das, S. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel blind watermarking architecture towards its hardware implementation in VLSI. In order to facilitate this hardware realization, cellular automata (CA) concept is introduced. The CA has been already accepted as an attractive structure for VLSI implementation because of its modularity, parallelism, high performance and reliability. The hardware realizable multiresolution spread spectrum watermarking techniques are very few in numbers in spite of their best ever resiliency against signal impairments. This is because of the computational cost and complexity associated with their different filter banks and lifting techniques. The concept of cellular automata theory in order to form a new transform domain technique i.e. Cellular Automata Transform (CAT) have been incorporated. Since CA provides spreading sequences having very low cross-correlation properties, the CA based pseudorandom sequence generator is considered in the present work. Considering the watermarking technique as a digital communication process, an error control coding (ECC) must be incorporated in the data hiding schemes. Besides the hardware implementation of entire CA based data hiding technique, the individual blocks of the algorithm using CA provide the best result than that of some other methods irrespective of the hardware and software technique. The Cellular Automata Transform, CA based PN sequence generator, and CA ECC are the requisite blocks that are developed not only to meet the reliable hardware requirements but also for the basic spread spectrum watermarking features. The proposed algorithm shows statistical invisibility and resiliency against various common signal-processing operations. This algorithmic design utilizes the existing allocated bandwidth in the data transmission channel in a more efficient manner.

Keywords: Cellular automata, watermarking, error control coding, PN sequence, VLSI.

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102 Hybrid Model Based on Artificial Immune System and Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh, Zahra Afsahi, MohammadReza Meybodi

Abstract:

The hybridization of artificial immune system with cellular automata (CA-AIS) is a novel method. In this hybrid model, the cellular automaton within each cell deploys the artificial immune system algorithm under optimization context in order to increase its fitness by using its neighbor-s efforts. The hybrid model CA-AIS is introduced to fix the standard artificial immune system-s weaknesses. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations and it shows that the proposed approach achieves better results compared to standard artificial immune system.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System, Cellular Automat, neighborhood

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