Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1243

Search results for: Architecture in Iran

1243 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hothumid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Hot-humid climate, Iran, Sustainable Traditional architecture, Urban planning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2621
1242 An Investigation on the Role of Iwan as a Sustainable Element in the Traditional Houses of Different Climatic Regions of Iran

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance of Iwan as one of the significant spaces in the traditional architecture of Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of Iwan in sustainability enhancement of traditional houses of different climatic regions of Iran. Iwan is considered as a semi-open space, which its form and location in the building highly depends to the climatic situation of that region. For that reason, Iwan is recognized as one of the sustainable elements in the traditional houses of Iran, which can provide more comfort with less use of energy. In this study, the history and emergence of Iwan in the traditional architecture of Iran as well as the concept of sustainability in architecture are explained briefly. Then, the change of performance or form of Iwan is analysed in different climatic regions of Iran in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. Results of this paper verify that studying the sustainability solutions in the traditional architecture of Iran, would be a valuable source of inspiration for the current designers to create an environmental and sustainable architecture for the future.

Keywords: Climatic regions of Iran, Iwan, sustainability, traditional houses.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1206
1241 The Experience of Iranian Architecture in Direction of Urban Passages and Forming of Urban Structures to Increase Climatic Comfort

Authors: N. Utaberta, N. Sharifi, M. Surat, A. I. Che-Ani, N.M. Tawil

Abstract:

Iran has diverse climates and each have established distinct properties in their area. The extent and intensity of climatic factors effects on the lives of people living in various regions of Iran is so great that it cannot be simply ignored. In a large part of Iran known as the Central Plateau there is no precipitation for more than half of the year and dry weather and scarcity of fresh water pose an ever present problem for the people of these regions while in north of Iran upon the southern shores of the Caspian Sea the people face 80% humidity caused by the sea and 2 meters of annual precipitation. This article tries to review the past experiences of local architecture of Iran-s various regions so that they can be used to reshape and redirect the urban areas and structure of Iran-s current cities to provide environmental comfort by minimum use of fossil fuels.

Keywords: Urban Passage, Architecture in Iran, Urban Structure, Climatic Comfort

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1338
1240 The Integration of Iranian Traditional Architecture in the Contemporary Housing Design: A Case Study

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

Traditional architecture is a valuable source of inspiration, which needs to be studied and integrated in the contemporary designs for achieving an identifiable contemporary architecture. Traditional architecture of Iran is among the distinguished examples of being contextually responsive, not only by considering the environmental conditions of a region, but also in terms of respecting the socio-cultural values of its context. In order to apply these valuable features to the current designs, they need to be adapted to today's condition, needs and desires. In this paper, the main features of the traditional architecture of Iran are explained to interrogate them in the formation of a contemporary house in Tehran, Iran. Also a table is provided to compare the utilization of the traditional design concepts in the traditional houses and the contemporary example of it. It is believed that such study would increase the awareness of contemporary designers by providing them some clues on maintaining the traditional values in the current design layouts particularly in the residential sector that would ultimately improve the quality of space in the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: Contemporary housing design, Iran, Tehran, traditional architecture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1864
1239 Sustainability in Space Composition of Traditional Architecture of Hot Arid Zones of Iran

Authors: Farshad Kheiri

Abstract:

Iran Central Plateau encompasses a large proportion of this country. The weather in these flat plains is warm and arid with very little precipitation. Different attempts in architecture have been done to alleviate the weather severity of this area and create a living place compatible with humans’ comfort criteria. Investigations have showed that some of the most successful approaches in traditional architecture of the area has been forgotten or are not being used widely. As sustainability is defined as an appropriate solution for environmental, economical, and social disorders, this research is a try to demonstrate the sustainability in aforementioned architecture and based on these studies, propounds solutions for today architecture in hot arid zones.

Keywords: Hot arid climatic zone, Iranian Architecture, Sustainability, Vernacular architecture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2453
1238 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Arid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

The aim of sustainable architecture is to design buildings with the least adverse effects on the environment and provide better conditions for people. What building forms make the best use of land? This question was addressed in the late 1960s at the center of Land Use and Built Form Studies in Cambridge. This led to a number of influential papers which had a great influence on the practice of urban design. This paper concentrates on the results of sustainability caused by climatic conditions in Iranian traditional architecture in hot-arid regions. As people spent a significant amount of their time in houses, it was very important to have such houses to fulfill their needs physically and spiritually as well as satisfying their cultural and religious aspects of their lifestyles. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones, traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. These solutions have been able to response to the environmental problems for a long period of time. As a result, by considering the experience in traditional architecture of hot–arid climate in Iran, it is possible to attain sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Hot-arid climate, Iran, sustainable traditional architecture, urban planning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3111
1237 Masouleh: A City; A History

Authors: Mahshid Kakouei, Mina Kakouei, Kumaran Suberamanian, Sabzali Musa Kahn, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib

Abstract:

Human always tried to create a suitable situation for their life according to environmental conditions. In fact, geography has an important role in the shape of our living area. Iran also as a four-season country has different climate type: hot and humid, hot and dry, mid and humid, and cold; therefore, we can find different architecture styles in Iran. Gilan-s traditional architecture is a suitable sample of sustainable construction in Iran. Because the main factors of every dwelling are the climatic, social, economic and cultural effects which demonstrate the interaction between environment and people settlement. This paper was determined the interaction between environmental factors and the rural dwellings in the Gilan province. Also, traditional village (city) of Masouleh as a rare sample of rural and sustainable architecture was introduced.

Keywords: Masouleh, Traditional architecture, vernacular materials, sustainable architecture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2796
1236 Studying Iranian Religious Minority Architecture: Differences and Commonalities in Religious and National Architecture after Safavid

Authors: Saeideh Soltanmohammadlou, Pilar M Guerrieri, Amir Kianfar, Sara Sadeghian, Yasaman Nafezi, Emily Irvin

Abstract:

Architecture is rooted in the experiences of the residents in a place. Its foundations are based on needs and circumstances of each territory in terms of climate, available materials, economics and governmental policies, and cultural ideals and ideas of the people that live there. The architectural history of Iran echoes these architectural origins and has revealed certain trends reflecting this territory and culture. However, in recent years, new architectural patterns are developing that diverge from what has previously been considered classic forms of Iranian architecture. This article investigates architectural elements that make up the architecture created by religious minorities after the Safavid dynasty (one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran (from 1501 to 1736) in Iranian cities: Isfahan, Tabriz, Kerman, and Uremia. Similarities and differences are revealed between the architecture that composes neighborhoods of religious minorities in Iran and common national architectural trends in each era after this dynasty. This dynasty is specific as a point of reference in this article because Islam was identified as the state religion of Iran during this era. This decision changed the course of architecture in the country to incorporate religious motifs and meanings. The study associated with this article was conducted as a survey that sought to find links between architecture of religious minorities with Iranian national architecture. Interestingly, a merging of architectural forms and trends occur as immigrants interact with Iranian Islamic meanings. These observations are significant within the context of modern architecture around the world and within Western discourse because what are considered religious minorities in Iran are the dominant religions in Western nations. This makes Iran’s architecture particularly unique as it creates a kind of inverse relationship, than that of Western nations, to the ways in which religion influences architectural history.

Keywords: Architecture, ethnic architecture, national architecture, religion architecture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 338
1235 A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD

Authors: Cengiz Tavşan, Niloufar Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.

Keywords: Islamic art, Islamic architecture, decorations in Iranian mosques, calligraphy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1829
1234 A Historical Heritage in the Architecture of the South West of Iran, Case Study: Dezfoul City

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

Iranian architects had creative ways for constructing the buildings in each climate. Some of these architectural elements were made under the ground. Shovadan is one of these underground spaces in hot-humid regions in Dezfoul and Shoushtar city that had special functions and characteristics. In this paper some subjects such as the history of Shovadan, its elements and effective factors in the formation of Shovadan in Dezfool city are discussed.

Keywords: Architecture, Dezfoul city, Shovadan, southwest of Iran.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1442
1233 Optimal use of Climate in the Construction of Traditional Housing as a Greenhouse in Iran

Authors: Emad Hezbkhah, Ebrahim Akhlaghi

Abstract:

From a long time age, human beings have chosen their place of residence and comfort so that those places would have relatively ideal natural and climatic conditions. For this reason, from the beginning, the civilizations have been formed in the susceptible natural regions such as Mesopotamia in Iran and Nile coasts in Egypt. Also, the core of human density has been made in the form of an oasis in the deserts. Regarding the formation and combination of the native architecture in different regions of Iran, we find that different properties of these climates have affected frequently the formation of cities and the architectural combinations of these regions. Thus, the precise determinations of climatic areas and attaining the climatic properties of different regions have a great deal of importance in presenting appropriate and compatible-with-climate designs.

Keywords: climate and architecture, energy Optimizing, Greenhouse

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631
1232 Investigating Cultural, Artistic and Architectural Consequences of Mongolian Invasion of Iran and Establishment of Ilkhanate Dynasty

Authors: Hamid Mamani, Negin Sharifi, Nangkula Utaberta

Abstract:

Social, culture and artistic status of a society in various historical eras is affected by numerous, and sometimes imposed, factors that better understanding requires analysis of such conditions. Throughout history Iran has been involved with determining and significant events that examining each of these events can improve the understanding of social conditions of this country in the intended time. Mongolian conquest of Iran is one of most significant events in the history of Iran with consequences that never left Iranian societies. During this tragic invasion and subsequent devastating wars, which led to establishment of Ilkhanate dynasty, numerous cultural and artistic changes occurred both in Mongolian conquerors and Iranian society. This study examines these changes with a glimpse towards art and architecture as important part of cultural aspects and social communication.

Keywords: Art and Architecture, Exchanging cultures, Ilkhanates, War

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2000
1231 A Study on Shavadoon Underground Living Space in Dezful and Shooshtar Cities, Southwest of Iran: As a Sample of Sustainable Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Haniyeh Okhovat, Mahmood Hosseini, Omid Kaveh Ahangari, Mona Zaryoun

Abstract:

Shavadoon is a type of underground living space, formerly used in urban residences of Dezful and Shooshtar cities in southwestern Iran. In spite of their high efficiency in creating cool spaces for hot summers of that area, Shavadoons were abandoned, like many other components of vernacular architecture, as a result of the modernism movement. However, Shavadoons were used by the local people as shelters during the 8-year Iran-Iraq war, and although several cases of bombardment happened during those years, no case of damage was reported in those two cities. On this basis, and regarding the high seismicity of Iran, the use of Shavadoons as post-disasters shelters can be considered as a good issue for research. This paper presents the results of a thorough study conducted on these spaces and their seismic behavior. First, the architectural aspects of Shavadoon and their construction technique are presented. Then, the results of seismic evaluation of a sample Shavadoon, conducted by a series of time history analyses, using Plaxis software and a set of selected earthquakes, are briefly explained. These results show that Shavadoons have good stability against seismic excitations. This stability is mainly because of the high strength of conglomerate materials inside which the Shavadoons have been excavated. On this basis, and considering other merits of this components of vernacular architecture in southwest of Iran, it is recommended that the revival of these components is seriously reconsidered by both architects and civil engineers.

Keywords: Shavadoon, Iran high seismicity, Conglomerate, Modeling in Plaxis, vernacular sustainable architecture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 805
1230 Sustainable Architecture Analyses of Walls in Miyaneh Village Houses, Iran

Authors: Zohreh Salavatizadeh, Feridoun NahidiAzar, Sara Salavatizadeh, Seyyed Hossein Salehi, Ahadollah Azami

Abstract:

Even though so many efforts have been taken to renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities, recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of great significance to attain sustainable residence in villages. As the only vertical surface in the space, wall possesses its unique special characteristics, and it is also a very important architectural element able to provide the immunity and comfort space for the residents. This article analyzes the characteristics of this vertical element, main types of adobe and stone walls, locally constructed technologies, implementation, the elements forming the walls in the frame of village house typology of Miyaneh, which has the most villages in East Azerbaijan, based on sustainable architectural construction materials of walls.

Keywords: Typology, Sustainable Construction, Wall Architecture

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1780
1229 Analyzing and Comparing the Architectural Specifications and the Urban Role of Scientific– Technological Parks in Iran and the World

Authors: Shahryar Shaghaghi G., Mojtaba H. Ghoshouni, Bahareh S. Ghabel

Abstract:

The issue of scientific – technological parks has been proposed in several countries of the world especially in western countries since a few decades ago and its efficiency is under examination. In our county Iran, some scientific – technological parks have been established or are being established. This design would evaluate the urban role and method of architecture of these parks in order to criticize its efficiency and offer some suggestions, as much as possible to improve its building methods in Iran. The main problem of this design is that how much these parks in Iran do meet the international measurements. So for this reason, one scientific park in Iran and one from western countries would be studied and compared with each other.

Keywords: Applicability, Architectural pattern, Scientific _technological park , Urban role

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1066
1228 Comparative Study of Sustainable Architecture in Stairway-like Ushtobin Village, Iran

Authors: Ahadollah Azami, Alireza Sadeghi, Zargham OstadiAsl, Hamed Pirjani, Milad Babaei

Abstract:

Stairway Ushtobin Village is one of the five villages with original and sustainable architecture in Northwest of Iran along the border of Armenia, which has been able to maintain its environment and sustainable ecosystem. Studying circulation, function and scale (grand, medium and minor) of space, ratio of full and empty spaces, number and height of stairs, ratio of compound volume to luxury spaces, openings, type of local masonry (stone, mud, wood) and form of covering elements have been carried out in four houses of this village comparatively as some samples in this article, and furthermore, this article analyzes that the architectural shapes and organic texture of the village meet the needs of cold and dry climate. Finally, some efficient plans are offered suiting the present needs of the village to have a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Local Materials, Village Texture, Form, Skeleton

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1603
1227 The Study on the Development of Ornamentation in the Architecture of Safavid Dynasty

Authors: N. Utaberta, H. Mamamni, M. Surat, A. I. Che-Ani, N.A.G. Abdullah

Abstract:

The architecture of Safavid Dynasty can be considered the epitome of Iranian architectural beauty. Safavid dynasty (1501- 1722 AC) along with Ottoman in Turkey and Mughal Empire in India were the three great Islamic nations of their time (1500 AC) often known as the last Islamic countries with international authority up to the 20th Century. This era approximately coincide with Renaissance in Europe. In this era, large European countries begin amassing power thanks to significant scientific, cultural and religious revolutions of that time and colonizing nations such as England, Spain and Portugal began to influence international trends with in an increasing while other non-industrial nations diminished. The main objective of this paper is to give a typological overview of the development of decoration and ornament in the architecture of Safafid Dynasty in Iran. It is expected that it can start a wider discussion to enrich this nation-s heritage and contribute to the development of Islamic ornament in general.

Keywords: Ornamentation, Architecture in Iran, Safavid Dynasty

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3357
1226 Preservation of Natural and Historical Values in Sustainable Architecture of Creative Tourism Complex of Aab-Ask, Iran

Authors: Ali Salehipour

Abstract:

Studying literature theme in the fields of tourism and sustainable development and its importance in today world and their criteria in architecture, here in this article we will also study the area where the selected site is located; beside the Aab-Ask Village located in Larijan region in Mazandaran province on the way to Haraz – one of the tourism routes of Iran. After these studies by analyzing the site, its strong potentials – such as mineral water springs (hot springs), geothermal, landscapes and ideal climate - as a tourist attraction spot in the region, and considering sustainable development criteria – with regard to limits and available facilities – a plan was offered that could change the region to provide the needs of local people and in addition change it to a place where tourism services is offered to the visitors and make it an acceptable sample of stable building in Iran. Finally the reason to make design for this complex is recovery of natural and historical values of Aab-Ask area regarding development and sustainable architecture criteria in the form of a functional sample which can be a suitable place to fulfill this goal for having lots of strong points in attracting cultural and sustainable tourist.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Tourist Complex, Development, Landscape Preservation, Culture

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1315
1225 Iranian Bazaars: The Illustration of Stable Thoughts

Authors: Aida Amirazodi

Abstract:

"Bazaar" is a Persian word from the language of Iranians of 2500 years ago which has entered the languages of other countries. “Bazaar", the trading or marketing place with the architectural principles and concerns, was formed in Iran because of the long experience of marketing. This has become a valuable inheritance of Islamic ideological civilization and Iranian advanced architecture and a model of Islamic-marketing places with spectacular elements and parts, and the place for economical, social and cultural exchanges. “Bazaars" are found in cities of Iran and many Islamic countries in west of Asia and north of Africa. With the stable structure and function as a symbol of social values, this place has become the economic center and the illustration of stable architecture and advanced principles. “Bazaars" as the heart of Iranian cities economy with several major and minor rows of shops, in closed and open areas, along a fixed line or branches with beautiful arcs, patios, and frameworks are among the main national inheritance of Iran and one of the important Iranian architectural treasures because of its Iranian nobility.

Keywords: Traditional Bazaar, Form of Bazaar, Iranian Architecture

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1546
1224 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad

Abstract:

The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: Treaties, national security, Iran, Islamic Revolution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1233
1223 Studying Mistaken Theory of Calendar Function of Iran-s Cross-Vaults

Authors: Ali Salehipour

Abstract:

After presenting the theory of calendar function of Iran-s cross-vaults especially “Niasar" cross-vault in recent years, there has been lots of doubts and uncertainty about this theory by astrologists and archaeologists. According to this theory “Niasar cross-vault and other cross-vaults of Iran has calendar function and are constructed in a way that sunrise and sunset can be seen from one of its openings in the beginning and middle of each season of year". But, mentioning historical documentaries we conclude here that the theory of calendar function of Iran-s cross-vaults does not have any strong basis and individual cross-vaults had only religious function in Iran.

Keywords: cross-vault, fire temple, Calendar function, Sassanid period

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1370
1222 Artemisia Species from Iran as Valuable Resources for Medicinal Uses

Authors: Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Hossein Ghafoori

Abstract:

Artemisia species, which are medically beneficial, are widespread in temperate regions of both Northern and Southern hemispheres among which Iran is located. About 35 species of Artemisia are indigenous in Iran among them some are widespread in all or most provinces, yet some are restricted to some specific regions. In this review paper, initially, GC-Mass results of some experiments done in different provinces of Iran are mentioned among them some compounds are common among species, some others are mostly restricted to other species; after that, medical advantages based on some researches on species of this genus are reviewed; different qualities such as anti-leishmania, anti-bacteria, antiviral as well as anti-proliferative could be mentioned.

Keywords: Artemisia, GC-Mass analysis, medical advantage.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2590
1221 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1939
1220 Garden Culture in Islamic Civilization: A Glance at the Birth, Development and Current Situation

Authors: Parisa Göker

Abstract:

With the birth of Islam, the definitions of paradise in Quran have spread across three continents since 7th century, showing itself in the palace gardens as a reflection of Islamic Culture. The design characteristics of Islamic gardens come forth with the influence of religious beliefs, as well as taking its form as per the cultural, climatic and soil characteristics of its geography, and showing its difference. It is possible to see these differences from the garden examples that survived to present time from the civilizations in the lands of Islamic proliferation. The main material of this research is the Islamic gardens in Iran and Spain. Field study was carried out in Alhambra Palace in Spain, Granada and Shah Goli garden in Iran, Tabriz. In this study, the birth of Islamic gardens, spatial perception of paradise, design principles, spatial structure, along with the structural/plantation materials used are examined. Also the characteristics and differentiation of the gardens examined in different cultures and geographies have been revealed. In the conclusion section, Iran and Spain Islamic garden samples were evaluated and their properties were determined.

Keywords: Islamic civilization, Islamic architecture, cultural landscape, Islamic garden.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 878
1219 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: Architecture, philosophy, Toyo Ito, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4677
1218 Islamic Architecture and Its Challenges

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment, and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through the spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to the lack of the necessary information, and also successive wars that have overtaken the Moslems as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Moslems, but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art, and Moslems' culture and civilization.

Keywords: Art, culture and civilization, Islamic architecture, Moslems.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1996
1217 Architecture Exception Governance

Authors: Ondruska Marek

Abstract:

The article presents the whole model of IS/IT architecture exception governance. As first, the assumptions of presented model are set. As next, there is defined a generic governance model that serves as a basis for the architecture exception governance. The architecture exception definition and its attributes follow. The model respects well known approaches to the area that are described in the text, but it adopts higher granularity in description and expands the process view with all the next necessary governance components as roles, principles and policies, tools to enable the implementation of the model into organizations. The architecture exception process is decomposed into a set of processes related to the architecture exception lifecycle consisting of set of phases and architecture exception states. Finally, there is information about my future research related to this area.

Keywords: Architecture, dispensation, exception, governance, model

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2258
1216 Bed Site Selection by Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Baghshadi Protected Area, Yazd Province, Iran

Authors: S. Aghainajafizadeh, F. Heydari, H. Abbasian

Abstract:

Populations of wild boar present in semi-arid of central Iran. We studied features influencing bed site selection by this species in semi-arid central steppe of Iran. Habitat features of the detected bed site were compared with randomly selected by quantifying number of habitat variables in semi- arid area in Iran. The results revealed that the most important influencing factors in bed site selection were vegetation cover, number of Artemisia sieberi, percentage cover and height of Acer cinerascens, percentage cover and height of Amygdalus scoparia. This is the first ecological study of the wild boar in a protected area of the semi desert biome of Iran. Sustainability of wild boar populations in this area dependent to shrubs of Amygdalus scoparia and Acer cinerascens for thermal and camouflage cover.

Keywords: Wild boar, Bed site selection, Yazd, Iran

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1112
1215 Philosophy, Geometry, and Purpose in Islamic and Gothic Architecture as Two Religious-Based Styles

Authors: P. Nafisi Poor, P. Javid

Abstract:

Religion and divinity have always held important meaning to humans, and therefore it affects different aspects of life including art and architecture. Numerous works of art are related to religion whether supporting or denying it. Religion and religious scholars have influenced and changed art throughout history. This paper focuses on Islam and Christianity because these two religions have been the most discussed and most popular of all time, starting from the birth of Jesus to the arrival of Mohammad. Based on this popularity, these religions have influenced the arts and especially architecture. Islam on one hand changed Iranian and Arabian architecture and they applied it in different places around the world. From the appearance of Islam at 622 AD to this day, Islamic architecture has been evolving; however, one of the most important periods for this style was between 1501 AD and 1736 AD in Iran. Christianity, on the other hand, changed European architecture especially between 1150 AD and 1450 AD or the so-called "Gothic" era, which begins at medieval time and reaches its peak at International Gothic ages. At both of these periods, designing buildings based on spiritual concepts and divine statements reached its peak, and architects were considering God and religion as their center of attention. This article studies the focus on the religions of Islam and Christianity in terms of architecture and presents a general philosophy of both styles to comprehend the idea behind each one, followed by an analysis of their geometry and architectural aspects derived from the best examples, all to understand the purpose of each style and to realize, which one was more successful in reaching their purpose. Subsequently, a comprehensive review of each building is provided including 3D visualizations to help achieve the goal of the article. These studies can support diverse inquiries about both Islamic and Gothic architecture and can be used as a resource to support studies and research towards designing based on religion or for divine purposes.

Keywords: Architecture, gothic, Islamic, religion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 514
1214 Windphil Poetic in Architecture: Energy Efficient Strategies in Modern Buildings of Iran

Authors: Sepideh Samadzadehyazdi, Mohammad Javad Khalili, Sarvenaz Samadzadehyazdi, Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad

Abstract:

The term ‘Windphil Architecture’ refers to the building that facilitates natural ventilation by architectural elements. Natural ventilation uses the natural forces of wind pressure and stacks effect to direct the movement of air through buildings. Natural ventilation is increasingly being used in contemporary buildings to minimize the consumption of non-renewable energy and it is an effective way to improve indoor air quality. The main objective of this paper is to identify the strategies of using natural ventilation in Iranian modern buildings. In this regard, the research method is ‘descriptive-analytical’ that is based on comparative techniques. To simulate wind flow in the interior spaces of case studies, FLUENT software has been used. Research achievements show that it is possible to use natural ventilation to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. The natural ventilation strategies could be classified into two groups of environmental characteristics such as public space structure, and architectural characteristics including building form and orientation, openings, central courtyards, wind catchers, roof, wall wings, semi-open spaces and the heat capacity of materials. Having investigated modern buildings of Iran, innovative elements like wind catchers and wall wings are less used than the traditional architecture. Instead, passive ventilation strategies have been more considered in the building design as for the roof structure and openings.

Keywords: Natural ventilation strategies, wind catchers, wind flow, Iranian modern buildings.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 743