Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30758
A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD
Abstract:Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316309Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
 B. F. Flood, From the Prophet to Postmodernism? New World Orders and the end of Islamic Art” in Elizabeth Mansfield, ed. Making Art History: A Changing Discipline and Its Institutions London: Routledge. (2007).
 Z. Rahnavard, The Philosophy of Islamic Art. Tehran: Samt. 2008.
 M. Makkinejad, Architectural Decoration. Tehran: Samt. 2008.
 H. Zamani, the influence of Safavid architecture on Isfahan’s churches. Journal of Islamic Art studies. 2008.
 H. Bolkhari Qahi, Spiritual Foundations of Islamic art and architecture, Sureh Mehr, Tehran. 2009.
 R. Shaterian, The architectural analysis of Iranian mosques. Tehran: Noupardazan. 2011.
 F. Heydari, Kashan Jame Mosque- a study about establishing the mosque, tourism, 26 (2011).
 A. Akbari, The effect of Sassanid art and architecture on Seljuk period architecture; Quarterly Journal ofjurisprudence and the history of civilization. 2011.
 H. Heidari, H. Hosseini, A. Jafari Zand, H.Aslani, study of art and architecture during the Boyu period, 2015.
 M. R. Pour. Jafar, M. Azad, The Impact of the Quartet Ancient Iran in the architecture of the mosques and their continuation in the architecture of the mosques Neighboring Countries, the collection of papers of the Second International Conference Architecture of Afzigh Mosque Mosque, Tehran: Art University, (2001).
 R. Zare, H. Abdi Abyaneh, The role of color in the architecture of the Safavid mosques in sfahan, 2015.
 R. Ghalyzadeh, Bostan V. Ahmadi, Islamic Architecture of Seljuk and Ilkhani in Iran and compare it with the architecture of Arab countries during the same period, 2012.
 A. Skekofte, Visual Characteristics of the Gypsum Decoration Indicator of the Ilkhani Architecture, 2013.
 M. Batenie, M. Roentan, E. Behnood, Safavid Islamic Architecture Review, 2014.
 E. Parviz, H. A. Pourmand, An Exponentiation of World in the Safavid Architecture (Case Study: Imam Isfahan Mosque), 2012.
 H. Zomoroshidi, Mosque in Iranian architecture (Book style). Tehran: kyhan, 1995, pp. 54–220.
 S. K. Haghani, Islamic Architecture in Iran (Book style). london: I. B. Tauris, 2012, pp. 33–62.
 M. Mohammadi, K. Mollazadeh, Architecture of mosques in Iran during the early Islamic centuries (Book style). Tehran: Amir kabir, 2013, pp. 153–175.
 M.R Pourjafar, Eternity in Urban Planning with a glance of Rome, Monthly Journal of Municipalities 2003, pp. 51-54.
 B .Beppour, Inscriptions in the Qajar period (review, inscriptions of 8 buildings of the Qajar period in Shiraz and Isfahan) , 2004 ,p. 83
 K.Malzadeh; M.Mohammadi, , Public buildings of Abanbar,Market, Bridge, Dam, Bath, Tehran: Islamic Art and Culture Institute, 2000.