Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1126

Search results for: Descriptive Architecture.

1126 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

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1125 An Investigation on the Role of Iwan as a Sustainable Element in the Traditional Houses of Different Climatic Regions of Iran

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance of Iwan as one of the significant spaces in the traditional architecture of Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of Iwan in sustainability enhancement of traditional houses of different climatic regions of Iran. Iwan is considered as a semi-open space, which its form and location in the building highly depends to the climatic situation of that region. For that reason, Iwan is recognized as one of the sustainable elements in the traditional houses of Iran, which can provide more comfort with less use of energy. In this study, the history and emergence of Iwan in the traditional architecture of Iran as well as the concept of sustainability in architecture are explained briefly. Then, the change of performance or form of Iwan is analysed in different climatic regions of Iran in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. Results of this paper verify that studying the sustainability solutions in the traditional architecture of Iran, would be a valuable source of inspiration for the current designers to create an environmental and sustainable architecture for the future.

Keywords: Climatic regions of Iran, Iwan, sustainability, traditional houses.

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1124 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: Architecture, philosophy, Toyo Ito, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze.

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1123 Islamic Architecture and Its Challenges

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment, and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through the spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to the lack of the necessary information, and also successive wars that have overtaken the Moslems as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Moslems, but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art, and Moslems' culture and civilization.

Keywords: Art, culture and civilization, Islamic architecture, Moslems.

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1122 Architecture Exception Governance

Authors: Ondruska Marek

Abstract:

The article presents the whole model of IS/IT architecture exception governance. As first, the assumptions of presented model are set. As next, there is defined a generic governance model that serves as a basis for the architecture exception governance. The architecture exception definition and its attributes follow. The model respects well known approaches to the area that are described in the text, but it adopts higher granularity in description and expands the process view with all the next necessary governance components as roles, principles and policies, tools to enable the implementation of the model into organizations. The architecture exception process is decomposed into a set of processes related to the architecture exception lifecycle consisting of set of phases and architecture exception states. Finally, there is information about my future research related to this area.

Keywords: Architecture, dispensation, exception, governance, model

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1121 Toward An Agreement on Semantic Web Architecture

Authors: Haytham Al-Feel, M.A.Koutb, Hoda Suoror

Abstract:

There are many problems associated with the World Wide Web: getting lost in the hyperspace; the web content is still accessible only to humans and difficulties of web administration. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web which is considered to be the extension for the current web presents information in both human readable and machine processable form. The aim of this study is to reach new generic foundation architecture for the Semantic Web because there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these versions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers and technologies inside this architecture. This can be done depending on the idea of previous versions as well as Gerber-s evaluation method as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture.

Keywords: Semantic Web Architecture, XML, RDF and Ontology.

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1120 Sustainability in Space Composition of Traditional Architecture of Hot Arid Zones of Iran

Authors: Farshad Kheiri

Abstract:

Iran Central Plateau encompasses a large proportion of this country. The weather in these flat plains is warm and arid with very little precipitation. Different attempts in architecture have been done to alleviate the weather severity of this area and create a living place compatible with humans’ comfort criteria. Investigations have showed that some of the most successful approaches in traditional architecture of the area has been forgotten or are not being used widely. As sustainability is defined as an appropriate solution for environmental, economical, and social disorders, this research is a try to demonstrate the sustainability in aforementioned architecture and based on these studies, propounds solutions for today architecture in hot arid zones.

Keywords: Hot arid climatic zone, Iranian Architecture, Sustainability, Vernacular architecture.

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1119 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hothumid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Hot-humid climate, Iran, Sustainable Traditional architecture, Urban planning.

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1118 Grid Learning; Computer Grid Joins to e- Learning

Authors: A. Nassiry, A. Kardan

Abstract:

According to development of communications and web-based technologies in recent years, e-Learning has became very important for everyone and is seen as one of most dynamic teaching methods. Grid computing is a pattern for increasing of computing power and storage capacity of a system and is based on hardware and software resources in a network with common purpose. In this article we study grid architecture and describe its different layers. In this way, we will analyze grid layered architecture. Then we will introduce a new suitable architecture for e-Learning which is based on grid network, and for this reason we call it Grid Learning Architecture. Various sections and layers of suggested architecture will be analyzed; especially grid middleware layer that has key role. This layer is heart of grid learning architecture and, in fact, regardless of this layer, e-Learning based on grid architecture will not be feasible.

Keywords: Distributed learning, Grid Learning, Grid network, SCORM standard.

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1117 Architecture from Teaching to Learning to Practice: Authentic learning Tasks in Developing Professional Competencies

Authors: N. Utaberta, B. Hassanpour, M. Surat, A. I. Che Ani, N.M. Tawil

Abstract:

The concerns of education and practice of architecture do not necessarily overlap. Indeed the gap between them could be seen increasingly and less frequently bridged. We suggest that changing in architecture education and clarifying the relationship between these two can help to find and address the opportunities and unique positions to bridge this gulf.

Keywords: Architecture education, Learning, Practice, Teaching

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1116 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: Light, sacred architecture, liturgy, theology, church.

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1115 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Software Architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of Software Architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for Software Architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate Software Architectural design information.

Keywords: Software Architecture Ontology, Semantic based Software Architecture, Software Architecture, Ontology, Software Engineering.

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1114 Contingent Presences in Architecture: Vitruvian Theory as a Beginning

Authors: Zelal Çinar

Abstract:

This paper claims that architecture is a contingent discipline, despite the fact that its contingency has long been denied through a retreat to Vitruvian writing. It is evident that contingency is rejected not only by architecture but also by modernity as a whole. Vitruvius attempted to cover the entire field of architecture in a systematic form in order to bring the whole body of this great discipline to a complete order. The legacy of his theory hitherto lasted not only that it is the only major work on the architecture of Classical Antiquity to have survived, but also that its conformity with the project of modernity. In the scope of the paper, it will be argued that contingency should be taken into account rather than avoided as a potential threat. 

Keywords: Architecture, contingency, modernity, Vitruvius.

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1113 A Parallel Architecture for the Real Time Correction of Stereoscopic Images

Authors: Zohir Irki, Michel Devy

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present an architecture for the implementation of a real time stereoscopic images correction's approach. This architecture is parallel and makes use of several memory blocs in which are memorized pre calculated data relating to the cameras used for the acquisition of images. The use of reduced images proves to be essential in the proposed approach; the suggested architecture must so be able to carry out the real time reduction of original images.

Keywords: Image reduction, Real-time correction, Parallel architecture, Parallel treatment.

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1112 A Low-cost Reconfigurable Architecture for AES Algorithm

Authors: Yibo Fan, Takeshi Ikenaga, Yukiyasu Tsunoo, Satoshi Goto

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low-cost reconfigurable architecture for AES algorithm. The proposed architecture separates SubBytes and MixColumns into two parallel data path, and supports different bit-width operation for this two data path. As a result, different number of S-box can be supported in this architecture. The throughput and power consumption can be adjusted by changing the number of S-box running in this design. Using the TSMC 0.18μm CMOS standard cell library, a very low-cost implementation of 7K Gates is obtained under 182MHz frequency. The maximum throughput is 360Mbps while using 4 S-Box simultaneously, and the minimum throughput is 114Mbps while only using 1 S-Box

Keywords: AES, Reconfigurable architecture, low cost

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1111 SoC Communication Architecture Modeling

Authors: Ziaddin Daie Koozekanani, Mina Zolfy Lighvan

Abstract:

One of the most challengeable issues in ESL (Electronic System Level) design is the lack of a general modeling scheme for on chip communication architecture. In this paper some of the mostly used methodologies for modeling and representation of on chip communication are investigated. Our goal is studying the existing methods to extract the requirements of a general representation scheme for communication architecture synthesis. The next step, will be introducing a modeling and representation method for being used in automatically synthesis process of on chip communication architecture.

Keywords: Communication architecture, System on Chip, Communication Modeling and Representation

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1110 Architecture Design of the Robots Operability Assessment Simulation Testbed

Authors: Sang Yeong Choi, Woo Sung Park

Abstract:

This paper presents the architecture design of the robot operability assessment simulation testbed (called "ROAST") for the resolution of robot operability problems occurred during interactions between human operators and robots. The basic idea of the ROAST architecture design is to enable the easy composition of legacy or new simulation models according to its purpose. ROAST architecture is based on IEEE1516 High Level Architecture (HLA) of defense modeling and simulation. The ROAST architecture is expected to provide the foundation framework for the easy construction of a simulation testbed to order to assess the robot operability during the robotic system design. Some of ROAST implementations and its usefulness are demonstrated through a simple illustrative example.

Keywords: Robotic system, modeling and simulation, Simulation architecture.

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1109 Cosastudio: A Software Architecture Modeling Tool

Authors: Adel Smeda, Adel Alti, Mourad Oussalah, Abdallah Boukerram

Abstract:

A key aspect of the design of any software system is its architecture. An architecture description provides a formal model of the architecture in terms of components and connectors and how they are composed together. COSA (Component-Object based Software Structures), is based on object-oriented modeling and component-based modeling. The model improves the reusability by increasing extensibility, evolvability, and compositionality of the software systems. This paper presents the COSA modelling tool which help architects the possibility to verify the structural coherence of a given system and to validate its semantics with COSA approach.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Description Languages, UML, Components, Connectors.

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1108 A Survey of Baseband Architecture for Software Defined Radio

Authors: M. A. Fodha, H. Benfradj, A. Ghazel

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of recent works that proposes a baseband processor architecture for software defined radio. A classification of different approaches is proposed. The performance of each architecture is also discussed in order to clarify the suitable approaches that meet software-defined radio constraints.

Keywords: Multi-core architectures, reconfigurable architecture, software defined radio.

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1107 Strongly Adequate Software Architecture

Authors: Pradip Peter Dey

Abstract:

Components of a software system may be related in a wide variety of ways. These relationships need to be represented in software architecture in order develop quality software. In practice, software architecture is immensely challenging, strikingly multifaceted, extravagantly domain based, perpetually changing, rarely cost-effective, and deceptively ambiguous. This paper analyses relations among the major components of software systems and argues for using several broad categories for software architecture for assessment purposes: strongly adequate, weakly adequate and functionally adequate software architectures among other categories. These categories are intended for formative assessments of architectural designs.

Keywords: Components, Model Driven Architecture, Graphical User Interfaces.

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1106 Web Service Architecture for Computer-Adaptive Testing on e-Learning

Authors: M. Phankokkruad, K. Woraratpanya

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Web service and serviceoriented architecture (SOA) for a computer-adaptive testing (CAT) process on e-learning systems. The proposed architecture is developed to solve an interoperability problem of the CAT process by using Web service. The proposed SOA and Web service define all services needed for the interactions between systems in order to deliver items and essential data from Web service to the CAT Webbased application. These services are implemented in a XML-based architecture, platform independence and interoperability between the Web service and CAT Web-based applications.

Keywords: Web service, service-oriented architecture, computer-adaptive testing, e-learning, interoperability

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1105 The Integration of Iranian Traditional Architecture in the Contemporary Housing Design: A Case Study

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

Traditional architecture is a valuable source of inspiration, which needs to be studied and integrated in the contemporary designs for achieving an identifiable contemporary architecture. Traditional architecture of Iran is among the distinguished examples of being contextually responsive, not only by considering the environmental conditions of a region, but also in terms of respecting the socio-cultural values of its context. In order to apply these valuable features to the current designs, they need to be adapted to today's condition, needs and desires. In this paper, the main features of the traditional architecture of Iran are explained to interrogate them in the formation of a contemporary house in Tehran, Iran. Also a table is provided to compare the utilization of the traditional design concepts in the traditional houses and the contemporary example of it. It is believed that such study would increase the awareness of contemporary designers by providing them some clues on maintaining the traditional values in the current design layouts particularly in the residential sector that would ultimately improve the quality of space in the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: Contemporary housing design, Iran, Tehran, traditional architecture.

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1104 A Descriptive Study of Self-Compassion in Polytechnic Students in Indonesia

Authors: Emma Dwi Ariyani, Dini Hadiani

Abstract:

This article reports the descriptive analysis of self-compassion in polytechnic students. It has been long believed that self-compassion can improve students’ motivation in completing their studies. This research was conducted with the aim to see the degree of self-compassion in polytechnic students in Indonesia by using Neff's Self-Compassion Scale (short form) measurement tool consisting of 12 items. The research method used was descriptive study with survey technique on 255 students. The results showed that 78% of students had low self-compassion and 22% had high self-compassion. This revealed that polytechnic students still criticize themselves harshly, make a poor judgment and bad self-appraisal, and they also cannot accept their imperfection and consider it as a self-judgment. The students also tend to think that they are the only ones that experience failure and suffering. This can lead to a sense of isolation (self-isolation). Furthermore, the students are often too concerned with aspects that are not liked both in themselves and in life (over-identification). Improving the students’ level of self-compassion can be done by building an educational climate that not only criticizes the students but provides feedback as well. This should focus on the students’ real behavior rather than the students’ general character.

Keywords: Descriptive study, polytechnic students, Indonesia, self-compassion.

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1103 Design of Low-Area HEVC Core Transform Architecture

Authors: Seung-Mok Han, Woo-Jin Nam, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes and implements an core transform architecture, which is one of the major processes in HEVC video compression standard. The proposed core transform architecture is implemented with only adders and shifters instead of area-consuming multipliers. Shifters in the proposed core transform architecture are implemented in wires and multiplexers, which significantly reduces chip area. Also, it can process from 4×4 to 16×16 blocks with common hardware by reusing processing elements. Designed core transform architecture in 0.13um technology can process a 16×16 block with 2-D transform in 130 cycles, and its gate count is 101,015 gates.

Keywords: HEVC, Core transform, Low area, Shift-and-add, PE reuse

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1102 Efficient Hardware Architecture of the Direct 2- D Transform for the HEVC Standard

Authors: Fatma Belghith, Hassen Loukil, Nouri Masmoudi

Abstract:

This paper presents the hardware design of a unified architecture to compute the 4x4, 8x8 and 16x16 efficient twodimensional (2-D) transform for the HEVC standard. This architecture is based on fast integer transform algorithms. It is designed only with adders and shifts in order to reduce the hardware cost significantly. The goal is to ensure the maximum circuit reuse during the computing while saving 40% for the number of operations. The architecture is developed using FIFOs to compute the second dimension. The proposed hardware was implemented in VHDL. The VHDL RTL code works at 240 MHZ in an Altera Stratix III FPGA. The number of cycles in this architecture varies from 33 in 4-point- 2D-DCT to 172 when the 16-point-2D-DCT is computed. Results show frequency improvements reaching 96% when compared to an architecture described as the direct transcription of the algorithm.

Keywords: HEVC, Modified Integer Transform, FPGA.

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1101 A Generic and Extensible Spidergon NoC

Authors: Abdelkrim Zitouni, Mounir Zid, Sami Badrouchi, Rached Tourki

Abstract:

The Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous Network on Chip (GALS NoC) is the most efficient solution that provides low latency transfers and power efficient System on Chip (SoC) interconnect. This study presents a GALS and generic NoC architecture based on a configurable router. This router integrates a sophisticated dynamic arbiter, the wormhole routing technique and can be configured in a manner that allows it to be used in many possible NoC topologies such as Mesh 2-D, Tree and Polygon architectures. This makes it possible to improve the quality of service (QoS) required by the proposed NoC. A comparative performances study of the proposed NoC architecture, Tore architecture and of the most used Mesh 2D architecture is performed. This study shows that Spidergon architecture is characterised by the lower latency and the later saturation. It is also shown that no matter what the number of used links is raised; the Links×Diameter product permitted by the Spidergon architecture remains always the lower. The only limitation of this architecture comes from it-s over cost in term of silicon area.

Keywords: Dynamic arbiter, Generic router, Spidergon NoC, SoC.

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1100 Dual-Link Hierarchical Cluster-Based Interconnect Architecture for 3D Network on Chip

Authors: Guang Sun, Yong Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shijun Lin, Li Su, Depeng Jin, Lieguang zeng

Abstract:

Network on Chip (NoC) has emerged as a promising on chip communication infrastructure. Three Dimensional Integrate Circuit (3D IC) provides small interconnection length between layers and the interconnect scalability in the third dimension, which can further improve the performance of NoC. Therefore, in this paper, a hierarchical cluster-based interconnect architecture is merged with the 3D IC. This interconnect architecture significantly reduces the number of long wires. Since this architecture only has approximately a quarter of routers in 3D mesh-based architecture, the average number of hops is smaller, which leads to lower latency and higher throughput. Moreover, smaller number of routers decreases the area overhead. Meanwhile, some dual links are inserted into the bottlenecks of communication to improve the performance of NoC. Simulation results demonstrate our theoretical analysis and show the advantages of our proposed architecture in latency, throughput and area, when compared with 3D mesh-based architecture.

Keywords: Network on Chip (NoC), interconnect architecture, performance, area, Three Dimensional Integrate Circuit (3D IC).

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1099 Process Oriented Architecture for Emergency Scenarios in the Czech Republic

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Josef Navrátil, Alena Langerová

Abstract:

Tackling emergency situations is performed based on emergency scenarios. These scenarios do not have a uniform form in the Czech Republic. They are unstructured and developed primarily in the text form. This does not allow solving emergency situations efficiently. For this reason, the paper aims at defining a Process Oriented Architecture to support and thus to improve tackling emergency situations in the Czech Republic. The innovative Process Oriented Architecture is based on the Workflow Reference Model while taking into account the options of Business Process Management Suites for the implementation of process oriented emergency scenarios. To verify the proposed architecture the Proof of Concept has been used which covers the reception of an emergency event at the district emergency operations centre. Within the particular implementation of the proposed architecture the Bonita Open Solution has been used. The architecture created in this way is suitable not only for emergency management, but also for educational purposes.

Keywords: Business Process Management Suite, Czech Republic, Emergency Scenarios, Process Execution, Process Oriented Architecture.

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1098 AMBICOM: An Ambient Computing Middleware Architecture for Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Ekrem Aksoy, Nihat Adar, Selçuk Canbek

Abstract:

Ambient Computing or Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is emerging area in computer science aiming to create intelligently connected environments and Internet of Things. In this paper, we propose communication middleware architecture for AmI. This middleware architecture addresses problems of communication, networking, and abstraction of applications, although there are other aspects (e.g. HCI and Security) within general AmI framework. Within this middleware architecture, any application developer might address HCI and Security issues with extensibility features of this platform.

Keywords: AmI, ambient computing, middleware, distributedsystems, software-defined networking.

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1097 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

Abstract:

This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic House, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture.

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