Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: A.Y. Bani Hashim

70 The Effect of Multipass Cutting in Grinding Operation

Authors: M. A. Kamely, A. Y. Bani Hashim, S. H. Yahaya, H. Sihombing, H. Hazman

Abstract:

Grinding requires high specific energy and the consequent development of high temperature at tool-workpiece contact zone impairs workpiece quality by inducing thermal damage to the surface. Finishing grinding process requires component to be cut more than one pass. This paper deals with an investigation on the effect of multipass cutting on grinding performance in term of surface roughness and surface defect. An experimental set-up has been developed for this and a detailed comparison has been done with a single pass and various numbers of cutting pass. Results showed that surface roughness increase with the increase in a number of cutting pass. Good surface finish of 0.26μm was obtained for single pass cutting and 0.73μm for twenty pass cutting. It was also observed that the thickness of the white layer increased with the increased in a number of cutting pass.

Keywords: Cylindrical grinding, Multipass cutting, Surface roughness, Surface defect.

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69 Evaluation of a Bio-Mechanism by Graphed Static Equilibrium Forces

Authors: A.Y. Bani Hashim, N.A. Abu Osman, W.A.B. Wan Abas, L. Abdul Latif

Abstract:

The unique structural configuration found in human foot allows easy walking. Similar movement is hard to imitate even for an ape. It is obvious that human ambulation relates to the foot structure itself. Suppose the bones are represented as vertices and the joints as edges. This leads to the development of a special graph that represents human foot. On a footprint there are point-ofcontacts which have contact with the ground. It involves specific vertices. Theoretically, for an ideal ambulation, these points provide reactions onto the ground or the static equilibrium forces. They are arranged in sequence in form of a path. The ambulating footprint follows this path. Having the human foot graph and the path crossbred, it results in a representation that describes the profile of an ideal ambulation. This profile cites the locations where the point-of-contact experience normal reaction forces. It highlights the significant of these points.

Keywords: Ambulation, edge, foot, graph, vertex.

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68 Visual Inspection of Work Piece with a Complex Shape by Means of Robot Manipulator

Authors: A. Y. Bani Hashim, N. S. A. Ramdan

Abstract:

Inconsistency in manual inspection is real because humans get tired after some time. Recent trends show that automatic inspection is more appealing for mass production inspections. In such as a case, a robot manipulator seems the best candidate to run a dynamic visual inspection. The purpose of this work is to estimate the optimum workspace where a robot manipulator would perform a visual inspection process onto a work piece where a camera is attached to the end effector. The pseudo codes for the planned path are derived from the number of tool transit points, the delay time at the transit points, the process cycle time, and the configuration space that the distance between the tool and the work piece. It is observed that express start and swift end are acceptable in a robot program because applicable works usually in existence during these moments. However, during the mid-range cycle, there are always practical tasks programmed to be executed. For that reason, it is acceptable to program the robot such as that speedy alteration of actuator displacement is avoided. A dynamic visual inspection system using a robot manipulator seems practical for a work piece with a complex shape.

Keywords: Robot manipulator, Visual inspection, Work piece, Trajectory planning.

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67 A Novel Approach to EMABS and Comparison with ABS

Authors: Mehrdad N. Khajavi, Abbas Hosseini, N.Bani Mostafa

Abstract:

In this paper two different Antilock braking system (ABS) are simulated and compared. One is the ordinary hydraulic ABS system which we call it ABS and the other is Electromagnetic Antilock braking system which is called (EMABS) the basis of performance of an EMABS is based upon Electromagnetic force. In this system there is no need to use servo hydraulic booster which are used in ABS system. In EMABS to generate the desired force we have use a magnetic relay which works with an input voltage through an air gap (g). The generated force will be amplified by the relay arm, and is applied to the brake shoes and thus the braking torque is generated. The braking torque is proportional to the applied electrical voltage E. to adjust the braking torque it is only necessary to regulate the electrical voltage E which is very faster and has a much smaller time constant T than the ABS system. The simulations of these two different ABS systems are done with MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the superiority of the EMABS has been shown.

Keywords: ABS, EMABS, ECU

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66 Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Onset of Marangoni Convection in a Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Mohd Nasir Mahmud, Ruwaidiah Idris, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

With the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field and suspended particles, thermocapillary instability in a horizontal liquid layer is investigated. The resulting eigenvalue is solved by the Galerkin technique for various basic temperature gradients. It is found that the presence of magnetic field always has a stability effect of increasing the critical Marangoni number.

Keywords: Marangoni convection, Magnetic field, Micropolar fluid, Non-uniform thermal gradient, Thermocapillary.

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65 Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Processes and Water Resources Management

Authors: Walid K. M. Bani Salameh, Hesham Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Shannag

Abstract:

In Jordan having deficit atmospheric precipitation, an increase in water demand occurs during summer months. Jordan can be regarded with a relatively high potential for wastewater recycling and reuse. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) for olive mill wastewater (OMW) by electrocoagulation (EC) process. In the combination of electrocoagulation by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes, the optimum working pH was found to be around 6. Results indicated that the electrocoagulation process allowed removal of TSS and COD of about 82.5% and 47.5%, respectively at 45 mA/cm2 after 70 minutes by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes. It was demonstrated that the maximum TSS and COD removals were obtained at some optimum experimental parameters for current density, pH, and reaction time.

Keywords: Olive Mill Wastewater, Electrode, Electrocoagulation (EC), TSS, COD.

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64 Identification of Cardiac Arrhythmias using Natural Resonance Complex Frequencies

Authors: Moustafa A. Bani-Hasan, Yasser M. Kadah, Fatma M. El-Hefnawi

Abstract:

An electrocardiogram (ECG) feature extraction system based on the calculation of the complex resonance frequency employing Prony-s method is developed. Prony-s method is applied on five different classes of ECG signals- arrhythmia as a finite sum of exponentials depending on the signal-s poles and the resonant complex frequencies. Those poles and resonance frequencies of the ECG signals- arrhythmia are evaluated for a large number of each arrhythmia. The ECG signals of lead II (ML II) were taken from MIT-BIH database for five different types. These are the ventricular couplet (VC), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular bigeminy (VB), and ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the normal (NR). This novel method can be extended to any number of arrhythmias. Different classification techniques were tried using neural networks (NN), K nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and multi-class support vector machine (MC-SVM).

Keywords: Arrhythmias analysis, electrocardiogram, featureextraction, statistical classifiers.

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63 The Development of Decision Support System for Waste Management; a Review

Authors: M. S. Bani, Z. A. Rashid, K. H. K. Hamid, M. E. Harbawi, A.B.Alias, M. J. Aris

Abstract:

Most Decision Support Systems (DSS) for waste management (WM) constructed are not widely marketed and lack practical applications. This is due to the number of variables and complexity of the mathematical models which include the assumptions and constraints required in decision making. The approach made by many researchers in DSS modelling is to isolate a few key factors that have a significant influence to the DSS. This segmented approach does not provide a thorough understanding of the complex relationships of the many elements involved. The various elements in constructing the DSS must be integrated and optimized in order to produce a viable model that is marketable and has practical application. The DSS model used in assisting decision makers should be integrated with GIS, able to give robust prediction despite the inherent uncertainties of waste generation and the plethora of waste characteristics, and gives optimal allocation of waste stream for recycling, incineration, landfill and composting.

Keywords: Review, decision support system, GIS and waste management.

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62 Conjugate Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Containing a Polygon Object

Authors: Habibis Saleh, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Conjugate natural convection in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a polygon shaped object is studied numerically in this article. The effect of various polygon types on the fluid flow and thermal performance of the enclosure is addressed for different thermal conductivities. The governing equations are modeled and solved numerically using the built-in finite element method of COMSOL software. It is found that the heat transfer rate remains stable by varying the polygon types.

Keywords: Natural convection, Polygon object, COMSOL

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61 Dopamine and Serotonin Levels in Blood Samples of Jordanian Children Who Stutter

Authors: Mazin Alqhazo, Ayat Bani Rashaid

Abstract:

This study examines the levels of dopamine and serotonin in blood samples of children who stutter compared with normal fluent speakers. Blood specimens from 50 children who stutter (6 females, 44 males) and 50 normal children matched age and gender were collected for the purpose of the current study. The concentrations of dopamine and serotonin were measured using the 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector instrument (HPLC-UV). It was revealed that dopamine level in the blood samples of stuttering group and fluent group was not significant (P = 0.769), whereas the level of serotonin was significantly higher in the blood samples of stuttering group than the blood samples of fluent normal group (P = 0.015). It is concluded that serotonin blockers could be used in future studies to evaluate its role as a medication for the treatment of stuttering.

Keywords: Dopamine, serotonin, stuttering, fluent.

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60 Project Management Success for Contractors

Authors: Hamimah Adnan, Norfashiha Hashim, Mohd Arif Marhani, Mohd Asri Yeop Johari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the implementation of Project Management practices by UiTM contractors to ensure project success. A questionnaire survey was administered to 120 UiTM contractors in Malaysia. The purpose of this method was to gather information on the contractors- project background and project management skills. It was found that all of the contractors had basic knowledge and understanding of project management skills. It is suggested that a reasonable project plan and an appropriate organizational structure are influential factors for project success. It is recommended that the contractors need to have an effective program of work and up to date information system are emphasized.

Keywords: Project management, success, contractors.

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59 Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications

Authors: A. Fakhri Makram, Marwa S. Alwazni, Al-Douri Yarub, Evan T. Salim, Hashim Uda, Chin C. Woei

Abstract:

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.

Keywords: Lithium niobate, morphological properties, Pechini method, thin film.

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58 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashim

Abstract:

Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: Eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play.

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57 The Application of Homotopy Method In Solving Electrical Circuit Design Problem

Authors: Talib Hashim Hasan

Abstract:

This paper describes simple implementation of homotopy (also called continuation) algorithm for determining the proper resistance of the resistor to dissipate energy at a specified rate of an electric circuit. Homotopy algorithm can be considered as a developing of the classical methods in numerical computing such as Newton-Raphson and fixed point methods. In homoptopy methods, an embedding parameter is used to control the convergence. The method purposed in this work utilizes a special homotopy called Newton homotopy. Numerical example solved in MATLAB is given to show the effectiveness of the purposed method

Keywords: electrical circuit homotopy, methods, MATLAB, Newton homotopy

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56 Investigation of a Wearable Textile Monopole Antenna on Specific Absorption Rate at 2.45 GHz

Authors: Hasliza A. Rahim, Fareq Malek, Ismahayati Adam, Ahmad Sahadah, Nur B. M. Hashim, Nur A. M. Affendi, Azuwa Ali, Norshafinash Saudin, Latifah Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper discusses the investigation of a wearable textile monopole antenna on specific absorption rate (SAR) for bodycentric wireless communication applications at 2.45 GHz. The antenna is characterized on a realistic 8 x 8 x 8 mm3 resolution truncated Hugo body model in CST Microwave Studio software. The result exhibited that the simulated SAR values were reduced significantly by 83.5% as the position of textile monopole was varying between 0 mm and 15 mm away from the human upper arm. A power absorption reduction of 52.2% was also noticed as the distance of textile monopole increased.

Keywords: Monopole antenna, specific absorption rate, textile antenna.

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55 The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation

Authors: R. Hashim, A. J. Bock, S. Cooper

Abstract:

Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, construction industry, environmental, green innovation.

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54 Contribution of On-Site and Off-Site Processes to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions by Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Laleh Yerushalmi, Fariborz Haghighat, Maziar Bani Shahabadi

Abstract:

The estimation of overall on-site and off-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by wastewater treatment plants revealed that in anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems greater emissions result from off-site processes compared to on-site processes. However, in aerobic treatment systems, onsite processes make a higher contribution to the overall GHG emissions. The total GHG emissions were estimated to be 1.6, 3.3 and 3.8 kg CO2-e/kg BOD in the aerobic, anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively. In the aerobic treatment system without the recovery and use of the generated biogas, the off-site GHG emissions were 0.65 kg CO2-e/kg BOD, accounting for 40.2% of the overall GHG emissions. This value changed to 2.3 and 2.6 kg CO2-e/kg BOD, and accounted for 69.9% and 68.1% of the overall GHG emissions in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively. The increased off-site GHG emissions in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems are mainly due to material usage and energy demand in these systems. The anaerobic digester can contribute up to 100%, 55% and 60% of the overall energy needs of plants in the aerobic, anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively.

Keywords: On-site and off-site greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions, wastewater treatment plants, biogas recovery

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53 Performance Evaluation of Single-mode and Multimode Fiber in LAN Environment

Authors: Farah Diyana Abdul Rahman, Wajdi Al-Khateeb, Aisha Hassan Abdalla Hashim

Abstract:

Optical networks are high capacity networks that meet the rapidly growing demand for bandwidth in the terrestrial telecommunications industry. This paper studies and evaluates singlemode and multimode fiber transmission by varying the distance. It focuses on their performance in LAN environment. This is achieved by observing the pulse spreading and attenuation in optical spectrum and eye-diagram that are obtained using OptSim simulator. The behaviors of two modes with different distance of data transmission are studied, evaluated and compared.

Keywords: Attenuation, eye diagram, fiber transmissions, multimode fiber, pulse dispersion, OSNR, single-mode fiber.

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52 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

Abstract:

This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: Ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics.

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51 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim

Abstract:

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2. 

Keywords: Electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission.

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50 The Feasibility of Using Milled Glass Wastes in Concrete to Resist Freezing-Thawing Action

Authors: Raed Abendeh, Mousa Bani Baker, Zaydoun Abu Salem, Heham Ahmad

Abstract:

The using of waste materials in the construction industry can reduce the dependence on the natural aggregates which are going at the end to deplete. The glass waste is generated in a huge amount which can make one of its disposals in concrete industry effective not only as a green solution but also as an advantage to enhance the performance of mechanical properties and durability of concrete. This article reports the performance of concrete specimens containing different percentages of milled glass waste as a partial replacement of cement (Powder), when they are subject to cycles of freezing and thawing. The tests were conducted on 75-mm cubes and 75 x 75 x 300-mm prisms. Compressive strength based on laboratory testing and non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test were performed during the action of freezing-thawing cycles (F/T). The results revealed that the incorporation of glass waste in concrete mixtures is not only feasible but also showed generally better strength and durability performance than control concrete mixture. It may be said that the recycling of waste glass in concrete mixes is not only a disposal way, but also it can be an exploitation in concrete industry.

Keywords: Durability, glass waste, freeze-thaw cycles, nondestructive test.

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49 Adsorption of Copper by using Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA)

Authors: N.A.Johan, S.R.M.Kutty, M. H. Isa, N.S.Muhamad, H.Hashim

Abstract:

Many non-conventional adsorbent have been studied as economic alternative to commercial activated carbon and mostly agricultural waste have been introduced such as rubber leaf powder and hazelnut shell. Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA), produced from the rice husk is one of the low-cost materials that were used as adsorbent of heavy metal. The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of using MIRHA500 and MIRHA800 as adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions by the batch studies. The adsorption of Cu(II) into MIRHA500 and MIRH800 favors Fruendlich isotherm and imply pseudo – kinetic second order which applied chemisorptions

Keywords: Copper (II) aqueous solution, batch study, MIRHA500, MIRHA800, Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash(MIRHA)

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48 Into Insights of Contextual Governance Framework for Religious Non-Profit Organizations

Authors: Saunah Zainon, Ruhaya Atan, Nadzira Yahaya, Marshita Hashim

Abstract:

Governance in business firms is a topic that has long been studied in the literature. Traditionally, governance in business firms has focused on the roles of boards of directors in representing and protecting the interests of shareholders. Governance has also been studied in the context of non-profit organizations because good governance is essential to increase the likelihood that they will comply with the regulatory requirements that best serve their multiple stakeholders. This paper provides insights on the need of governance framework for religious non-profit organizations (RNPOs) based on five underlying principles. This paper is important to help regulators to understand RNPOs’ governance framework. The regulators may use the framework suggested for the development of the RNPOs’ code of governance in the future.

Keywords: Framework, governance, religious, RNPOs.

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47 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery

Abstract:

The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: Conjugate free convection, nanofluid, spatial temperature.

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46 Perceptions on Accounting Career: A Study among the Secondary School Students in a Regional Kelantan State

Authors: Hezlina Mohd Hashim, Abdul Mutalib Embong, Zullina H. Shaari

Abstract:

This study analyses the perceptions of secondary school students about the accounting profession in Malaysia. Fifty five form three and form four students who are taking accounting/commerce subjects were met. Individual-s perception data were collected through questionnaires. The results at the secondary school level suggest that the stereotypical negative image of the accountant ends, with students expressing the positive view of the work of an accountant. There were also gender differences in perceiving the accounting profession. Overall, the results of the study suggest that we are now in line in projecting positive and accurate perceptions of the accounting profession to secondary school students.

Keywords: Perceptions, secondary school students, accounting profession, Malaysia.

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45 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Majid Rezayi, Rosli Hashim, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: Benthic invertebrates, Diversity, Malaysia, West Port.

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44 Wavelet-Based ECG Signal Analysis and Classification

Authors: Madina Hamiane, May Hashim Ali

Abstract:

This paper presents the processing and analysis of ECG signals. The study is based on wavelet transform and uses exclusively the MATLAB environment. This study includes removing Baseline wander and further de-noising through wavelet transform and metrics such as signal-to noise ratio (SNR), Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the mean squared error (MSE) are used to assess the efficiency of the de-noising techniques. Feature extraction is subsequently performed whereby signal features such as heart rate, rise and fall levels are extracted and the QRS complex was detected which helped in classifying the ECG signal. The classification is the last step in the analysis of the ECG signals and it is shown that these are successfully classified as Normal rhythm or Abnormal rhythm.  The final result proved the adequacy of using wavelet transform for the analysis of ECG signals.

Keywords: ECG Signal, QRS detection, thresholding, wavelet decomposition, feature extraction.

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43 The Incorporation of In in GaAsN as a Means of N Fraction Calibration

Authors: H. Hashim, B. F. Usher

Abstract:

InGaAsN and GaAsN epitaxial layers with similar nitrogen compositions in a sample were successfully grown on a GaAs (001) substrate by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. An electron cyclotron resonance nitrogen plasma source has been used to generate atomic nitrogen during the growth of the nitride layers. The indium composition changed from sample to sample to give compressive and tensile strained InGaAsN layers. Layer characteristics have been assessed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction to determine the relationship between the lattice constant of the GaAs1-yNy layer and the fraction x of In. The objective was to determine the In fraction x in an InxGa1-xAs1-yNy epitaxial layer which exactly cancels the strain present in a GaAs1-yNy epitaxial layer with the same nitrogen content when grown on a GaAs substrate.

Keywords: Indium, molecular beam epitaxy, nitrogen, straincancellation.

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42 Investigation of Time Delay Factors in Global Software Development

Authors: Khalid Khan, Atique Ahmad Zafar, Mohammed A. Alnuem, Hashim Khan

Abstract:

Global Software Development (GSD) projects are passing through different boundaries of a company, country and even in other continents where time zone differs between both sites. Beside many benefits of such development, research declared plenty of negative impacts on these GSD projects. It is important to understand problems which may lie during the execution of GSD project with different time zones. This research project discussed and provided different issues related to time delays in GSD projects. In this paper, authors investigated some of the time delay factors which usually lie in GSD projects with different time zones. This investigation is done through systematic review of literature. Furthermore, the practices to overcome these delay factors which have already been reported in literature and GSD organizations are also explored through literature survey and case studies.

Keywords: Case Studies, Global Software Development, Global Software Engineering, Temporal Difference, Time Delay

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41 Problems of Lifelong Education Course in Information and Communication Technology

Authors: Hisham Md Suhadi, Faaizah Shahbodin, Jamaluddin Hashim

Abstract:

The study is the way to identify the problems that occur in organizing short course’s lifelong learning in the information and communication technology (ICT) education which are faced by the lecturer and staff at the Mara Skill Institute and Industrial Training Institute in Pahang Malaysia. The important aspects of these issues are classified to five which are selecting the courses administrative. Fifty lecturers and staff were selected as a respondent. The sample is selected by using the non-random sampling method purpose sampling. The questionnaire is used as a research instrument and divided into five main parts. All the data that gain from the questionnaire are analyzed by using the SPSS in term of mean, standard deviation and percentage. The findings showed, there are the problems occur in organizing the short course for lifelong learning in ICT education.

Keywords: Lifelong education, information and communication technology (ICT), short course, ICT education, courses administrative.

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