Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications
Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124049Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1364
 M. A. Fakhri, Y. Al-Douri, U. Hashim,E. T. Salim,”Annealing Temperature Effects on Morphological and Optical Studies of Nano and Micro Photonics Lithium Niobate using for Optical Waveguide Applications “ Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 9, pp.128-133., 2015.
 M. A. Fakhri, Y. Al-Douri, U. Hashim, E. T. Salim, "Optical investigations of photonics lithium niobate", Solar Energy, vol. 120, pp. 381-388, 2015.
 Young-Bae Park and Bumki Min et al “Integration of Single-Crystal LiNbO3 thin Film on Silicon by Laser Irradiation and Ion Implantation–Induced Layer Transfer”, Adv. Mater, vol. 18, pp. 1533–1536, 2006.
 Xinchang Wang and Zhizhen Ye et al “Growth of textured LiNbO3 thin film on Si (111) substrate by pulsed laser “, International Journal of Modern Physics B, Vol. 16, pp.4343-4346, 2002.
 Yunbo Guo and Charles Divin et al “Sensitive molecular binding assay using a photonic crystal structure in total internal reflection “ Opt Express, vol. 16, pp. 11741–11749, 2008.
 Carlos A. Diaz-Moreno and Rurik Farias-Mancilla et al “Structural Aspects LiNbO3 Nanoparticles and Their Ferromagnetic Properties “ Materials, vol. 7, pp. 7217-7225, 2014.
 Liang Cao and Abdelsalam Aboketaf et al “Hybrid amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)–LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator”, Optical Communication, Vol 330, pp. 40–44, 2014.
 Hongyun Chen, and Tao Lv et al “Discrete diffraction based on electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate “,optical communication, vol. 294, pp. 202–207, 2013.
 H. Hu and R. Ricken, et al “Lithium niobate photonic wires “ Optics Express, Vol. 17, pp. 24261-24268, 2009.
 Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Metawe'e “Ultra High Speed Semiconductor Electrooptic Modulator Devices for Gigahertz Operation in optical communication Saystems “, International Electrical Engineering Journal(IEEJ), Vol 2, pp. 560-570, 2011.
 P. Galinettoa and M. Marinonea et al “Micro-Raman analysis on LiNbO3 substrates and surfaces: Compositional homogeneity and effects of etching and polishing processes on structural properties” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol. 45, pp. 380–384, 2007.
 Tao Zhang and Biao Wang et al “Optical homogeneity and second harmonic generation in Li-rich Mg-doped LiNbO3 crystals “, material chemisty and physics, Vol. 88, pp. 97-101, 2004.
 Wooten, E.L and Kissa, K.M “A eview of Lithium Niobate Modulators for Fiber-Optic Communications Systems “, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 6, pp . 69-82, 2000.
 Woo-Kyung Kim and Soon-Woo Kwon et al “Integrated optical modulator for signal upconversion over radio-on-fiber link “, Optics Express (C), Vol. 17, pp: 2638 -2645, 2009.
 Rong Lin and Yuanmei Gao et al “ Factors that influence the modulation instability in self-defocusing photorefractive crystal “optical communication, Vol. 285, pp. 2724–2728, 2012.
 Jianping Guo, and Jiahu Zhu et al “A plasmonic electro-optical variable optical attenuator based on side-coupled metal–dielectric–metal structure “, Optical Communication, vol. 294, pp: 405–408 2013.
 O. P. Nautiyal and S. C. Bhatt “Preparation and Characterization of Lithium Doped Silver Niobate Perovskite System “American Journal of Materials Science vol.1 , pp, 1-4, 2011.
 V. Iyevlev and A. Kostyuchenko "preparation and characterization of LiNbO3, grown by RF magnetron sputtering", Journal of material science : Material in electronics, vol.22, pp. 1258-1263, 2011.
 A.Z. Simo˜es and M.A. Zaghetea “LiNbO3 thin films prepared through polymeric precursor method “, Materials Letters, Vol 57, pp. 2333– 2339, 2003.
 A.Z. Simo˜esa, and M.A. Zaghete et al “Influence of oxygen atmosphere on crystallization and properties of LiNbO3 thin films”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 24, pp.1607–1613, 2004.
 L. H. Wang and D. R. Yuan et al “ Synthesis and characterization of fine lithium niobate powders by sol- gel method”, Cryst. Res. Technol, vol. 42, pp, 321 – 324, 2007.
 Yi Lu and Peter Dekker “Growth and characterization of lithium niobate planar waveguides by liquid phase epitaxy “, journal of crystal growth , vol. 311, pp. 1441–1445 .
 Yasunobu Akiyama and Katsuya Shitanaka et al, “Epitaxial growth of lithium niobate film using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition”, Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, pp, 4975–4979, 2007.
 Akira Tanaka and Keiji Miyashita et al “Preparation of lithium niobate films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with a lithium alkoxide source “, Journal of crystal growth, vol. 148, pp. 324–326, 1995.
 Sang-Chul Jung and Nobuyuki Imaishi, “ The growth of LiNbO3 thin film by LPMOCVD using β-diketonate complexes “, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 16, pp. 229-233, 1999.
 May Nyman and Travis M Anderson at al, “Comparison of Aqueous and Non-aqueous Soft-Chemical Syntheses of Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate Powders “, Cryst. Growth Des, vol. 9, pp: 1036–1040, 2009.
 Ryo Ageba and Yoichi Kadota et al, “Ultrasonically-assisted Hydrothermal Method for Ferroelectric Material Synthesis “ Journal of the Korean Physical Society. vol 57, pp: 918_923, 2010.
 Yu-Jin Kang and Se-Young Jeong et al, “Hetero-Epitaxial Growth of LiNbO3 Thin Film on GaN/Al2O3 by Pulsed Laser Deposition “, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, vol. 49, pp. S625_S628, 2006.
 M. A. Fakhri, Y. Al-Douri, U. Hashim, E. T. Salim, Deo Prakash, K. D. Verma, " Optical investigation of nanophotonic lithium niobate-based optical waveguide", Applied physics B Lasers and Optics, vol. 121, pp. 107-116, 2015.
 M. A. Fakhri, Y. Al-Douri, U. Hashim, E. T. Salim, "XRD Analysis and Morphological Studies of Spin Coated LiNbO3 Nano Photonic Crystal Prepared for Optical Waveguide Application", Advanced Materials Research, vol. 1133, 457-461, 2016.
 I.-K. Jeong, "Correlated Thermal Motion in Ferroelectric LiNbO3 Studied Using Neutron Total Scattering and a Rietveld Analysis", Journal of the Korean Physical Society, vol. 59, pp. 2756-2759, 2011.
 A.Z Simões, A.H.M González, A.A Cavalheiro, M.A Zaghete, B.D Stojanovic, J.A Varela, "Effect of magnesium on structure and properties of LiNbO3 prepared from polymeric precursors", Ceramics International, vol. 28, 265–270, 2002.