Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 285

Search results for: L. Abdul Latif

285 Evaluation of a Bio-Mechanism by Graphed Static Equilibrium Forces

Authors: A.Y. Bani Hashim, N.A. Abu Osman, W.A.B. Wan Abas, L. Abdul Latif

Abstract:

The unique structural configuration found in human foot allows easy walking. Similar movement is hard to imitate even for an ape. It is obvious that human ambulation relates to the foot structure itself. Suppose the bones are represented as vertices and the joints as edges. This leads to the development of a special graph that represents human foot. On a footprint there are point-ofcontacts which have contact with the ground. It involves specific vertices. Theoretically, for an ideal ambulation, these points provide reactions onto the ground or the static equilibrium forces. They are arranged in sequence in form of a path. The ambulating footprint follows this path. Having the human foot graph and the path crossbred, it results in a representation that describes the profile of an ideal ambulation. This profile cites the locations where the point-of-contact experience normal reaction forces. It highlights the significant of these points.

Keywords: Ambulation, edge, foot, graph, vertex.

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284 Detection of Ultrasonic Images in the Presence of a Random Number of Scatterers: A Statistical Learning Approach

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of medical ultrasound images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to clinical ultrasound images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected ultrasound images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: LS-SVM, medical ultrasound imaging, partially developed speckle, multi-look model.

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283 SVM-Based Detection of SAR Images in Partially Developed Speckle Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to real SAR images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected SAR images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (the detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: Least Square-Support Vector Machine, SyntheticAperture Radar. Partially Developed Speckle, Multi-Look Model.

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282 Authenticity Issues of Social Media: Credibility, Quality and Reality

Authors: Shahrinaz Ismail, Roslina Abdul Latif

Abstract:

Social media has led to paradigm shifts in ways people work and do business, interact and socialize, learn and obtain knowledge. So much so that social media has established itself as an important spatial extension of this nation-s historicity and challenges. Regardless of the enabling reputation and recommendation features through social networks embedded in the social media system, the overflow of broadcasted and publicized media contents turns the table around from engendering trust to doubting the trust system. When the trust is at doubt, the effects include deactivation of accounts and creation of multiple profiles, which lead to the overflow of 'ghost' contents (i.e. “the abundance of abandoned ships"). In most literature, the study of trust can be related to culture; hence the difference between Western-s “openness" and Eastern-s “blue-chip" concepts in networking and relationships. From a survey on issues and challenges among Malaysian social media users, 'authenticity' emerges as one of the main factors that causes and is caused by other factors. The other issue that has surfaced is credibility either in terms of message/content and source. Another is the quality of the knowledge that is shared. This paper explores the terrains of this critical space which in recent years has been dominated increasingly by, arguably, social networks embedded in the social media system, the overflow of broadcasted and publicized media content.

Keywords: Authenticity, credibility, knowledge quality and social media.

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281 Intention to Use Digital Library based on Modified UTAUT Model: Perspectives of Malaysian Postgraduate Students

Authors: Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Adnan Jamaludin, Zamalia Mahmud

Abstract:

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for generic information systems use such as tablet personal computer (TPC) and mobile communication. However, in the context of digital library system, there has been very little effort to determine factors affecting the intention to use digital library based on the UTAUT model. This paper investigates factors that are expected to influence the intention of postgraduate students to use digital library based on modified UTAUT model. The modified model comprises of constructs represented by several latent variables, namely performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), information quality (IQ) and service quality (SQ) and moderated by age, gender and experience in using digital library. Results show that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and information quality are positively related to the intention to use digital library, while service quality is negatively related to the intention to use digital library. Age and gender have shown no evidence of any significant interactions, while experience in using digital library significantly interacts with effort expectancy and intention to use digital library. This has provided the evidence of a moderating effect of experience in the intention to use digital library. It is expected that this research will shed new lights into research of acceptance and intention to use the library in a digital environment.

Keywords: Intention to use digital library, UTAUT model, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, information quality, service quality.

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280 A Novel SVM-Based OOK Detector in Low SNR Infrared Channels

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a recent class of statistical classification and regression techniques playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM is applied to an infrared (IR) binary communication system with different types of channel models including Ricean multipath fading and partially developed scattering channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the receiver. The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these channel stochastic models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to classical binary signal maximum likelihood detection using a matched filter driven by On-Off keying (OOK) modulation. We found that the performance of SVM is superior to that of the traditional optimal detection schemes used in statistical communication, especially for very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM is similar to that of the classical detectors. The implication of these results is that SVM can prove very beneficial to IR communication systems that notoriously suffer from low SNR at the cost of increased computational complexity.

Keywords: Least square-support vector machine, on-off keying, matched filter, maximum likelihood detector, wireless infrared communication.

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279 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.

Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.

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278 IT/IS Outsourcing Relationship Factors in Higher Education Institution: Behavioral Dimensions from Client Perspectives

Authors: Nor Aziati Abdul Hamid, Rajeev SuberamanyNor Aziati Abdul Hamid, Rajeev Suberamany

Abstract:

Higher education institutions are increasingly opting to outsourcing methods in order to sustain themselves and this creates a gap of literature in terms of how they perceive the relationship. This research paper attempts to identify the behavioral and psychological factors that exist in the engagement thus providing valuable information to practicing and potential clients, and vendors. The determinants were gathered from previous literatures and analyzed to formulate the factors. This study adopts the case study and survey approaches in which interviews and questionnaires are deployed on employees of IT-related department in a Malaysian higher education institution.

Keywords: Higher education institution, information technology, outsourcing, relationship

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277 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: Multiple-input-multiple-output, MIMO, distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE.

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276 The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate

Authors: Asmat Ismail, Muna Hanim Abdul Samad, Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.

Keywords: global warming, green roof, white painted roof, indoor temperature reduction.

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275 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: Palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, regression.

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274 Chattering-free Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, a few chattering-free Sliding Mode Controllers (SMC) are proposed to stabilize an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with gyroscopic effect that is proportional to the rotor speed. The improved switching terms of the controller inherited from the saturation-type function and boundary layer control technique is shown to be able to achieve bounded and asymptotic stability, respectively, while the chattering effect in the input is attenuated. This is proven to be advantageous for AMB system since minimization of chattering results in optimized control effort. The performance of each controller is demonstrated via result of simulation in which the measurement of the total consumed energy and maximum control magnitude of each controller illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding Mode Control (SMC), chattering-free SMC.

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273 Principal Component Regression in Noninvasive Pineapple Soluble Solids Content Assessment Based On Shortwave Near Infrared Spectrum

Authors: K. S. Chia, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

The Principal component regression (PCR) is a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The objective of this paper is to revise the use of PCR in shortwave near infrared (SWNIR) (750-1000nm) spectral analysis. The idea of PCR was explained mathematically and implemented in the non-destructive assessment of the soluble solid content (SSC) of pineapple based on SWNIR spectral data. PCR achieved satisfactory results in this application with root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.7611 Brix°, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.5865 and root mean squared error of crossvalidation (RMSECV) of 0.8323 Brix° with principal components (PCs) of 14.

Keywords: Pineapple, Shortwave near infrared, Principal component regression, Non-invasive measurement; Soluble solids content

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272 Boundary Segmentation of Microcalcification using Parametric Active Contours

Authors: Abdul Kadir Jumaat, Siti Salmah Yasiran, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abd Rahman, Aminah Abdul Malek

Abstract:

A mammography image is composed of low contrast area where the breast tissues and the breast abnormalities such as microcalcification can hardly be differentiated by the medical practitioner. This paper presents the application of active contour models (Snakes) for the segmentation of microcalcification in mammography images. Comparison on the microcalcifiation areas segmented by the Balloon Snake, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake, and Distance Snake is done against the true value of the microcalcification area. The true area value is the average microcalcification area in the original mammography image traced by the expert radiologists. From fifty images tested, the result obtained shows that the accuracy of the Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, and Distance Snake in segmenting boundaries of microcalcification are 96.01%, 95.74%, and 95.70% accuracy respectively. This implies that the Balloon Snake is a better segmentation method to locate the exact boundary of a microcalcification region.

Keywords: Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, Distance Snake, Mammogram, Microcalcifications, Segmentation

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271 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: Fired Clay Brick, Sludge waste, Compressive strength, Shrinkage, Water absorption.

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270 Application of Natural Clay to Formulate Nontraditional Completion Fluid that Triples Oil Productivity

Authors: Munawar Khalil, Badrul Mohamed Jan, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Abstract:

In the last decades, the problem of perforation damage has been considered as the major factor for the reduction of oil productivity. Underbalance perforation is considered as one of the best means to minimize or overcome this problem. By maintaining wellbore pressure lower than formation pressure, perforation damage could be minimize or eliminated. This can be achieved by the use of nontraditional lightweight completion fluid. This paper presents the effect of natural clay in formulating nontraditional completion fluid to ensure successful perforation job and increase of production rate. Natural clay is used as homogenizing agent to create a stable and non-damaging low-density completion fluid. Results indicate that the addition of natural clay dramatically increase the stability of the final fluids. In addition, field test has shown that the application of nontraditional completion fluid increases oil production by three folds.

Keywords: Completion fluid, underbalance, clay, oil production.

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269 Assessment of Master’s Program in Technology

Authors: Niaz Latif, Joy L. Colwell

Abstract:

Following implementation of a master’s level graduate degree program in technology, a research-based assessment of the program was undertaken to determine how well the program met its goals and objectives, and the impact of the degree program on the objectives and the needs of its graduates. Upon review of the survey data, it was concluded that the program was meeting its goals and objectives, and that the directed project option should be encouraged.

Keywords: Master’s Degree, Graduate Program, Assessment.

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268 Application of H2 -based Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd. Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, application of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique for an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with varying rotor speed is considered. The gyroscopic effect and mass imbalance inherited in the system is proportional to rotor speed in which this nonlinearity effect causes high system instability as the rotor speed increases. Transformation of the AMB dynamic model into regular system shows that these gyroscopic effect and imbalance lie in the mismatched part of the system. A H2-based sliding surface is designed which bound the mismatched parts. The solution of the surface parameter is obtained using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). The performance of the controller applied to the AMB model is demonstrated through simulation works under various system conditions.

Keywords: Active magnetic bearing, sliding mode control, linear matrix inequality, mismatched uncertainty and imbalance.

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267 Structural and Computational Studies of N-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl) carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide, N-[(3 Ethylphenyl) carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide and 2,2-Diphenyl-N-{[2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]carbamothioyl}acetamide

Authors: Ibrahim Abdul Razak, Suhana Arshad, Nur Rafikah Razali, Azhar Abdul Rahman, Mohd Sukeri Mohd Yusof

Abstract:

Theoretical investigations are performed by DFT method of B3LYP/6-31G+(2d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G+(2d,p) basis sets for three carbonyl thiourea compounds, namely N-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl)carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide (Compound I), N-[(3-Ethylphenyl)carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide (Compound II) and 2,2-Diphenyl-N-{[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamothioyl}acetamide (Compound III). Theoretical calculations for bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and isotropic chemical shifts are in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated molecular vibrations show good correlation values, which are 0.998 and 0.999 with the experimental data. The energy gap for compounds I, II and III calculated at B3LYP/6-31G+(2d,p) basis set are 4.455866117, 4.297495791 and 4.313550514 eV respectively, while for B3LYP/6-311G+(2d,p) basis set the energy gap obtained are 4.453689205 (Compound I), 4.311373603 (Compound II) and 4.315727426 (Compound III) eV.

Keywords: Crystallization, DFT studies, Spectroscopic Analysis, Thiourea.

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266 Sound Exposure Effects towards Ross Broilers Growth Rate

Authors: Rashidah Ghazali, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Mashitah Shikh Maidin, Shafishuhaza Sahlan, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Sound exposure effects have been investigated by broadcasting a group of broilers with sound of Quran verses (Group B) whereas the other group is the control broilers (Group C). The growth rate comparisons in terms of weight and raw meat texture measured by shear force have been investigated. Twenty-seven broilers were randomly selected from each group on Day 24 and weight measurement was carried out every week till the harvest day (Day 39).Group B showed a higher mean weight on Day 24 (1.441 ± 0.013 kg) than Group C. Significant difference in the weight on Day 39 existed for Group B compared to Group C (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference of shear force in the same muscles (breast and drumstick raw meat) of both groups but the shear force of the breast meat for Group B and C broilers was lower (p < 0.05) than that of their drumstick meat. Thus, broadcasting the sound of Quran verses in the coop can be applied to improve the growth rate of broilers for producing better quality poultry.

Keywords: Broilers, sound, shear force, weight.

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265 The Design and Development of Driving Game as an Evaluation Instrument for Driving License Test

Authors: Abdul Hadi Abdul Razak, Mohd Hairy Manap

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to highlight the design and development of an educational game prototype as an evaluation instrument for the Malaysia driving license static test. This educational game brings gaming technology into the conventional objective static test to make it more effective, real and interesting. From the feeling of realistic, the future driver can learn something, memorized and use it in the real life. The current online objective static test only make the user memorized the answer without knowing and understand the true purpose of the question. Therefore, in real life, they will not behave as expected due to behavior and moral lacking. This prototype has been developed inform of multiple-choice questions integrated with 3D gaming environment to make it simulate the real environment and scenarios. Based on the testing conducted, the respondent agrees with the use of this game prototype it can increase understanding and promote obligation towards traffic rules.

Keywords: Educational game, evaluation instrument, game, game prototype.

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264 Asymptotic Stabilization of an Active Magnetic Bearing System using LMI-based Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd. Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, stabilization of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with varying rotor speed using Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique is considered. The gyroscopic effect inherited in the system is proportional to rotor speed in which this nonlinearity effect causes high system instability as the rotor speed increases. Also, transformation of the AMB dynamic model into a new class of uncertain system shows that this gyroscopic effect lies in the mismatched part of the system matrix. Moreover, the current gain parameter is allowed to be varied in a known bound as an uncertainty in the input matrix. SMC design method is proposed in which the sufficient condition that guarantees the global exponential stability of the reduced-order system is represented in Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). Then, a new chattering-free control law is established such that the system states are driven to reach the switching surface and stay on it thereafter. The performance of the controller applied to the AMB model is demonstrated through simulation works under various system conditions.

Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding ModeControl (SMC), Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI), mismatcheduncertainty.

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263 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based On Opnet

Authors: W. Benaatou, A. Latif

Abstract:

In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS andWiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: Vertical handoff, WLAN, UMTS, WIMAX, Heterogeneous.

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262 The Causal Relationships between Destination Image, Tourist Satisfaction and Revisit Intention: A Case of the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Abdul Raheem Jasim Mohammed, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Salim Abdul Talib, Mohd Zulhilmi Suhaimi

Abstract:

The connection between past travel experience and tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions has not been widely explored but the existing studies suggest a close relationship between them. Destination image can equally be construed as having effects on the attitudes of the tourists at the end of their actual visitation and the satisfaction of a tourist with his or her travel experiences contributes to a revisit intention towards a particular destination. With strong marketing efforts, UAE is not only considered to be successful in attracting foreign investors, but is becoming the most popular tourism destination in the Arab region. UAE is seriously developing its tourism image and taking serious initiatives to attract new or repeat visitations from the international tourists. This study empirically investigates the causal relationships between tourism destination image, tourist satisfaction and revisit intention using UAE as a contextual study setting. A very clear picture emerged which provides a host country with potential implications for its tourism industry practitioners, Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing and the travel agencies who act as the intermediaries between the potential tourists and the hotel operators.

Keywords: Destination image, tourist satisfaction, revisit intention.

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261 A Novel Methodology for Synthesis of Fault Trees from MATLAB-Simulink Model

Authors: F. Tajarrod, G. Latif-Shabgahi

Abstract:

Fault tree analysis is a well-known method for reliability and safety assessment of engineering systems. In the last 3 decades, a number of methods have been introduced, in the literature, for automatic construction of fault trees. The main difference between these methods is the starting model from which the tree is constructed. This paper presents a new methodology for the construction of static and dynamic fault trees from a system Simulink model. The method is introduced and explained in detail, and its correctness and completeness is experimentally validated by using an example, taken from literature. Advantages of the method are also mentioned.

Keywords: Fault tree, Simulink, Standby Sparing and Redundancy

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260 Electrocardiogram Signal Denoising Using a Hybrid Technique

Authors: R. Latif, W. Jenkal, A. Toumanari, A. Hatim

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient method of electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a hybrid approach. Two techniques are brought together to create an efficient denoising process. The first is an Adaptive Dual Threshold Filter (ADTF) and the second is the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The presented approach is based on three steps of denoising, the DWT decomposition, the ADTF step and the highest peaks correction step. This paper presents some application of the approach on some electrocardiogram signals of the MIT-BIH database. The results of these applications are promising compared to other recently published techniques.

Keywords: Hybrid technique, ADTF, DWT, tresholding, ECG signal.

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259 Design and Implementation of a 10-bit SAR ADC

Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a 38.5 kS/s 10-bit low power SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits while consuming less than 7.8 mW with a 3.3 V power supply.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Resistive DAC.

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258 Biocompatibility of NiTi Alloy Implants in vivo

Authors: Gul Tosun, Emine Ünsaldi Latif Özler, Nuri Orhan, Ali Said Durmus, Hatice Eröksüz

Abstract:

In this study, the powders of Ni and Ti with 50.5 at.% Ni for 12 h were blended and cold pressed at the different pressures (50, 75 and100 MPa).The porous product obtained after Ni-Ti compacts were synthesized by SHS (self-propagating hightemperature synthesis) in the different preheating temperatures (200, 250 and 300oC) and heating rates (30, 60 and 90oC/min). The effects of the pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were investigated on biocompatibility in vivo. The porosity in the synthesized products was in the range of 50.7–59.7 vol. %. The pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were found to have an important effect on the biocompatibility in-vivo of the synthesized products. Max. fibrotic tissue within the porous implant was found in vivo periods (6 months), in which compacting pressure 100MPa.

Keywords: NiTi, biomaterial, SHS, biocompatibility.

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257 Solid State Drive End to End Reliability Prediction, Characterization and Control

Authors: Mohd Azman Abdul Latif, Erwan Basiron

Abstract:

A flaw or drift from expected operational performance in one component (NAND, PMIC, controller, DRAM, etc.) may affect the reliability of the entire Solid State Drive (SSD) system. Therefore, it is important to ensure the required quality of each individual component through qualification testing specified using standards or user requirements. Qualification testing is time-consuming and comes at a substantial cost for product manufacturers. A highly technical team, from all the eminent stakeholders is embarking on reliability prediction from beginning of new product development, identify critical to reliability parameters, perform full-blown characterization to embed margin into product reliability and establish control to ensure the product reliability is sustainable in the mass production. The paper will discuss a comprehensive development framework, comprehending SSD end to end from design to assembly, in-line inspection, in-line testing and will be able to predict and to validate the product reliability at the early stage of new product development. During the design stage, the SSD will go through intense reliability margin investigation with focus on assembly process attributes, process equipment control, in-process metrology and also comprehending forward looking product roadmap. Once these pillars are completed, the next step is to perform process characterization and build up reliability prediction modeling. Next, for the design validation process, the reliability prediction specifically solder joint simulator will be established. The SSD will be stratified into Non-Operating and Operating tests with focus on solder joint reliability and connectivity/component latent failures by prevention through design intervention and containment through Temperature Cycle Test (TCT). Some of the SSDs will be subjected to the physical solder joint analysis called Dye and Pry (DP) and Cross Section analysis. The result will be feedbacked to the simulation team for any corrective actions required to further improve the design. Once the SSD is validated and is proven working, it will be subjected to implementation of the monitor phase whereby Design for Assembly (DFA) rules will be updated. At this stage, the design change, process and equipment parameters are in control. Predictable product reliability at early product development will enable on-time sample qualification delivery to customer and will optimize product development validation, effective development resource and will avoid forced late investment to bandage the end-of-life product failures. Understanding the critical to reliability parameters earlier will allow focus on increasing the product margin that will increase customer confidence to product reliability.

Keywords: e2e reliability prediction, SSD, TCT, Solder Joint Reliability, NUDD, connectivity issues, qualifications, characterization and control.

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256 Developing Forecasting Tool for Humanitarian Relief Organizations in Emergency Logistics Planning

Authors: Arun Kumar, Yousef L. A. Latif, Fugen Daver

Abstract:

Despite the availability of natural disaster related time series data for last 110 years, there is no forecasting tool available to humanitarian relief organizations to determine forecasts for emergency logistics planning. This study develops a forecasting tool based on identifying probability distributions. The estimates of the parameters are used to calculate natural disaster forecasts. Further, the determination of aggregate forecasts leads to efficient pre-disaster planning. Based on the research findings, the relief agencies can optimize the various resources allocation in emergency logistics planning.

Keywords: Humanitarian logistics, relief agencies, probability distribution.

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