Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 268

Search results for: Diversity

268 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: Diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition.

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267 Comparative Analysis of Diversity and Similarity Indices with Special Relevance to Vegetations around Sewage Drains

Authors: Ekta Singh

Abstract:

Indices summarizing community structure are used to evaluate fundamental community ecology, species interaction, biogeographical factors, and environmental stress. Some of these indices are insensitive to gross community changes induced by contaminants of pollution. Diversity indices and similarity indices are reviewed considering their ecological application, both theoretical and practical. For some useful indices, empirical equations are given to calculate the expected maximum value of the indices to which the observed values can be related at any combination of sample sizes at the experimental sites. This paper examines the effects of sample size and diversity on the expected values of diversity indices and similarity indices, using various formulae. It has been shown that all indices are strongly affected by sample size and diversity. In some indices, this influence is greater than the others and an attempt has been made to deal with these influences.

Keywords: Biogeographical factors, Diversity Indices, Ecology and Similarity Indices

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266 A Novel Transmission Scheme for Reliable Cooperative Communication

Authors: Won-Jun Choi, Seung-Jun Yu, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Cooperative communication scheme can be substituted for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique when it may not be able to support multiple antennas due to size, cost or hardware limitations. In other words, cooperative communication scheme is an efficient method to achieve spatial diversity without multiple antennas. For satisfaction of rising QoS, we propose a reliable cooperative communication scheme with M-QAM based Dual Carrier Modulation (M-DCM), which can increase diversity gain. Although our proposed scheme is very simple method, it gives us frequency and spatial diversity. Simulation result shows our proposed scheme obtains diversity gain more than the conventional cooperative communication scheme.

Keywords: cooperation, diversity, M-DCM, OFDM.

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265 Spatial Analysis of Trees Composition, Diversity and Richnesss in the Built up Areas of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Eludoyin, A. A. Aiyeloja, O. C. Ndife

Abstract:

The study investigated the spatial analysis of trees composition, diversity and richness in the built up area of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Four quadrats of 25m x 25m size were laid randomly in each of the three parks and inventories of trees ≥10cm girth at breast height were taken and used to calculate the species composition, diversity and richness. Results showed that species composition and diversity in Abuja Park was the highest with 134 species and 0.866 respectively while the species richness was highest in Choba Park with a value of 2.496. The correlation between the size of park (spatial coverage) and species composition was 0.99 while the correlation between the size of the park and species diversity was 0.78. There was direct relationship between species composition and diversity while the relationship between species composition and species richness was inversely proportional. Rational use of these resources is encouraged.

Keywords: Built up area, composition, diversity, richness, spatial analysis, urban tree.

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264 Corporate Governance and Gender Diversity in Nigerian Boardrooms

Authors: A. Lincoln, O. Adedoyin

Abstract:

In recent times, corporations are increasingly under pressure to ensure diversity within their boardrooms and a large number of academic research have reported findings consistent with the view that boards perform better when they include a diverse range of people. Women have unique characteristics needed to positively influence the strategic direction of a corporation and contribute to the growth of firms. In spite of such revelations, evidence suggests that women are under-represented in senior executive and board positions. In many parts of Africa, socio-cultural traditions inhibit women from attaining these roles. Given the emphasis placed on board diversity and inclusion of women as an essential part of good corporate governance, the relationship between gender diversity and board effectiveness deserves both theoretical and empirical investigation. This research is important because it represents the first theoretical review on gender diversity in corporate boards in Nigeria.

Keywords: Boards, Corporate Governance, Gender Diversity, Nigeria.

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263 Using Morphological and Microsatellite (SSR) Markers to Assess the Genetic Diversity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

Authors: T. Cholastova, D. Knotova

Abstract:

Utilization of diverse germplasm is needed to enhance the genetic diversity of cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationships of 98 alfalfa germplasm accessions using morphological traits and SSR markers. From the 98 tested populations, 81 were locals originating in Europe, 17 were introduced from USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Three primers generated 67 polymorphic bands. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was very high (> 0.90) over all three used primer combinations. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) and Jaccard´s coefficient grouped the accessions into 2 major clusters with 4 sub-clusters with no correlation between genetic and morphological diversity. The SSR analysis clearly indicated that even with three polymorphic primers, reliable estimation of genetic diversity could be obtained.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Medicago sativa L., morphological traits, SSR markers

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262 A SAW-less Dual-Band CDMA Diversity and Simultaneous-GPS Zero-IF Receiver

Authors: Bassem Fahs, Philippe Barré, Patrick Ozenne, Eric Chartier, Guillaume Hérault, Sébastien Jacquet, Sébastien Clamagirand

Abstract:

We present a dual-band (Cellular & PCS) dual-path zero-IF receiver for CDMA2000 diversity, monitoring and simultaneous-GPS. The secondary path is a SAW-less diversity CDMA receiver which can be also used for advanced features like monitoring when supported with an additional external VCO. A GPS receiver is integrated with its dedicated VCO allowing simultaneous positioning during a cellular call. The circuit is implemented in a 0.25μm 40GHz-fT BiCMOS process and uses a HVQFN 56-pin package. It consumes a maximum 300mW from a 2.8V supply in dual-modes. The chip area is 12.8mm2.

Keywords: CDMA, diversity, GPS, zero-IF, SAW-less

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261 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: Diversity, human-machine-system, human-robot-collaboration, simulation.

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260 Performance Analysis of Multiuser Diversity in Multiuser Two-Hop Decode-and-Forward Cooperative Multi-Relay Wireless Networks

Authors: Mamoun F. Al-Mistarihi, Rami Mohaisen

Abstract:

Cooperative diversity (CD) has been adopted in many communication systems because it helps in improving performance of the wireless communication systems with the help of the relays that emulate the multiple antenna terminals. This work aims to provide the derivation of the performance analysis expressions of the multiuser diversity (MUD) in the two-hop cooperative multi-relay wireless networks (TCMRNs). Considering the work analysis, we provide analytically the derivation of a closed form expression of the two most commonly used performance metrics namely, the outage probability and the symbol error probability (SEP) for the fixed decode-and-forward (FDF) protocol with MUD.

Keywords: Cooperative diversity (CD), fixed decode-andforward(FDF), multiuser diversity (MUD) , two - hop cooperative multi-relay wireless networks (TCMRN).

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259 A Preliminary Study on Factors Determining the Success of High Conservation Value Area in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Rozza Tri Kwatrina

Abstract:

High Conservation Value (HCV) is an area with conservation function within oil palm plantation. Despite the important role of HCV area in biodiversity conservation and various studies on HCV, there was a lack of research studying the factors determining its success. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the determinant factor of HCV that affected the diversity. Line transect method was used to calculate the species diversity of butterfly, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna species as well as their richness. Specifically for mammals, camera traps were also used. The research sites comprised of 12 HCV areas in 3 provinces of Indonesia (Central Kalimantan, Riau, and Palembang). The relationship between the HCV biophysical factor with the species number and species diversity for each wildlife class was identified using Chi-Square analysis with Cross tab (contingency table). Results of the study revealed that species diversity varied by research locations. Four factors determining the success of HCV area in relations to the number and diversity of wildlife species are land cover types for mammals, the width of area and distance to rivers for birds, and distance to settlements for butterflies.

Keywords: Ecological factors, high conservation value area, oil palm plantation, wildlife diversity.

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258 Cluster Algorithm for Genetic Diversity

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Keerat Kaur, Bhavdeep Singh

Abstract:

With the hardware technology advancing, the cost of storing is decreasing. Thus there is an urgent need for new techniques and tools that can intelligently and automatically assist us in transferring this data into useful knowledge. Different techniques of data mining are developed which are helpful for handling these large size databases [7]. Data mining is also finding its role in the field of biotechnology. Pedigree means the associated ancestry of a crop variety. Genetic diversity is the variation in the genetic composition of individuals within or among species. Genetic diversity depends upon the pedigree information of the varieties. Parents at lower hierarchic levels have more weightage for predicting genetic diversity as compared to the upper hierarchic levels. The weightage decreases as the level increases. For crossbreeding, the two varieties should be more and more genetically diverse so as to incorporate the useful characters of the two varieties in the newly developed variety. This paper discusses the searching and analyzing of different possible pairs of varieties selected on the basis of morphological characters, Climatic conditions and Nutrients so as to obtain the most optimal pair that can produce the required crossbreed variety. An algorithm was developed to determine the genetic diversity between the selected wheat varieties. Cluster analysis technique is used for retrieving the results.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, pedigree, nutrients.

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257 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: DFE, diversity gain, hybrid, MIMO, multiplexing gain.

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256 Peak Data Rate Enhancement Using Switched Micro-Macro Diversity in Cellular Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois, Yvette Antar

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of cellular users, a new generation of cellular networks is needed to enhance the required peak data rates. The co-channel interference between neighboring base stations inhibits peak data rate increase. To overcome this interference, multi-cell cooperation known as coordinated multipoint transmission is proposed. Such a solution makes use of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems under two different structures: Micro- and macro-diversity. In this paper, we study the capacity and bit error rate in cellular networks using MIMO technology. We analyse both micro- and macro-diversity schemes and develop a hybrid model that switches between macro- and micro-diversity in the case of hard handoff based on a cut-off range of signal-to-noise ratio values. We conclude that our hybrid switched micro-macro MIMO system outperforms classical MIMO systems at the cost of increased hardware and software complexity.

Keywords: Cooperative multipoint transmission, ergodic capacity, hard handoff, macro-diversity, micro-diversity, multiple-input-multiple-output systems, MIMO, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM.

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255 Coefficient of Parentage for Crop Hybridization

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Basant Raj Singh

Abstract:

Hybridization refers to the crossing breeding of two plants. Coefficient of Parentage (COP) is used by the plant breeders to determine the genetic diversity across various varieties so as to incorporate the useful characters of the two varieties to develop a new crop variety with particular useful characters. Genetic Diversity is the prerequisite for any cultivar development program. Genetic Diversity depends upon the pedigree information of the varieties based on particular levels. Pedigree refers to the parents of a particular variety at various levels. This paper discusses the searching and analyses of different possible pairs of varieties selected on the basis of morphological characters, Climatic conditions and Nutrients so as to obtain the most optimal pair that can produce the required crossbreed variety. An algorithm was developed to determine the coefficient of parentage (COP) between the selected wheat varieties. Dummy values were used wherever actual data was not available.

Keywords: Coefficient of Parentage, Morphological characters, Pedigree, Genetic Diversity.

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254 Effect of Transmission Codes on Hybrid SC/MRC Diversity Reception MQAM system over Rayleigh Fading Channels

Authors: J.S. Ubhi, M.S. Patterh, T.S. Kamal

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of transmission codes on the performance of coherent square M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (CSMQAM) under hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining (H-S/MRC) diversity is analysed. The fading channels are modeled as frequency non-selective slow independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The results for coded MQAM are computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code and compared with uncoded MQAM under H-S/MRC diversity by plotting error probabilities versus average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for various values L and N in order to examine the improvement in the performance of the digital communications system as the number of selected diversity branches is increased. The results for no diversity, conventional SC and Lth order MRC schemes are also plotted for comparison. Closed form analytical results derived in this paper are sufficiently simple and therefore can be computed numerically without any approximations. The analytical results presented in this paper are expected to provide useful information needed for design and analysis of digital communication systems over wireless fading channels.

Keywords: Error probability, diversity reception, Rayleigh fading channels, wireless digital communications.

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253 Dual-Polarized Multi-Antenna System for Massive MIMO Cellular Communications

Authors: Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Peter S. Excell

Abstract:

In this paper, a multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) antenna design with polarization and radiation pattern diversity is presented for future smartphones. The configuration of the design consists of four double-fed circular-ring antenna elements located at different edges of the printed circuit board (PCB) with an FR-4 substrate and overall dimension of 75×150 mm2. The antenna elements are fed by 50-Ohm microstrip-lines and provide polarization and radiation pattern diversity function due to the orthogonal placement of their feed lines. A good impedance bandwidth (S11 ≤ -10 dB) of 3.4-3.8 GHz has been obtained for the smartphone antenna array. However, for S11 ≤ -6 dB, this value is 3.25-3.95 GHz. More than 3 dB realized gain and 80% total efficiency are achieved for the single-element radiator. The presented design not only provides the required radiation coverage but also generates the polarization diversity characteristic.

Keywords: Cellular communications, MIMO systems, mobile-phone antenna, polarization diversity.

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252 Optimal Power Allocation to Diversity Branches of Cooperative MISO Sensor Networks

Authors: Rooholah Hasanizadeh, Saadan Zokaei

Abstract:

In the context of sensor networks, where every few dB saving counts, the novel node cooperation schemes are reviewed where MIMO techniques play a leading role. These methods could be treated as joint approach for designing physical layer of their communication scenarios. Then we analyzed the BER performance of transmission diversity schemes under a general fading channel model and proposed a power allocation strategy to the transmitting sensor nodes. This approach is then compared to an equal-power assignment method and its performance enhancement is verified by the simulation. Another key point of the contribution lies in the combination of optimal power allocation and sensor nodes- cooperation in a transmission diversity regime (MISO). Numerical results are given through figures to demonstrate the optimality and efficiency of proposed combined approach.

Keywords: Optimal power allocation, cooperative MISO scheme, sensor networks, diversity branch.

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251 Does Bio-Demographic Diversity Influence Team Innovation through Participation Safety Climate and Team Reflexivity?

Authors: Maznah Abdullah, Mohammed Quaddus

Abstract:

Bio-demographic diversity which refers to age and gender of members in a team, has been frequently identified to influence team innovation directly. As the theories expanded, biodemographic diversity was suggested to influence team innovation via psychosocial trait and interaction process. This study examines those suggestions, in which psychosocial trait and interaction process were operationalized as 'participation safety climate' and 'team reflexivity' respectively. The role of team reflexivity as a mediator to participation safety climate and team innovation was also assessed. Due to a small number of teams involved in the study, data were analyzed by using a PLS-graph. While the results show only gender is significantly related to the participation safety climate, which in turn influences team reflexivity and team innovation, there is no statistical evidence that team reflexivity mediates the impact of participation safety climate on team innovation.

Keywords: Bio-demographic diversity, participation safetyclimate, team innovation, team reflexivity

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250 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM System with Cyclic Delay Diversity

Authors: Won-Jae Shin, Young-Hwan You

Abstract:

Cyclic delay diversity (CDD) is a simple technique to intentionally increase frequency selectivity of channels for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).This paper proposes a residual carrier frequency offset (RFO) estimation scheme for OFDMbased broadcasting system using CDD. In order to improve the RFO estimation, this paper addresses a decision scheme of the amount of cyclic delay and pilot pattern used to estimate the RFO. By computer simulation, the proposed estimator is shown to benefit form propoerly chosen delay parameter and perform robustly.

Keywords: OFDM, cyclic delay diversity, FM system, synchronization

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249 Cohabiting in Multiethnic Community: Forms, Representations and Images of the Diversity

Authors: Gioacchino Lavanco, Cinzia Novara, Floriana Romano, Elisabetta Di Giovanni

Abstract:

Modern culture, based on disinhibition of cultural trends and on heterodirection, is promoting openmindedness attitudes towards ethnic diversity, but on the other hand also new forms of social representations of the foreigner. Social representation is situated between the psychic field and the social one; it is the representation of oneself and of the other one, hanging between social categories and individual inner world. We will produce the results of a research on the representation of the foreigner, built on the type of prejudice prevailing among middle-low or middle-high educational qualification subjects, in which prejudicial attitudes seem to descend from precise mental images of the foreigner.

Keywords: Community, diversity, integration, prejudice, representations.

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248 Cooperative CDD Scheme Based On Adaptive Modulation in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Hwan-Jun Choi, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Among spatial diversity scheme, orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) and cyclic delay diversity (CDD) have been widely studied for the cooperative wireless relaying system. However, conventional OSTBC and CDD cannot cope with change in the number of relays owing to low throughput or error performance. In this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme that use hierarchical modulation at the source and adaptive modulation based on cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code at the relays.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation, Cooperative communication, CDD, OSTBC.

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247 Investigation of Roll off Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on Maximal Ratio Combining for CDMA 2000 System

Authors: G. S. Walia, H. P. Singh, Padma D.

Abstract:

The integration of wide variety of communication services is made possible with invention of 3G technology. Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps (1x or 3x systems). It is a 3G system which offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but its efficiency is lowered due to various factors like fading, interference, scattering, absorption etc. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), roll off factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes. It is possible to transmit data with minimum Inter symbol Interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the roll off factor for BPSK and QPSK. Roll off factor reduces the ISI and diversity reduces the Fading.

Keywords: CDMA2000, Diversity, Root Raised Cosine, Roll off factor.

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246 Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis Method to Assess Rumen Microbial Diversity of Ruminant

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa, N. Purnomo, A. R. Egan, B. J. Leury

Abstract:

Rumen degradation characteristic of feedstuff is one of the prominent factors affecting microbial population in rumen of animal. High rumen degradation rate of faba bean protein may lead to inconstant rumen conditions that could have a prominent impact on rumen microbial diversity. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) is utilized to monitor diversity of rumen microbes on sheep fed low quality forage supplemented by faba beans. Four mature merino sheep with existing rumen cannula were used in this study according to 4 x 4 Latin square design. The results of study indicated that there were 37 different ARDRA types identified out of 136 clones examined. Among those clones, five main clone types existed across the treatments with different percentages. In conclusion, the ARDRA method is potential to be used as a routine tool to assess the temporary changes in the rumen community as a result of different feeding strategies.

Keywords: ARDRA method, clones, microbial diversity, ribotypes, ruminants.

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245 The Estimation of Bird Diversity Loss and Gain as an Impact of Oil Palm Plantation: Study Case in KJNP Estate Riau Province

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Catharina Yudea

Abstract:

The rapid growth of oil palm industry in Indonesia raised many negative accusations from various parties, who said that oil palm plantation is damaging the environment and biodiversity, including birds. Since research on oil palm plantation impacts on bird diversity is still limited, this study needs to be developed in order to gain further learning and understanding. Data on bird diversity were collected in March 2018 in KJNP Estate, Riau Province using strip transect method on five different land cover types (young, intermediate, and old growth of oil palm plantation, high conservation value area, and crops field or the baseline). The observations were conducted simultaneously, with three repetitions. The result shows that the baseline has 19 species of birds and land cover after the oil palm plantation has 39 species. HCV (high conservation value) area has the highest increase in diversity value. Oil palm plantation has changed the composition of bird species. The highest similarity index is shown by young growth oil palm land cover with total score 0.65, meanwhile the lowest similarity index with total score 0.43 is shown by HCV area. Overall, the existence of oil palm plantation made a positive impact by increasing bird species diversity, with total 23 species gained and 3 species lost.

Keywords: Bird diversity, crops field, impact of oil palm plantation, KJNP estate.

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244 RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean

Authors: M. Vivodík, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.

Keywords: Dendrogram, polymorphism, RAPD technique, Ricinus communis L.

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243 A Cooperative Transmission Scheme Using Two Sources Based On OFDM System

Authors: Bit-Na Kwon, Dong-Hyun Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In wireless communication, space-time block code (STBC), cyclic delay diversity (CDD) and space-time cyclic delay diversity (STCDD)are used as the spatial diversity schemes and have been widely studied for the reliablecommunication. If these schemes are used, the communication system can obtain the improved performance. However,the quality of the system is degraded when the distance between a source and a destination is distant in wireless communication system. In this paper, the cooperative transmission scheme using two sources is proposed and improves the performance of the wireless communication system.

Keywords: OFDM, Cooperative communication, CDD, STBC, STCDD.

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242 Cooperative CDD Scheme Based on Hierarchical Modulation in OFDM System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In order to achieve high data rate and increase the spectral efficiency, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system has been proposed. However, multiple antennas are limited by size and cost. Therefore, recently developed cooperative diversity scheme, which profits the transmit diversity only with the existing hardware by constituting a virtual antenna array, can be a solution. However, most of the introduced cooperative techniques have a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme that use hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.

Keywords: MIMO, Cooperative communication, CDD, Hierarchical modulation.

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241 Efficiency of Floristic and Molecular Markers to Determine Diversity in Iranian Populations of T. boeoticum

Authors: M. R. Naghavi, M. Maleki, S. F. Tabatabaei

Abstract:

In order to study floristic and molecular classification of common wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.), an analysis was conducted on populations of the Triticum boeoticum collected from different regions of Iran. Considering all floristic compositions of habitats, six floristic groups (syntaxa) within the populations were identified. A high level of variation of T. boeoticum also detected using SSR markers. Our results showed that molecular method confirmed the grouping of floristic method. In other word, the results from our study indicate that floristic classification are still useful, efficient, and economic tools for characterizing the amount and distribution of genetic variation in natural populations of T. boeoticum. Nevertheless, molecular markers appear as useful and complementary techniques for identification and for evaluation of genetic diversity in studied populations.

Keywords: T. boeoticum, diversity, floristic, SSRs.

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240 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Majid Rezayi, Rosli Hashim, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: Benthic invertebrates, Diversity, Malaysia, West Port.

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239 Increasing the Efficiency of Rake Receivers for Ultra-Wideband Applications

Authors: Aimilia P. Doukeli, Athanasios S. Lioumpas, George K. Karagiannidis, Panayiotis V. Frangos, P. Takis Mathiopoulos

Abstract:

In diversity rich environments, such as in Ultra- Wideband (UWB) applications, the a priori determination of the number of strong diversity branches is difficult, because of the considerably large number of diversity paths, which are characterized by a variety of power delay profiles (PDPs). Several Rake implementations have been proposed in the past, in order to reduce the number of the estimated and combined paths. To this aim, we introduce two adaptive Rake receivers, which combine a subset of the resolvable paths considering simultaneously the quality of both the total combining output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the individual SNR of each path. These schemes achieve better adaptation to channel conditions compared to other known receivers, without further increasing the complexity. Their performance is evaluated in different practical UWB channels, whose models are based on extensive propagation measurements. The proposed receivers compromise between the power consumption, complexity and performance gain for the additional paths, resulting in important savings in power and computational resources.

Keywords: Adaptive Rake receivers, diversity techniques, fading channels, UWB channel.

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