@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10004302,
	  title     = {Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications},
	  author    = {A. Fakhri Makram and  Marwa S. Alwazni and  Al-Douri Yarub and  Evan T. Salim and  Hashim Uda and  Chin C. Woei },
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.
},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering},
	  volume    = {10},
	  number    = {5},
	  year      = {2016},
	  pages     = {519 - 524},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10004302},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/113},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 113, 2016},
	}