**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2451

# Search results for: quantum gravity model

##### 2451 Exploring Solutions in Extended Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

**Authors:**
Aziza Altaibayeva,
Ertan Gudekli,
Ratbay Myrzakulov

**Abstract:**

In this letter, we explore exact solutions for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We use of an extension of this theory with first order dynamical lapse function. The equations of motion have been derived in a fully consistent scenario. We assume that there are some spherically symmetric families of exact solutions of this extended theory of gravity. We obtain exact solutions and investigate the singularity structures of these solutions. Specially, an exact solution with the regular horizon is found.

**Keywords:**
Quantum gravity,
Horava-Lifshitz gravity,
black hole,
spherically symmetric space times.

##### 2450 The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data

**Authors:**
M. Yilmaz,
I. Yilmaz,
M. Uysal

**Abstract:**

The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.

**Keywords:**
Free-air gravity anomaly,
Bouguer gravity anomaly,
global model,
land gravity.

##### 2449 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

**Authors:**
A. Abdikian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
The linear quantum hydrodynamic model,
the magnetized quantum breathing mode,
the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode,
void structure.

##### 2448 A Computer Model of Quantum Field Theory

**Authors:**
Hans H. Diel

**Abstract:**

This paper describes a computer model of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), referred to in this paper as QTModel. After specifying the initial configuration for a QFT process (e.g. scattering) the model generates the possible applicable processes in terms of Feynman diagrams, the equations for the scattering matrix, and evaluates probability amplitudes for the scattering matrix and cross sections. The computations of probability amplitudes are performed numerically. The equations generated by QTModel are provided for demonstration purposes only. They are not directly used as the base for the computations of probability amplitudes. The computer model supports two modes for the computation of the probability amplitudes: (1) computation according to standard QFT, and (2) computation according to a proposed functional interpretation of quantum theory.

**Keywords:**
Computational Modeling,
Simulation of Quantum Theory,
Quantum Field Theory,
Quantum Electrodynamics

##### 2447 Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

**Authors:**
Jing-Gang Xie

**Abstract:**

The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

**Keywords:**
General relativity theory,
particles,
photons,
quantum gravity model,
gravitational frequency shift.

##### 2446 A Programmer’s Survey of the Quantum Computing Paradigm

**Authors:**
Philippe Jorrand

**Abstract:**

Research in quantum computation is looking for the consequences of having information encoding, processing and communication exploit the laws of quantum physics, i.e. the laws which govern the ultimate knowledge that we have, today, of the foreign world of elementary particles, as described by quantum mechanics. This paper starts with a short survey of the principles which underlie quantum computing, and of some of the major breakthroughs brought by the first ten to fifteen years of research in this domain; quantum algorithms and quantum teleportation are very biefly presented. The next sections are devoted to one among the many directions of current research in the quantum computation paradigm, namely quantum programming languages and their semantics. A few other hot topics and open problems in quantum information processing and communication are mentionned in few words in the concluding remarks, the most difficult of them being the physical implementation of a quantum computer. The interested reader will find a list of useful references at the end of the paper.

**Keywords:**
Quantum information processing,
quantum algorithms,
quantum programming languages.

##### 2445 Investigation of Buoyant Parameters of k-ε Turbulence Model in Gravity Stratified Flows

**Authors:**
A. Majid Bahari,
Kourosh Hejazi

**Abstract:**

Different variants for buoyancy-affected terms in k-ε turbulence model have been utilized to predict the flow parameters more accurately, and investigate applicability of alternative k-ε turbulence buoyant closures in numerical simulation of a horizontal gravity current. The additional non-isotropic turbulent stress due to buoyancy has been considered in production term, based on Algebraic Stress Model (ASM). In order to account for turbulent scalar fluxes, general gradient diffusion hypothesis has been used along with Boussinesq gradient diffusion hypothesis with a variable turbulent Schmidt number and additional empirical constant c3ε.To simulate buoyant flow domain a 2D vertical numerical model (WISE, Width Integrated Stratified Environments), based on Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, has been deployed and the model has been further developed for different k-ε turbulence closures. Results are compared against measured laboratory values of a saline gravity current to explore the efficient turbulence model.

**Keywords:**
Buoyant flows,
Buoyant k-ε turbulence model,
saline gravity current.

##### 2444 Numerical Calculation of the Ionization Energy of Donors in a Cubic Quantum well and Wire

**Authors:**
Sara Sedaghat,
Mahmood Barati,
Iraj Kazeminezhad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
quantum well,
quantum wire,
quantum dot,
impuritystate

##### 2443 An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices

**Authors:**
Natarajan Venkatachalam,
Subrahmanya V. R. K. Rao,
Vijay Karthikeyan Dhandapani,
Swaminathan Saravanavel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum cryptography,
quantum key distribution,
wireless quantum communication,
authentication protocol,
quantum
enabled device,
trusted third party.

##### 2442 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

**Authors:**
Danni Cong,
Meiping Wu,
Hua Mu,
Xiaofeng He,
Junxiang Lian,
Juliang Cao,
Shaokun Cai,
Hao Qin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravity gradient,
accelerometer,
gravity gradient sensor,
single-axis rotation modulation.

##### 2441 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Parthasona Maji,
Basudev Ghosh

**Abstract:**

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

**Keywords:**
Harmonic Generation,
Quantum Plasma,
Quantum Hydrodynamic Model,
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Surface waves.

##### 2440 Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in an Electron-Hole Bounded Quantum Dusty Plasma

**Authors:**
Basudev Ghosh,
Sailendranath Paul,
Sreyasi Banerjee

**Abstract:**

Using quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) model the linear dispersion relation for the electron plasma waves propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with a dense plasma containing streaming electron, hole and stationary charged dust particles has been derived. It is shown that the effect of finite boundary and stream velocity of electrons and holes make some of the possible modes of propagation linearly unstable. The growth rate of this instability is shown to depend significantly on different plasma parameters.

**Keywords:**
Electron Plasma wave,
Quantum plasma,
Quantum Hydrodynamical model.

##### 2439 Comparisons of Co-Seismic Gravity Changes between GRACE Observations and the Predictions from the Finite-Fault Models for the 2012 Mw = 8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake Off-Sumatra

**Authors:**
Armin Rahimi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Undersea earthquake,
GRACE observation,
gravity change,
dislocation model,
slip distribution.

##### 2438 Problems and Possible Solutions with the Development of a Computer Model of Quantum Theory

**Authors:**
Hans H. Diel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Computability,
Foundation of Quantum Mechanics,
Measurement Process,
Modeling.

##### 2437 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Sibarjun Das,
Agniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh,
Apratim Jash

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation,
Ion-acoustic
Waves,
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Quantum Plasma,
Quantum
Hydrodynamic Model.

##### 2436 A Post Processing Method for Quantum Prime Factorization Algorithm based on Randomized Approach

**Authors:**
Mir Shahriar Emami,
Mohammad Reza Meybodi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum Prime Factorization,
RandomizedAlgorithms,
Quantum Computer Simulation,
Quantum Computation.

##### 2435 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

**Authors:**
Georgi Bebrov,
Rozalina Dimova

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quantum cryptography,
quantum secure
communcation,
quantum secure direct communcation security,
quantum secure direct communcation efficiency,
quantum secure
direct communcation practicality.

##### 2434 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits

**Authors:**
T. B. Karu Jayasundara

**Abstract:**

Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices. The ** Wilfley** heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was

*6*

*and 2*

^{0}*respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.*

^{0}**Keywords:**
Anomaly,
gravity,
influence,
mineral.

##### 2433 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots

**Authors:**
H. Paredes Gutiérrez,
S. T. Pérez-Merchancano

**Abstract:**

Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.

**Keywords:**
Quantum semiconductors,
nanostructures,
quantum dots,
spin polarization.

##### 2432 1/f Noise in Quantum-Size Heteronanostructures Based On GaAs and Alloys

**Authors:**
Alexey V. Klyuev,
Arkady. V. Yakimov

**Abstract:**

The 1/f noise investigation in nanoscale light-emitting diodes and lasers, based on GaAs and alloys, is presented here. Leakage and additional (to recombination through quantum wells and/or dots) nonlinear currents were detected and it was shown that these currents are the main source of the 1/f noise in devices studied.

**Keywords:**
Lasers,
light-emitting diodes,
quantum dots,
quantum wells,
1/f noise.

##### 2431 A method of Authentication for Quantum Networks

**Authors:**
Stefan Rass

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Meet-in-the-middle attack,
quantum key distribution,
quantum networks,
unconditionally secure authentication.

##### 2430 Conformal Invariance in F (R, T) Gravity

**Authors:**
Pyotr Tsyba,
Olga Razina,
Ertan Güdekli,
Ratbay Myrzakulov

**Abstract:**

In this paper we consider the equation of motion for the F (R, T) gravity on their property of conformal invariance. It is shown that in the general case, such a theory is not conformal invariant. Studied special cases for the functions v and u in which can appear properties of the theory. Also we consider cosmological aspects F (R, T) theory of gravity, having considered particular case F (R, T) = μR+νT^2. Showed that in this case there is a nonlinear dependence of the parameter equation of state from time to time, which affects its evolution.

**Keywords:**
Conformally invariance,
F (R,
T) gravity,
metric
FRW,
equation of motion,
dark energy.

##### 2429 The Influence of Gravity on The Temporal Instability of Viscoelastic Liquid Curved Jets

**Authors:**
Abdullah Madhi Alsharif,
Jamal Uddin

**Abstract:**

A liquid curved jet has many applications in different industrial and engineering processes, such as the prilling process for generating small spherical pellets (fertilizer or magnesium). The liquids used are usually molten and contain small quantities of polymers and therefore can be modelled as non-Newtonian liquids. In this paper, we model the viscoelastic liquid jet by using the Oldroyd- B model. An asymptotic analysis has been used to simplify the governing equations. Furthermore, the trajectory and a linear temporal stability in the presence of gravity and rotation have been determined.

**Keywords:**
gravity,
prilling,
rotation,
viscoelastic jets.

##### 2428 Entanglement-based Quantum Computing by Diagrams of States

**Authors:**
Sara Felloni,
Giuliano Strini

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Diagrams of states,
entanglement,
quantum circuits,
quantum information.

##### 2427 Unconditionally Secure Quantum Payment System

**Authors:**
Essam Al-Daoud

**Abstract:**

A potentially serious problem with current payment systems is that their underlying hard problems from number theory may be solved by either a quantum computer or unanticipated future advances in algorithms and hardware. A new quantum payment system is proposed in this paper. The suggested system makes use of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to ensure the unconditional security without prior arrangements between customers and vendors. More specifically, the new system uses Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and Quantum Key Distribution to authenticate the vendors and guarantee the transaction integrity.

**Keywords:**
Bell state,
GHZ state,
Quantum key distribution,
Quantum payment system.

##### 2426 Effect of Concrete Nonlinear Parameters on the Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

**Authors:**
Z. Heirany,
M. Ghaemian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Numerical methods; concrete gravity dams; finiteelement method; boundary condition

##### 2425 Hardware Centric Machine Vision for High Precision Center of Gravity Calculation

**Authors:**
Xin Cheng,
Benny Thörnberg,
Abdul Waheed Malik,
Najeem Lawal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dynamic thresholding,
segmentation,
position measurement,
sub-pixel precision,
center of gravity.

##### 2424 Probe of Crack Initiate at the Toe of Concrete Gravity Dam using Numerical Analysis

**Authors:**
M. S. Salimi,
H. Kiamanesh,
N. Hedayat

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Stress intensity factor,
concrete gravity dam,
numerical analysis,
geometry of toe.

##### 2423 Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing

**Authors:**
Jyoti Chaturvedi Gursaran

**Abstract:**

Nature conducts its action in a very private manner. To reveal these actions classical science has done a great effort. But classical science can experiment only with the things that can be seen with eyes. Beyond the scope of classical science quantum science works very well. It is based on some postulates like qubit, superposition of two states, entanglement, measurement and evolution of states that are briefly described in the present paper. One of the applications of quantum computing i.e. implementation of a novel quantum evolutionary algorithm(QEA) to automate the time tabling problem of Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) is also presented in this paper. Making a good timetable is a scheduling problem. It is NP-hard, multi-constrained, complex and a combinatorial optimization problem. The solution of this problem cannot be obtained in polynomial time. The QEA uses genetic operators on the Q-bit as well as updating operator of quantum gate which is introduced as a variation operator to converge toward better solutions.

**Keywords:**
Quantum computing,
qubit,
superposition,
entanglement,
measurement of states,
evolution of states,
Scheduling
problem,
hard and soft constraints,
evolutionary algorithm,
quantum
evolutionary algorithm.

##### 2422 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

**Authors:**
N. H. Ismail,
A. A. A. Nassar,
K. H. Baz

**Abstract:**

Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

**Keywords:**
Quantum Dots,
Nano-Particles,
LSPR.