Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 362

Search results for: Buoyant flows

362 Investigation of Buoyant Parameters of k-ε Turbulence Model in Gravity Stratified Flows

Authors: A. Majid Bahari, Kourosh Hejazi

Abstract:

Different variants for buoyancy-affected terms in k-ε turbulence model have been utilized to predict the flow parameters more accurately, and investigate applicability of alternative k-ε turbulence buoyant closures in numerical simulation of a horizontal gravity current. The additional non-isotropic turbulent stress due to buoyancy has been considered in production term, based on Algebraic Stress Model (ASM). In order to account for turbulent scalar fluxes, general gradient diffusion hypothesis has been used along with Boussinesq gradient diffusion hypothesis with a variable turbulent Schmidt number and additional empirical constant c3ε.To simulate buoyant flow domain a 2D vertical numerical model (WISE, Width Integrated Stratified Environments), based on Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, has been deployed and the model has been further developed for different k-ε turbulence closures. Results are compared against measured laboratory values of a saline gravity current to explore the efficient turbulence model.

Keywords: Buoyant flows, Buoyant k-ε turbulence model, saline gravity current.

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361 Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.

Keywords: Open jet testing, aerodynamics, hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles, airships.

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360 Mathieu Stability of Offshore Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, P. A. Kiran

Abstract:

Increasing demand for large-sized Floating, Storage and Regasification Units (FSRUs) for oil and gas industries led to the development of novel geometric form of Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform (BLSRP). BLSRP consists of a circular deck supported by six buoyant legs placed symmetrically with respect to wave direction. Circular deck is connected to buoyant legs using hinged joints, which restrain transfer of rotational response from the legs to deck and vice-versa. Buoyant legs are connected to seabed using taut moored system with high initial pretension, enabling rigid body motion in vertical plane. Encountered environmental loads induce dynamic tether tension variations, which in turn affect stability of the platform. The present study investigates Mathieu stability of BLSRP under the postulated tether pullout cases by inducing additional tension in the tethers. From the numerical studies carried out, it is seen that postulated tether pullout on any one of the buoyant legs does not result in Mathieu type instability even under excessive tether tension. This is due to the presence of hinged joints, which are capable of dissipating the unbalanced loads to other legs. However, under tether pullout of consecutive buoyant legs, Mathieu-type instability is observed.

Keywords: Offshore platforms, stability, postulated failure, dynamic tether tension.

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359 Analysis and Design of Offshore Triceratops under Ultra-Deep Waters

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, R. Nagavinothini

Abstract:

Offshore platforms for ultra-deep waters are form-dominant by design; hybrid systems with large flexibility in horizontal plane and high rigidity in vertical plane are preferred due to functional complexities. Offshore triceratops is relatively a new-generation offshore platform, whose deck is partially isolated from the supporting buoyant legs by ball joints. They allow transfer of partial displacements of buoyant legs to the deck but restrain transfer of rotational response. Buoyant legs are in turn taut-moored to the sea bed using pre-tension tethers. Present study will discuss detailed dynamic analysis and preliminary design of the chosen geometric, which is necessary as a proof of validation for such design applications. A detailed numeric analysis of triceratops at 2400 m water depth under random waves is presented. Preliminary design confirms member-level design requirements under various modes of failure. Tether configuration, proposed in the study confirms no pull-out of tethers as stress variation is comparatively lesser than the yield value. Presented study shall aid offshore engineers and contractors to understand suitability of triceratops, in terms of design and dynamic response behaviour.

Keywords: Buoyant legs, dynamic analysis, offshore structures, preliminary design, random waves, triceratops.

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358 The Ethics of Instream Flows: Science and Policy in Southern Alberta, Canada

Authors: Jeremy J. Schmidt

Abstract:

Securing instream flows for aquatic ecosystems is critical for sustainable water management and the promotion of human and environmental health. Using a case study from the semiarid region of southern Alberta (Canada) this paper considers how the determination of instream flow standards requires judgments with respect to: (1) The relationship between instream flow indicators and assessments of overall environmental health; (2) The indicators used to determine adequate instream flows, and; (3) The assumptions underlying efforts to model instream flows given data constraints. It argues that judgments in each of these areas have an inherently ethical component because instream flows have direct effects on the water(s) available to meet obligations to humans and non-humans. The conclusion expands from the case study to generic issues regarding instream flows, the growing water ethics literature and prospects for linking science to policy.

Keywords: ethics, instream flows, policy, science, watermanagement

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357 Numerical Analysis on Triceratops Restraining System: Failure Conditions of Tethers

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Manda Hari Venkata Ramachandra Rao

Abstract:

Increase in the oil and gas exploration in ultra deep-water demands an adaptive structural form of the platform. Triceratops has superior motion characteristics compared to that of the Tension Leg Platform and Single Point Anchor Reservoir platforms, which is well established in the literature. Buoyant legs that support the deck are position-restrained to the sea bed using tethers with high axial pretension. Environmental forces that act on the platform induce dynamic tension variations in the tethers, causing the failure of tethers. The present study investigates the dynamic response behavior of the restraining system of the platform under the failure of a single tether of each buoyant leg in high sea states. Using the rain-flow counting algorithm and the Goodman diagram, fatigue damage caused to the tethers is estimated, and the fatigue life is predicted. Results shows that under failure conditions, the fatigue life of the remaining tethers is quite alarmingly low.

Keywords: Fatigue life, Failure analysis, PM spectrum, rain flow counting, triceratops.

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356 Linear Instability of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis of wake-shear layers in twophase shallow flows is performed in the present paper. Twodimensional shallow water equations are used in the analysis. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. The stability calculations are performed for different values of the particle loading parameter and two other parameters which characterize the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. The results show that the particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow while the increase in the velocity ratio or in the velocity deficit destabilizes the flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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355 Linear Stability Characteristics of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability of wake-shear layers in two-phase shallow flows is analyzed in the present paper. Stability analysis is based on two-dimensional shallow water equations. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. Linear stability curves are obtained for different values of the particle loading parameter, the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. It is shown that the increase in the velocity ratio destabilizes the flow. The particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow. The role of the velocity deficit is also destabilizing: the increase of the velocity deficit leads to less stable flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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354 Numerical Analysis of Oil-Water Transport in Horizontal Pipes Using 1D Transient Mathematical Model of Thermal Two-Phase Flows

Authors: Evgeniy Burlutskiy

Abstract:

The paper presents a one-dimensional transient mathematical model of thermal oil-water two-phase emulsion flows in pipes. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations for the continuous fluid and droplet phases are solved. Two friction correlations for the continuous fluid phase to wall friction are accounted for in the model and tested. The aerodynamic drag force between the continuous fluid phase and droplets is modeled, too. The density and viscosity of both phases are assumed to be constant due to adiabatic experimental conditions. The proposed mathematical model is validated on the experimental measurements of oil-water emulsion flows in horizontal pipe [1,2]. Numerical analysis on single- and two-phase oil-water flows in a pipe is presented in the paper. The continuous oil flow having water droplets is simulated. Predictions, which are performed by using the presented model, show excellent agreement with the experimental data if the water fraction is equal or less than 10%. Disagreement between simulations and measurements is increased if the water fraction is larger than 10%.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Oil-Water, Pipe flows.

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353 The Boundary Theory between Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Authors: Tomasz M. Jankowski

Abstract:

The basis of this paper is the assumption, that graviton is a measurable entity of molecular gravitational acceleration and this is not a hypothetical entity. The adoption of this assumption as an axiom is tantamount to fully opening the previously locked door to the boundary theory between laminar and turbulent flows. It leads to the theorem, that the division of flows of Newtonian (viscous) fluids into laminar and turbulent is true only, if the fluid is influenced by a powerful, external force field. The mathematical interpretation of this theorem, presented in this paper shows, that the boundary between laminar and turbulent flow can be determined theoretically. This is a novelty, because thus far the said boundary was determined empirically only and the reasons for its existence were unknown.

Keywords: Freed gravitons, free gravitons.

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352 Ginzburg-Landau Model : an Amplitude Evolution Equation for Shallow Wake Flows

Authors: Imad Chaddad, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

Linear and weakly nonlinear analysis of shallow wake flows is presented in the present paper. The evolution of the most unstable linear mode is described by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). The coefficients of the CGLE are calculated numerically from the solution of the corresponding linear stability problem for a one-parametric family of shallow wake flows. It is shown that the coefficients of the CGLE are not so sensitive to the variation of the base flow profile.

Keywords: Ginzburg-Landau equation, shallow wake flow, weakly nonlinear theory.

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351 Half Model Testing for Canard of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S. Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing need to be taken into account in any design work related to the component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50 m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements provide valuable but limited information of overall aerodynamic behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at zero angle of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool, plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and except the value of zero lift coefficients, the overall trend has under predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained from the panel method.

Keywords: Wind tunnel testing, boundary layer displacement, lift curve slope, canard, aerodynamics.

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350 A New Scheduling Algorithm Based on Traffic Classification Using Imprecise Computation

Authors: Farzad Abtahi, Sahar Khanmohamadi, Bahram Sadeghi Bigham

Abstract:

Wireless channels are characterized by more serious bursty and location-dependent errors. Many packet scheduling algorithms have been proposed for wireless networks to guarantee fairness and delay bounds. However, most existing schemes do not consider the difference of traffic natures among packet flows. This will cause the delay-weight coupling problem. In particular, serious queuing delays may be incurred for real-time flows. In this paper, it is proposed a scheduling algorithm that takes traffic types of flows into consideration when scheduling packets and also it is provided scheduling flexibility by trading off video quality to meet the playback deadline.

Keywords: Data communication, Real-time, Scheduling, Video transport.

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349 Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Heat Transfer in Wavy Channel Flows

Authors: H.Y. Lai, S. C. Chang, W. L. Chen

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods are applied to investigate the turbulent convective heat transfer in the wavy channel flows. In this study, the turbulent phenomena are modeling by large-eddy simulations with the Smagorinsky model. As a benchmark, the laminar and turbulent backward-facing step flows are simulated first. The results give good agreement with other numerical and experimental data. For wavy channel flows, the distribution of Nusselt number and the skin-friction coefficients are calculated to evaluate the heat transfer effect and the drag force. It indicates that the vortices at the trough would affect the magnitude of drag and weaken the heat convection effects on the wavy surface. In turbulent cases, if the amplitude of the wavy boundary is large enough, the secondary vortices would be generated at troughs and contribute to the heat convection. Finally, the effects of different Re on the turbulent transport phenomena are discussed.

Keywords: Heat transfer, lattice Boltzmann method, turbulence, wavy channel.

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348 Optimizing Network Latency with Fast Path Assignment for Incoming Flows

Authors: Qing Lyu, Hang Zhu

Abstract:

Various flows in the network require to go through different types of middlebox. The improper placement of network middlebox and path assignment for flows could greatly increase the network latency and also decrease the performance of network. Minimizing the total end to end latency of all the ows requires to assign path for the incoming flows. In this paper, the flow path assignment problem in regard to the placement of various kinds of middlebox is studied. The flow path assignment problem is formulated to a linear programming problem, which is very time consuming. On the other hand, a naive greedy algorithm is studied. Which is very fast but causes much more latency than the linear programming algorithm. At last, the paper presents a heuristic algorithm named FPA, which takes bottleneck link information and estimated bandwidth occupancy into consideration, and achieves near optimal latency in much less time. Evaluation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Latency, Fast path assignment, Bottleneck link.

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347 A Utilitarian Approach to Modeling Information Flows in Social Networks

Authors: Usha Sridhar, Sridhar Mandyam

Abstract:

We propose a multi-agent based utilitarian approach to model and understand information flows in social networks that lead to Pareto optimal informational exchanges. We model the individual expected utility function of the agents to reflect the net value of information received. We show how this model, adapted from a theorem by Karl Borch dealing with an actuarial Risk Exchange concept in the Insurance industry, can be used for social network analysis. We develop a utilitarian framework that allows us to interpret Pareto optimal exchanges of value as potential information flows, while achieving a maximization of a sum of expected utilities of information of the group of agents. We examine some interesting conditions on the utility function under which the flows are optimal. We illustrate the promise of this new approach to attach economic value to information in networks with a synthetic example.

Keywords: Borch's Theorem , Economic value of information, Information Exchange, Pareto Optimal Solution, Social Networks, Utility Functions

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346 On Asymptotic Laws and Transfer Processes Enhancement in Complex Turbulent Flows

Authors: A. Gorin

Abstract:

The lecture represents significant advances in understanding of the transfer processes mechanism in turbulent separated flows. Based upon experimental data suggesting the governing role of generated local pressure gradient that takes place in the immediate vicinity of the wall in separated flow as a result of intense instantaneous accelerations induced by large-scale vortex flow structures similarity laws for mean velocity and temperature and spectral characteristics and heat and mass transfer law for turbulent separated flows have been developed. These laws are confirmed by available experimental data. The results obtained were employed for analysis of heat and mass transfer in some very complex processes occurring in technological applications such as impinging jets, heat transfer of cylinders in cross flow and in tube banks, packed beds where processes manifest distinct properties which allow them to be classified under turbulent separated flows. Many facts have got an explanation for the first time.

Keywords: impinging jets, packed beds, turbulent separatedflows, 'two-thirds power law'

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345 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Structures of Oscillating Pipe Flows

Authors: Yan Su, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Abstract:

The RANS method with Saffman-s turbulence model was employed to solve the time-dependent turbulent Navier-Stokes and energy equations for oscillating pipe flows. The method of partial sums of the Fourier series is used to analyze the harmonic velocity and temperature results. The complete structures of the oscillating pipe flows and the averaged Nusselt numbers on the tube wall are provided by numerical simulation over wide ranges of ReA and ReR. Present numerical code is validated by comparing the laminar flow results to analytic solutions and turbulence flow results to published experimental data at lower and higher Reynolds numbers respectively. The effects of ReA and ReR on the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number distributions have been di scussed. The enhancement of the heat transfer due to oscillating flows has also been presented. By the way of analyzing the overall Nusselt number over wide ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Keulegan- Carpenter number KC, the optimal ratio of the tube diameter over the oscillation amplitude is obtained based on the existence of a nearly constant optimal KC number. The potential application of the present results in sea water cooling has also been discussed.

Keywords: Keulegan-Carpenter number, Nusselt number, Oscillating pipe flows, Reynolds number

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344 An Exploratory Study for Seamless Overland Logistics Information Flows and Connection: An In-Depth Case Study of Korea

Authors: Jae Un Jung, Hyun Soo Kim, Doo Hwan Kim

Abstract:

Quick and qualitative services are not new issues anymore in Logistics but those are still important problems along with cost-cutting. Related to the issues, though advanced information technologies are introduced unceasingly from laboratories, yet there is long way to go for smooth and seamless information flows on physical distribution processes in the industrial field. For the reason, the study aims to seek an advanced information delivery and management strategy through an in-depth case study of a Korea intermodal transportation company. It provides an industrial reference and a way to improve the endemic problems of logistics information systems.

Keywords: Exploratory Study, Overland Logistics, Information Flows, Seamless Connectivity.

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343 Research on the Correlation of the Fluctuating Density Gradient of the Compressible Flows

Authors: Yasuo Obikane

Abstract:

This work is to study a roll of the fluctuating density gradient in the compressible flows for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A new anisotropy tensor with the fluctuating density gradient is introduced, and is used for an invariant modeling technique to model the turbulent density gradient correlation equation derived from the continuity equation. The modeling equation is decomposed into three groups: group proportional to the mean velocity, and that proportional to the mean strain rate, and that proportional to the mean density. The characteristics of the correlation in a wake are extracted from the results by the two dimensional direct simulation, and shows the strong correlation with the vorticity in the wake near the body. Thus, it can be concluded that the correlation of the density gradient is a significant parameter to describe the quick generation of the turbulent property in the compressible flows.

Keywords: Turbulence Modeling , Density Gradient Correlation, Compressible

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342 Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations

Authors: K. Noah, F.-S. Lien

Abstract:

In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.

Keywords: Compressible lattice Boltzmann metho-, large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flows.

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341 Experimental Investigation of S-Rotors in Open and Bounded Flows

Authors: Hussain H. Al-Kayiem, Goh Jin Ming

Abstract:

The common practice of operating S-rotor is in an open environment; however there are times when the rotor is installed in a bounded environment and there might be changes in the performance of the rotor. This paper presents the changes in the performance of S-rotor when operated in bounded flows. The investigation was conducted experimentally to compare the performance of the rotors in bounded environment against open environment. Three different rotors models were designed, fabricated and subjected to experimental measurements. All of the three models were having 600 mm height and 300 mm Diameter. They were tested in three different flow environments; namely: partially bounded environment, fully bounded environment and open environment. Rotors were found to have better starting up capabilities when operated in bounded environment. Apart from that, all rotors manage to achieve higher Power and Torque Coefficients at a higher Tip Speed Ratio as compared to the open environment.

Keywords: Bounded Flows, Savonius Rotor, Wind Turbine, Wind energy, VAWT

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340 Generalization of SGIP Surface Tension Force Model in Three-Dimensional Flows and Compare to Other Models in Interfacial Flows

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan, Ebrahim Shirani

Abstract:

In this paper, the two-dimensional stagger grid interface pressure (SGIP) model has been generalized and presented into three-dimensional form. For this purpose, various models of surface tension force for interfacial flows have been investigated and compared with each other. The VOF method has been used for tracking the interface. To show the ability of the SGIP model for three-dimensional flows in comparison with other models, pressure contours, maximum spurious velocities, norm spurious flow velocities and pressure jump error for motionless drop of liquid and bubble of gas are calculated using different models. It has been pointed out that SGIP model in comparison with the CSF, CSS and PCIL models produces the least maximum and norm spurious velocities. Additionally, the new model produces more accurate results in calculating the pressure jumps across the interface for motionless drop of liquid and bubble of gas which is generated in surface tension force.

Keywords: Volume-of-Fluid; SGIP model; CSS model; CSF model; PCIL model; surface tension force; spurious currents.

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339 Air Flows along Perforated Metal Plates with the Heat Transfer

Authors: K. Fraňa, S. Simon

Abstract:

The objective of the paper is a numerical study of heat transfer between perforated metal plates and the surrounding air flows. Different perforation structures can nowadays be found in various industrial products. Besides improving the mechanical properties, the perforations can intensify the heat transfer as well. The heat transfer coefficient depends on a wide range of parameters such as type of perforation, size, shape, flow properties of the surrounding air etc. The paper was focused on three different perforation structures which have been investigated from the point of the view of the production in the previous studies. To determine the heat coefficients and the Nusselt numbers, the numerical simulation approach was adopted. The calculations were performed using the OpenFOAM software. The three-dimensional, unstable, turbulent and incompressible air flow around the perforated surface metal plate was considered.

Keywords: Perforations, convective heat transfers, turbulent flows, numerical simulations.

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338 Verification of K-ω SST Turbulence Model for Supersonic Internal Flows

Authors: J. Kolář, V. Dvořák

Abstract:

In this work, we try to find the best setting of Computational Fluid Dynamic solver available for the problems in the field of supersonic internal flows. We used the supersonic air-toair ejector to represent the typical problem in focus. There are multiple oblique shock waves, shear layers, boundary layers and normal shock interacting in the supersonic ejector making this device typical in field of supersonic inner flows. Modeling of shocks in general is demanding on the physical model of fluid, because ordinary conservation equation does not conform to real conditions in the near-shock region as found in many works. From these reasons, we decided to take special care about solver setting in this article by means of experimental approach of color Schlieren pictures and pneumatic measurement. Fast pressure transducers were used to measure unsteady static pressure in regimes with normal shock in mixing chamber. Physical behavior of ejector in several regimes is discussed. Best choice of eddy-viscosity setting is discussed on the theoretical base. The final verification of the k-ω SST is done on the base of comparison between experiment and numerical results.

Keywords: CFD simulations, color Schlieren, k-ω SST, supersonic flows, shock waves.

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337 Numerical Simulation of a Single Air Bubble Rising in Water with Various Models of Surface Tension Force

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan, Ebrahim Shirani

Abstract:

Different numerical methods are employed and developed for simulating interfacial flows. A large range of applications belong to this group, e.g. two-phase flows of air bubbles in water or water drops in air. In such problems surface tension effects often play a dominant role. In this paper, various models of surface tension force for interfacial flows, the CSF, CSS, PCIL and SGIP models have been applied to simulate the motion of small air bubbles in water and the results were compared and reviewed. It has been pointed out that by using SGIP or PCIL models, we are able to simulate bubble rise and obtain results in close agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Volume-of-Fluid, Bubble Rising, SGIP model, CSS model, CSF model, PCIL model, interface, surface tension force.

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336 Particle Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flows witha Superimposed Wall Surface Temperature Gradient in Microgeometries

Authors: V. Azadeh Ranjbar

Abstract:

Rarefied gas flows are often occurred in micro electro mechanical systems and classical CFD could not precisely anticipate the flow and thermal behavior due to the high Knudsen number. Therefore, the heat transfer and the fluid dynamics characteristics of rarefied gas flows in both a two-dimensional simple microchannel and geometry similar to single Knudsen compressor have been investigated with a goal of increasing performance of a actual Knudsen compressor by using a particle simulation method. Thermal transpiration and thermal creep, which are rarefied gas dynamic phenomena, that cause movement of the flow from less to higher temperature is generated by using two different longitude temperature gradients (Linear, Step) along the walls of the flow microchannel. In this study the influence of amount of temperature gradient and governing pressure in various Knudsen numbers and length-to-height ratios have been examined.

Keywords: DSMC, Thermal transpiration, Thermal creep, MEMS, Knudsen Compressor.

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335 Some Rotational Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity

Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Waseem Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Akhtar, Asif Mansoor

Abstract:

The Navier Stokes Equations (NSE) for an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity in the presence of an unknown external force in Von-Mises system x,\ are transformed, and some new exact solutions for a class of flows characterized by equation y f x a\b for an arbitrary state equation are determined, where f x is a function, \ the stream function, a z 0 and b are the arbitrary constants. In three, out of four cases, the function f x is arbitrary, and the solutions are the solutions of the flow equations for all the flows characterized by the equationy f x a\b. Streamline patterns for some forms of f x in unbounded and bounded regions are given.

Keywords: Bounded and unbounded region, Exact solution, Navier Stokes equations, Streamline pattern, Variable viscosity, Von- Mises system

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334 Onset Velocity Profiles Evolution in Microchannels

Authors: Cătălin Mărculescu, Andrei Avram, Cătălin Pârvulescu, Marioara Avram, Cătălin Mihai Bălan

Abstract:

The present microfluidic study is emphasizing the flow behavior within a Y shape micro-bifurcation in two similar flow configurations. We report here a numerical and experimental investigation on the velocity profiles evolution and secondary flows, manifested at different Reynolds numbers (Re) and for two different boundary conditions. The experiments are performed using special designed setup based on optical microscopic devices. With this setup, direct visualizations and quantitative measurements of the path-lines are obtained. A Micro-PIV measurement system is used to obtain velocity profiles distributions in a spatial evolution in the main flows domains. The experimental data is compared with numerical simulations performed with commercial computational code FLUENT in a 3D geometry with the same dimensions as the experimental one. The numerical flow patterns are found to be in good agreement with the experimental manifestations.

Keywords: Micro-PIV, numerical investigations, secondary flows, velocity profiles.

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333 Synthetic Daily Flow Duration Curves for the Çoruh River Basin, Turkey

Authors: Fatih Tosunoğlu, İbrahim Can

Abstract:

The flow duration curve (FDC) is an informative method that represents the flow regime’s properties for a river basin. Therefore, the FDC is widely used for water resource projects such as hydropower, water supply, irrigation and water quality management. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain synthetic daily flow duration curves for Çoruh Basin, Turkey. For this aim, we firstly developed univariate auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models for daily flows of 9 stations located in Çoruh basin and then these models were used to generate 100 synthetic flow series each having same size as historical series. Secondly, flow duration curves of each synthetic series were drawn and the flow values exceeded 10, 50 and 95% of the time and 95% confidence limit of these flows were calculated. As a result, flood, mean and low flows potential of Çoruh basin will comprehensively be represented.

Keywords: ARMA models, Çoruh basin, flow duration curve, Turkey.

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