Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32313
Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie


The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

Keywords: General relativity theory, particles, photons, quantum gravity model, gravitational frequency shift.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1883


[1] S. Ulmer, C. Smorra, A. Mooser, K. Franke, H. Nagahama, G. Schneider, T. Higuchi, S. Van Gorp, K. Blaum, Y. Matsuda, and W. Quint, “High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio,” Nature, vol. 524, no. 7564, pp.196-199, 2015.
[2] M. Grosser, M. Kunzinger, M. Oberguggenberger, and R. Steinbauer, Geometric theory of generalized functions with applications to general relativity (Vol. 537). New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
[3] N. Kiesel, F. Blaser, U. Delić, D. Grass, R. Kaltenbaek, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Cavity cooling of an optically levitated submicron particle,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110, no. 35, pp.14180-14185, 2013.
[4] J. M. Jauch, and F. Rohrlich, The Theory of Photons and Electrons: The relativistic quantum field theory of charged particles with spin one-half. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
[5] N. N. Bogolubov, A. A. Logunov, A. I. Oksak, and I. Todorov, General principles of quantum field theory (Vol. 10). New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
[6] M. Sachs, General relativity and matter: a spinor field theory from fermis to light-years (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
[7] T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, and S. A. Diddams, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5871, pp.1808-1812, 2008.
[8] A. Arvanitaki, and A. A. Geraci, “Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically levitated sensors.” Physical review letters, vol. 110, no. 7, p.071105, 2013.
[9] T. Jenke, G. Cronenberg, J. Burgdörfer, L. A. Chizhova, P. Geltenbort, A. N. Ivanov, T. Lauer, T. Lins, S. Rotter, H. Saul, and U. Schmidt, “Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios,” Physical review letters, vol. 112, no. 15, p.151105, 2014.
[10] A. S. Eddington, Space, time and gravitation: an outline of the general relativity theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
[11] R. V. Pound, and G. A. Rebka Jr., “Gravitational Redshift in Nuclear Resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett., pp. 439-441.