Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32586
Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith


This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: Exoskeleton-upper limb system, gravity compensation, model free terminal sliding mode, robustness analysis, Monte Carlo, H∞ methods.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 637


[1] Andrew A, Amis PhD, CEng, Minech E, Part 1. Upper limb functions, Shoulder and Elbow, Current Orthopaedics, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 1990, Pages 21-26.
[2] M. W. Spong, M. Vidyasagar,” Robot Dynamics and Control”, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
[3] Laura Ryan Rayt And Robert F. Stengel,” A Monte Carlo Approach to the Analysis of Control System Robustness”, Automatica, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 229-236, 1993.
[4] Ho Shing Lo∗, Sheng Quan Xie , ‘Exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects’, Medical Engineering & Physics 34 (2012) 261–268
[5] G. Schmeisser and W. Seamone, “An Upper Limb Prosthesis-Orthosis Power and Control System with Multi-Level Potential,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1493–1501, 1973.
[6] Md Rasedul Islam, Christopher Spiewak, Mohammad Habibur Rahman and Raouf Fareh, ‘A Brief Review on Robotic Exoskeletons for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation to Find the Gap between Research Porotype and Commercial Type’, Advances in Robotics & Automation, 2017.
[7] R. A. R. C. Gopura, Kazuo Kiguchi, ‘Mechanical Designs of Active Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Robots State-of-the-Art and Design Difficulties’, IEEE 11th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics Kyoto International Conference Center, Japan, June 23-26, 2009.
[8] T. Laliberte, C. Gosselin, and D. Gao, “Closed-loop transmission routings for cartesian scara-type manipulators,” in ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, pp. 281–290.
[9] M.-A. Lacasse, G. Lachance, J. Boisclair, J. Ouellet, and C. Gosselin, “On the design of a statically balanced serial robot using remote counterweights,” Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, May 2013, pp. 4189–4194.
[10] Y. Bouteraa and I. Ben Abdallah, Estimated Model-Based Sliding Mode Controller for an Active Exoskeleton Robot, Chapter 10: Applications of Sliding Mode Control, Decision and Control, October 2016, pp. 175-189.
[11] N. Jarassé, Contributions à l'exploitation d'exosquelettes actifs pour la rééducation neuromatrice, November 2011, pp. 17-26.
[12] H. Su, Z. Li, G. Li and Ch. Yang, EMG-Based Neural Network Control of an Upper-Limb Power-Assist Exoskeleton Robot., Conference of Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Advances in Neural Networks, July 2013.
[13] Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith, “Robustness analysis of an upper limb exoskeleton controlled by sliding mode algorithm”, The 1st International Congress for the Advancement of Mechanism, Machine, Robotics and Mechatronics Sciences (ICAMMRMS-2017), Beirut LEBANON, October 17 - 19, 2017.
[14] Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith,” Robustness analysis of an upper-limb exoskeleton controlled by an adaptive sliding mode”, The 5th International Conference on Control Engineering &Information Technology (CEIT-2017), December 17-19, 2017 Sousse – Tunisia.
[15] Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith, ”Robustness analysis of an upper-limb exoskeleton using Monte Carlo simulation”, The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Systems and Electrical Technologies (IC_ASET), 22-25 March 2018, Hammamet, Tunisia.
[16] Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith, “Adaptive sliding mode control with gravity compensation: Application to an upper-limb exoskeleton system”, The Fifth International Francophone Congress of Advanced Mechanics (IFCAM 2018), Faculty of Engineering - Lebanese University, Lebanon, October 31 - November 2,2018.
[17] Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith, ”Computer aided decision model to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system”, The 3rd International Conference on Advanced Systems and Electrical Technologies (IC_ASET), 19- 22 March 2019, Hammamet, Tunisia.
[18] Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith, “A Terminal sliding mode control using EMG signal: Application to an exoskeleton-upper limb system”, 16th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO-2019), Prague, 29-31 July, 2019.
[19] Romain Bourdais, Michel Fliess, Cédric Join, and Wilfrid Perruquetti, “Towards a model-free output tracking of switched nonlinear systems”, In NOLCOS 2007 - 7th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems, Pretoria, South Africa, 2007.
[20] Michel Fliess, Cédric Join,MamadouMboup, and Hebertt Sira Ramirez, “Vers une commande multivariable sans modèle “, Conférence internationale francophone d’automatique (CIFA 2006), Bordeaux, France, 2006.
[21] Brigitte D’Andrea Novel, Michel Fliess, Cédric Join, Hugues Mounier, and Bruno Steux,” A mathematical explanation via “intelligent” PID controllers of the strange ubiquity of PIDs”,. In 18th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, MED’10, Marrakech Morocco, 2010.
[22] Michel Fliess and Cédric Join., “Intelligent PID controllers”., 16th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Ajaccio, France, 2008.
[23] Michel Fliess and Cédric Join. “Model-free control and intelligent PID controllers: towards a possible trivialization of nonlinear control”, 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009), Saint-Malo, France, 2009.
[24] Wei He, IEEE, Zhijun Li , Yiting Dong , and Ting Zhao, “Design and Adaptive Control for an Upper Limb Robotic Exoskeleton in Presence of Input Saturation”, IEEE Transactions On Neural Networks And Learning Systems, April , 2018.
[25] Vigen Arakelian, “Gravity compensation in robotics”, Advanced Robotics, 2016 VOL. 30, NO. 2, 79–96.
[26] Satoshi Ito, Shingo Nishio, Yuuki Fukumoto, Kojiro Matsushita, and Minoru Sasaki, “Gravity Compensation and Feedback of Ground Reaction Forces for Biped Balance Control”, Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2017, Article ID 5980275, 16 pages.
[27] Julien Boisclair, Pierre-Luc Richard, Thierry Laliberte, and Clement Gosselin, ”Gravity compensation of robotic manipulators using cylindrical Halbach arrays”, Journal Of Latex Class Files, Vol. 13, No. 9, September 2014.
[28] V. Behnamgol and A. R. Vali., “Terminal Sliding Mode Control for Nonlinear Systems with Both Matched and Unmatched Uncertainties”, Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 2, June 2015.
[29] Chaoxu Mu and Haibo He, “Dynamic Behavior of Terminal Sliding Mode Control”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 65, No. 4, April 2018.
[30] Yuqiang Wu, Xinghuo Yu and Zhihong Man, “Terminal sliding mode control design for uncertain dynamic systems”, Systems & Control Letters 34 (1998) 281–287.
[31] F. L. Lewis, C. T. Abdallah, D. M. Dawson, “Control of robot manipulators”, NY 10022, 1993.
[32] Gersende Fort, “Méthodes de Monte Carlo Et Chaînes de Markov pour la simulation “, Mémoire présenté pour l’obtention de l’Habilitation à Diriger les Recherches, Novembre 2009.