Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2488

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2488 Fast Generation of High-Performance Driveshafts: A Digital Approach to Automated Linked Topology and Design Optimization

Authors: Willi Zschiebsch, Alrik Dargel, Sebastian Spitzer, Philipp Johst, Robert Böhm, Niels Modler


In this article, we investigate an approach that digitally links individual development process steps by using the drive shaft of an aircraft engine as representative example of a fiber polymer composite. Such high-performance lightweight composite structures have many adjustable parameters that influence the mechanical properties. Only a combination of optimal parameter values can lead to energy efficient lightweight structures. The development tools required for the Engineering Design Process (EDP) are often isolated solutions and their compatibility with each other is limited. A digital framework is presented in this study, which allows individual specialised tools to be linked via the generated data in such a way that automated optimization across programs becomes possible. This is demonstrated using the example of linking geometry generation with numerical structural analysis. The proposed digital framework for automated design optimization demonstrates the feasibility of developing a complete digital approach to design optimization. The methodology shows promising potential for achieving optimal solutions in terms of mass, material utilization, eigenfrequency and deformation under lateral load with less development effort. The development of such a framework is an important step towards promoting a more efficient design approach that can lead to stable and balanced results.

Keywords: Digital Linked Process, composite, CFRP, multi-objective, EDP, NSGA-2, NSGA-3, TPE.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 29
2487 Forward Speed and Draught Requirement of a Semi-Automatic Cassava Planter under Different Wheel Usage

Authors: M. O. Ale, S. I. Manuwa, O. J. Olukunle, T. Ewetumo


Five varying speeds of 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.6 km/h were used at a constant soil depth of 100 mm to determine the effects of forward speed on the draught requirement of a semi-automatic cassava planter under pneumatic wheel and rigid wheel usage on a well-prepared sandy clay loam soil. The soil draught was electronically measured using an on-the-go soil draught measuring instrumentation system developed for the purpose of this research. The results showed an exponential relationship between forward speed and draught in which draught ranging between 24.91 and 744.44 N increased with an increase in forward speed in the rigid wheel experiment. This is contrary to the polynomial relationship observed in the pneumatic wheel experiment in which the draught varied between 96.09 and 343.53 N. It was observed in the experiments that the optimum speed of 1.5 km/h had the least values of draught in both the pneumatic wheel and rigid wheel experiments with higher values in the pneumatic experiment. It was generally noted that the rigid wheel planter with the less value of draught requires less energy requirement for operation. It is therefore concluded that operating the semi-automatic cassava planter with rigid wheels will be more economical for cassava farmers than operating the planter with pneumatic wheels.

Keywords: Cassava planter, planting, forward speed, draught, wheel type.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 36
2486 Robot Movement Using the Trust Region Policy Optimization

Authors: Romisaa Ali


The Policy Gradient approach is a subset of the Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) combines Deep Neural Networks (DNN) with Reinforcement Learning (RL). This approach finds the optimal policy of robot movement, based on the experience it gains from interaction with its environment. Unlike previous policy gradient algorithms, which were unable to handle the two types of error variance and bias introduced by the DNN model due to over- or underestimation, this algorithm is capable of handling both types of error variance and bias. This article will discuss the state-of-the-art SOTA policy gradient technique, trust region policy optimization (TRPO), by applying this method in various environments compared to another policy gradient method, the Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), to explain their robust optimization, using this SOTA to gather experience data during various training phases after observing the impact of hyper-parameters on neural network performance.

Keywords: Deep neural networks, deep reinforcement learning, Proximal Policy Optimization, state-of-the-art, trust region policy optimization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 55
2485 A Simulation Study of Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine Performance Utilizing Turbulent Jet Ignition with Controlled Air Charge

Authors: Siyamak Ziyaei, Siti Khalijah Mazlan, Petros Lappas


Compressed natural gas (CNG) is primarily composed of methane (CH4), and has a lower carbon to hydrogen ratio than other hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline (C8H18) and diesel (C12H23). Consequently, it has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions compared to conventional fuels. Although Natural Gas (NG) has environmental advantages compared to other hydrocarbon fuels, its main component, CH4, burns at a slower rate compared to the conventional fuels. A higher pressure and leaner cylinder environment will unravel the slow burn characteristic of CH4. Lean combustion and high compression ratios are well-known methods for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines. In order to achieve successful a CNG lean combustion in Spark Ignition (SI) engines, a strong ignition system is essential to avoid engine misfires, especially in ultra-lean conditions. Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is an ignition system that employs a pre-combustion chamber to ignite the lean fuel mixture in the main combustion chamber using a fraction of the total fuel per cycle. TJI enables ultra-lean combustion by providing distributed ignition sites through orifices. The fast burn rate provided by TJI enables the ordinary SI engine to be comparable to other combustion systems such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in terms of thermal efficiency, through the increased levels of dilution without the need of sophisticated control systems. Due to the physical geometry of TJI, which contains small orifices that connect the pre-chamber to the main chamber, providing the right mixture of fuel and air has been identified as a key challenge due to the insufficient amount of air that is pushed into the pre-chamber during each compression stroke. There is also the problem of scavenging which contributed to the factors that reduces the TJI performance. Combustion residual gases such as CO2, CO and NOx from the previous combustion cycle dilute the pre-chamber fuel-air mixture preventing rapid combustion in the pre-chamber. An air-controlled active TJI is presented in this paper in order to address these issues. By supplying air into the pre-chamber at a sufficient pressure, residual gases are exhausted, and the air-fuel ratio is controlled within the pre-chamber, thereby improving the quality of the combustion. An investigation of the 3D combustion characteristics of a CNG-fueled SI engine using a direct injection fuelling strategy employing an air channel in the prechamber is presented in this paper. Experiments and simulations were performed at the Worldwide Mapping Point (WWMP) at 1500 revolutions per minute (rpm), 3.3 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), using only conventional spark plugs as a baseline. With a validated baseline engine simulation, the settings were set for all simulation scenarios at λ=1. Following that, the pre-chambers with and without an auxiliary fuel supply were simulated. In the study of (DI-CNG) SI engine, active TJI was observed to perform better than passive TJI and conventional  spark plug ignition. In conclusion, the active pre-chamber with an air channel demonstrated an improved thermal efficiency (ηth) over other counterparts and conventional spark ignition systems.

Keywords: Turbulent Jet Ignition, Active Air Control Turbulent Jet Ignition, Pre-chamber ignition system, Active and Passive Pre-chamber, thermal efficiency, methane combustion, internal combustion engine combustion emissions.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 51
2484 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Tire-Road Separation in Quarter-Car Model

Authors: Quy Dang Nguyen, Reza Nakhaie Jazar


The paper investigates vibration dynamics of tire-road separation for a quarter-car model; this separation model is developed to be close to the real situation considering the tire is able to separate from the ground plane. A set of piecewise linear mathematical models is developed and matches the in-contact and no-contact states to be considered as mother models for further investigations. The bound dynamics are numerically simulated in the time response and phase portraits. The separation analysis may determine which values of suspension parameters can delay and avoid the no-contact phenomenon, which results in improving ride comfort and eliminating the potentially dangerous oscillation. Finally, model verification is carried out in the MSC-ADAMS environment.

Keywords: Quarter-car vibrations, tire-road separation, separation analysis, separation dynamics, ride comfort, ADAMS validation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 63
2483 Experimental Investigation of Hull Form for Electric Driven Ferry

Authors: Vasilij Djackov, Tomas Zapnickas, Evgenii Iamshchikov, Lukas Norkevicius, Rima Mickeviciene, Larisa Vasiljeva


In this paper, the resistance and pitching values of the test of an electric ferry are presented. The research was carried out in the open flow channel of Klaipėda University with a multi-axis dynamometer. The received model resistance values were recalculated to the real vessel and the preliminary chosen propulsion unit power was compared. After analyzing the results of the pitching of the model, it was concluded that the shape of the hull needs to be further improved, taking into account the possible uneven weight distribution at the ends of the ferry. Further investigation of the hull of the electric ferry is recommended, including experiments with various water depths and activation of propulsion units.

Keywords: Electrical ferry, model tests, open flow channel, pitching, resistance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 64
2482 Proposing Robotics Challenge Centered on Material Transportation in Smart Manufacturing

Authors: Brehme D’napoli Reis de Mesquita, Marcus Vin´ıcius de Souza Almeida, Caio Vin´ıcius Silva do Carmo


Educational robotics has emerged as a pedagogical tool, utilizing technological artifacts to engage students’ curiosity and interest. It fosters active learning of STEM education competencies while also cultivating essential behavioral skills. Robotic competitions provide students with platforms to collaboratively devise diverse solutions to shared problems, fostering experience exchange, collaboration, and personal growth. Despite the prevalence of current robotic competitions, especially in Brazil, simulating real-world challenges like natural disasters, there is a notable absence of industry-related tasks. This article presents an educational robotics initiative centered around material transportation within smart manufacturing using automated guided vehicles. The proposed robotics challenge was executed in a competition held in Ac¸ailˆandia city, Maranh˜ao, Brazil, yielding satisfactory results and inspiring teams to develop time-limited solution strategies.

Keywords: Educational robotics, STEM education, robotic competitions, material transportation, smart manufacturing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 124
2481 End-to-End Pyramid Based Method for MRI Reconstruction

Authors: Omer Cahana, Maya Herman, Ofer Levi


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a lengthy medical scan that stems from a long acquisition time. Its length is mainly due to the traditional sampling theorem, which defines a lower boundary for sampling. However, it is still possible to accelerate the scan by using a different approach such as Compress Sensing (CS) or Parallel Imaging (PI). These two complementary methods can be combined to achieve a faster scan with high-fidelity imaging. To achieve that, two conditions must be satisfied: i) the signal must be sparse under a known transform domain, and ii) the sampling method must be incoherent. In addition, a nonlinear reconstruction algorithm must be applied to recover the signal. While the rapid advances in Deep Learning (DL) have had tremendous successes in various computer vision tasks, the field of MRI reconstruction is still in its early stages. In this paper, we present an end-to-end method for MRI reconstruction from k-space to image. Our method contains two parts. The first is sensitivity map estimation (SME), which is a small yet effective network that can easily be extended to a variable number of coils. The second is reconstruction, which is a top-down architecture with lateral connections developed for building high-level refinement at all scales. Our method holds the state-of-art fastMRI benchmark, which is the largest, most diverse benchmark for MRI reconstruction.

Keywords: Accelerate MRI scans, image reconstruction, pyramid network, deep learning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 119
2480 Topology of Reverse Von-Kármán Vortex Street in the Wake of a Swimming Whale Shark

Authors: Arash Taheri


In this paper, effects of the ventral body planform of a swimming whale shark on the formation of ‘reverse von-Kármán vortex street’ behind the aquatic animal are studied using Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) approach. In this regard, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations around the whale shark’s body with a prescribed deflection dynamics are solved with the aid of Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM) and Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) turbulence treatment by WaterLily.jl solver; fully-written in Julia programming language. The whale shark flow simulations here are performed at high Reynolds number, i.e. 1.4 107 corresponding to the swimming of a 10 meter-whale shark at an average speed of 5 km/h. For comparison purposes, vortical flow generation behind a silky shark with a streamlined forehead eidonomy is also simulated at high Reynolds number, Re = 2 106, corresponding to the swimming of a 2 meter-silky shark at an average speed of 3.6 km/h. The results depict formation of distinct wake topologies behind the swimming sharks depending on the travelling wave oscillating amplitudes.

Keywords: Whale shark, vortex street, BDIM, FSI, functional eidonomy, bionics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 419
2479 Effect of Exit Annular Area on the Flow Field Characteristics of an Unconfined Premixed Annular Swirl Burner

Authors: Vishnu Raj, Chockalingam Prathap


The objective of this study was to explore the impact of variation in the exit annular area on the local flow field features and the flame stability of an annular premixed swirl burner (unconfined) operated with a premixed n-butane air mixture at an equivalence ratio (Φ) = 1, 1 bar, and 300K. A swirl burner with an axial swirl generator having a swirl number of 1.5 was used. Three different burner heads were chosen to have the exit area increased from 100%, 160%, and 220% resulting in inner and outer diameters and cross-sectional areas as (1) 10 mm & 15 mm, 98 mm2 (2) 17.5 mm & 22.5 mm, 157 mm2 and (3) 25 mm & 30 mm, 216 mm2. The bulk velocity and Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter and unburned gas properties were kept constant at 12 m/s and 4000. (i) Planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with TiO2 seeding particles and (ii) CH* chemiluminescence was used to measure the velocity fields and reaction zones of the swirl flames at 5 Hz, respectively. Velocity fields and the jet spreading rates measured at the isothermal and reactive conditions revealed that the presence of a flame significantly altered the flow field in the radial direction due to the gas expansion. Important observations from the flame measurements were: the height and maximum width of the recirculation bubbles normalized by the hydraulic diameter, and the jet spreading angles for the flames for the three exit area cases were: (a) 4.52, 1.95, 34◦, (b) 6.78, 2.37, 26◦, and (c) 8.73, 2.32, 22◦. The lean blowout (LBO) was also measured, and the respective equivalence ratios were: 0.80, 0.92, and 0.82. LBO was relatively narrow for the 157 mm2 case. For this case, PIV measurements showed that Turbulent Kinetic Energy and turbulent intensity were relatively high compared to the other two cases, resulting in higher stretch rates and narrower LBO.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence, jet spreading rate, lean blow out, swirl flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 115
2478 Resolving a Piping Vibration Problem by Installing Viscous Damper Supports

Authors: Carlos Herrera Sierralta, Husain M. Muslim, Meshal T. Alsaiari, Daniel Fischer


The vast majority of piping vibration problems in the Oil & Gas industry are provoked by the process flow characteristics which are basically related to the fluid properties, the type of service and its different operational scenarios. In general, the corrective actions recommended for flow induced vibration in piping systems can be grouped in two major areas: those which affect the excitation mechanisms typically associated to process variables, and those which affect the response mechanism of the pipework per se. Where possible the first option is to try to solve the flow induced problem from the excitation mechanism perspective. However, in producing facilities the approach of changing process parameters might not always be convenient as it could lead to reduction of production rates or it may require the shutdown of the system. That impediment might lead to a second option, which is to modify the response of the piping system to excitation generated by the process flow. In principle, the action of shifting the natural frequency of the system well above the frequency inherent to the process always favours the elimination, or considerably reduces the level of vibration experienced by the piping system. Tightening up the clearances at the supports (ideally zero gap) and adding new static supports at the system, are typical ways of increasing the natural frequency of the piping system. However, only stiffening the piping system may not be sufficient to resolve the vibration problem, and in some cases, it might not be feasible to implement it at all, as the available piping layout could create limitations on adding supports due to thermal expansion/contraction requirements. In these cases, utilization of viscous damper supports could be recommended as these devices can allow relatively large quasi-static movement of piping while providing sufficient capabilities of dissipating the vibration. Therefore, when correctly selected and installed, viscous damper supports can provide a significant effect on the response of the piping system over a wide range of frequencies. Viscous dampers cannot be used to support sustained, static loads. This paper shows over a real case example, a methodology which allows to determine the selection of the viscous damper supports via a dynamic analysis model. By implementing this methodology, it is possible to resolve piping vibration problems by adding new viscous dampers supports to the system. The methodology applied on this paper can be used to resolve similar vibration issues.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, flow induced vibration, piping supports, turbulent flow, slug flow, viscous damper

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 162
2477 Strong Adhesion and High Wettability at Polyetheretherketone-Resin/Titanium-Dioxide Interface Obtained with Crystal-Orientation Control

Authors: Tomio Iwasaki, Yosuke Kawahito


The adhesion strength and wettability at the interfaces between a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have become more important because direct joining of PEEK resin and titanium (Ti), whose surface has usually the oxide (TiO2), is needed not only in vehicles such as airplanes, automobiles, and space vehicles, but also in medical devices such as implants. To realize strong joint between the PEEK resin and TiO2, the dependence of the adhesion strength and wettability on crystal orientations of rutile TiO2 were investigated by using molecular simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted by combining quantum-mechanics equation of electrons with Newton’s equation of motion of nuclear coordinates (atomic coordinates). By putting a PEEK-resin sphere on a rutile TiO2 surface and by heating the system to 650 K, the contact angles at the interfaces were calculated to evaluate the wettability. After the system is cooled to 300 K from 650 K, to evaluate the adhesin strength, the adhesive fracture energy is calculated as the difference between the energy of the PEEK-TiO2 attached state and that of the PEEK-TiO2 detached state. The results of the contact angles showed that PEEK resin on the TiO2(100) and that on the TiO2(001) surface has low wettability with large contact angles. On the other hand, PEEK resin on the TiO2(110) surface has high wettability with a small contact angle. The results of the adhesive fracture energies showed that the adhesion at the PEEK-resin/TiO2(100) and PEEK-resin/TiO2(001) interfaces are weak. On the other hand, the adhesion at the PEEK-resin/TiO2(110) interface is strong. To clarify the reason that the higher wettability and stronger adhesion are obtained at the PEEK/TiO2(110) interface than at the at the PEEK/TiO2(100) and PEEK/TiO2(001) interfaces, atomic configurations at the interfaces were visualized. The atomic configuration at the PEEK/TiO2(110) interface showed that the lattice-matched coherent interface is realized, and the atomic density is high. On the other hand, the atomic configuration at the PEEK/TiO2(001) interface showed the lattice-unmatched incoherent interface. The atomic configuration at the PEEK/TiO2(100) interface showed that the atomic density is very low although the lattice-matched interface is realized. Therefore, the lattice matching and the high atomic density at the PEEK/TiO2(001) interface are considered to be dominant factors in the high wettability and strong adhesion.

Keywords: Adhesion, direct joining, PEEK, TiO2, wettability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 153
2476 The Use of Fractional Brownian Motion in the Generation of Bed Topography for Bodies of Water Coupled with the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Elysia Barker, Jian Guo Zhou, Ling Qian, Steve Decent


A method of modelling topography used in the simulation of riverbeds is proposed in this paper which removes the need for datapoints and measurements of a physical terrain. While complex scans of the contours of a surface can be achieved with other methods, this requires specialised tools which the proposed method overcomes by using fractional Brownian motion (FBM) as a basis to estimate the real surface within a 15% margin of error while attempting to optimise algorithmic efficiency. This removes the need for complex, expensive equipment and reduces resources spent modelling bed topography. This method also accounts for the change in topography over time due to erosion, sediment transport, and other external factors which could affect the topography of the ground by updating its parameters and generating a new bed. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate both stationary and steady flow cases in a side-by-side comparison over the generated bed topography using the proposed method, and a test case taken from an external source. The method, if successful, will be incorporated into the current LBM program used in the testing phase, which will allow an automatic generation of topography for the given situation in future research, removing the need for bed data to be specified.

Keywords: Bed topography, FBM, LBM, shallow water, simulations.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 170
2475 Coding Structures for Seated Row Simulation of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Ziraguen O. Williams, Shield B. Lin, Fouad N. Matari, Leslie J. Quiocho


Simulation for seated row exercise was a continued task to assist NASA in analyzing a one-dimensional vibration isolation and stabilization system for astronaut’s exercise platform. Feedback delay and signal noise were added to the simulation model. Simulation runs for this study were conducted in two software simulation tools, Trick and MBDyn, software simulation environments developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The exciter force in the simulation was calculated from motion capture of an exerciser during a seated aerobic row exercise. The simulation runs include passive control, active control using a Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) controller, and active control using a Piecewise Linear Integral Derivative (PWLID) controller. Output parameters include displacements of the exercise platform, the exerciser, and the counterweight; transmitted force to the wall of spacecraft; and actuator force to the platform. The simulation results showed excellent force reduction in the active controlled system compared to the passive controlled system, which showed less force reduction.

Keywords: Simulation, counterweight, exercise, vibration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 183
2474 Trajectory Tracking of a 2-Link Mobile Manipulator Using Sliding Mode Control Method

Authors: Abolfazl Mohammadijoo


In this paper, we are investigating sliding mode control approach for trajectory tracking of a two-link-manipulator with wheeled mobile robot in its base. The main challenge of this work is dynamic interaction between mobile base and manipulator which makes trajectory tracking more difficult than n-link manipulators with fixed base. Another challenging part of this work is to avoid chattering phenomenon of sliding mode control that makes lots of damages for actuators in real industrial cases. The results show the effectiveness of sliding mode control approach for desired trajectory.

Keywords: Mobile manipulator, sliding mode control, dynamic interaction, mobile robotics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 281
2473 Experimental Study of the Fan Electric Drive Based on Two-Speed Motor with Pole-Changing Winding

Authors: M. Bobojanov, D. Rismukhamedov, F. Tuychiev, Kh. Shamsutdinov


The article presents the results of experimental study of a two-speed asynchronous motor 4A80B6/4U3 with pole-changing winding on a fan drive VSUN 160x74-0.55-4 in static and dynamic modes. A prototype of a pole-changing Motor was made based on the results of the calculation and the performance and mechanical characteristics of the Motor were removed at the experimental stand, and useful capacities and other parameters from both poles were determined. In dynamic mode, the curves of changes of torque and current of the stator were removed by direct start, constant speed operation, by switching of speeds and stopping.

Keywords: Pole-changing winding, two speed asynchronous machine, basic scheme, winding factor, differential leakage factor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 178
2472 Optimal Design of Motorcycle Crash Bar Using CAD and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Sharon S. Wu, Yong S. Park


This project aims to study and evaluate the motorcycle crash bar, which is used to reduce injuries caused by side impacts to the motorcycle, and then develop an improved design using the engineering design process theory based on the current benchmark crash bar in order to lower the severity of motorcycle crash injuries. For this purpose, simulations for the crash bar are set up so that it travels at an angle towards a fixed concrete wall and collides at certain velocities. 3D CAD models are first designed in SolidWorks and dynamic crash simulations are then carried out using ANSYS to determine the lowest maximum Von-Mises stress over time and deformations by adjusting the parameters used in manufacturing the crash bar, including the velocity of the crash, material used, geometries with various radius fillets, and different thicknesses for the bar. The results of the simulation are used to determine the optimum parameters for a safer crash bar to withstand higher stress and deformation. Specifically, the von-Mises stress was reduced by at least 75% compared with the benchmark design by choosing aluminum alloy and a true unibar design.

Keywords: Crash bar, crash simulation, engineering design, motorcycle safety.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 269
2471 Evaluating the Validity of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Dispersion in a Complex Urban Geometry Using Two Sets of Experimental Measurements

Authors: Mohammad R. Kavian Nezhad, Carlos F. Lange, Brian A. Fleck


This research presents the validation study of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate the scalar dispersion emitted from rooftop sources around the buildings at the University of Alberta North Campus. The ANSYS CFX code was used to perform the numerical simulation of the wind regime and pollutant dispersion by solving the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a building-scale high-resolution grid. The validation study was performed in two steps. First, the CFD model performance in 24 cases (eight wind directions and three wind speeds) was evaluated by comparing the predicted flow fields with the available data from the previous measurement campaign designed at the North Campus, using the standard deviation method (SDM), while the estimated results of the numerical model showed maximum average percent errors of approximately 53% and 37% for wind incidents from the North and Northwest, respectively. Good agreement with the measurements was observed for the other six directions, with an average error of less than 30%. In the second step, the reliability of the implemented turbulence model, numerical algorithm, modeling techniques, and the grid generation scheme was further evaluated using the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) dispersion dataset. Different statistical measures, including the fractional bias (FB), the mean geometric bias (MG), and the normalized mean square error (NMSE), were used to assess the accuracy of the predicted dispersion field. Our CFD results are in very good agreement with the field measurements.

Keywords: CFD, plume dispersion, complex urban geometry, validation study, wind flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 215
2470 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı


In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 297
2469 Experimental Test of a Combined Machine that Evenly Distributes Fertilizer under the Soil on Slopes

Authors: Qurbanov Huseyn Nuraddin


The results of scientific research on a machine that pours an equal amount of mineral fertilizer under the soil to increase the productivity of grain in mountain farming and obtain quality grain are substantiated. The average yield of the crop depends on the nature of the distribution of fertilizers in the soil. Therefore, the study of effective energy-saving methods for the application of mineral fertilizers is the actual task of modern agriculture. Depending on the type and variety of plants in mountain farming, there is an optimal norm of mineral fertilizers. Applying an equal amount of fertilizer to the soil is one of the conditions that increase the efficiency of the field. One of the main agro-technical indicators of the work of mineral fertilizing machines is to ensure equal distribution of mineral fertilizers in the field. Taking into account the above-mentioned issues, a combined plough has been improved in our laboratory.

Keywords: Combined plough, mineral fertilizers, sprinkle fluently, fertilizer rate, cereals.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 238
2468 Early Installation Effect on the Vibration Generated by Machines

Authors: Maitham Al-Safwani


Motor vibration issues were analyzed and correlated to poor equipment installation. We had a water injection pump tested in the factory and exceeded the pump vibration limit. Once the pump was brought to the site, its half-size shim plates were replaced with full-size shims plate that drastically reduced the vibration. In this study, vibration data were recorded for several and similar motors run at the same and different speeds. The vibration values were recorded — for two and a half hours — and the vibration readings analyzed to determine when the readings become consistent. This was as well supported by recording the audio noises produced by some machines seeking a relationship between changes in machine noises and machine abnormalities, such as vibration.

Keywords: Vibration, noise, shaft unbalance, shaft misalignment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 245
2467 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck

Authors: A. Pérard Lecomte, G. Fokoua, A. Mehel, A. Tanière


Automotive experimental measurements in wind tunnel are often conducted on reduced scale. Depending on the study, different similitude parameters are used by researchers to best reproduce the flow at full scale. In this paper, two parameters are investigated, which are Reynolds number and upstream velocity when dealing with airflow of typical urban speed range, below 15 m.s-1. Their impact on flow structures and aerodynamic drag in the wake of a heavy truck model are explored. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of full- and reduced-scaled heavy trucks (1/4 and 1/28). The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach combined to the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) as the turbulence model closure was used. Both drag coefficients and upstream velocity profiles (flow topology) were found to be close one another for the three investigated scales, when the dynamical similitude Reynolds is achieved. Moreover, the difference is weak for the simulations based on the same inlet air velocity. Hence, for the relative low velocity range investigated here, the impact of the scale factor is limited.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, CFD, heavy truck, recirculation area, scale effects, similitude parameters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 294
2466 Artificial Intelligence in Penetration Testing of a Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Network

Authors: Phillip Garrad, Saritha Unnikrishnan


The increase in connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) creates more opportunities for cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks can be performed with malicious intent or for research and testing purposes. As connected vehicles approach full autonomy, the possible impact of these cyber-attacks also grows. This review analyses the challenges faced in CAV cybersecurity testing. This includes access and cost of the representative test setup and lack of experts in the field A review of potential solutions to overcome these challenges is presented. Studies have demonstrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a promising technique to reduce runtime, enhance effectiveness and comprehensively cover all the standard test aspects in penetration testing in other industries. However, this review has identified a significant gap in the systematic implementation of AI for penetration testing in the CAV cybersecurity domain. The expectation from this review is to investigate potential AI algorithms, which can demonstrate similar improvements in runtime and efficiency for a CAV model. If proven to be an effective means of penetration test for CAV, this methodology may be used on a full CAV test network.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, connected vehicles, software simulation, artificial intelligence, penetration testing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 359
2465 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach for Developing a Powder Dispensing Device

Authors: Rallapalli Revanth, Shivakumar Bhavi, Vijay Kumar Turaga


Dispensing powders manually can be difficult as it requires to gradually pour and check the amount on the scale to be dispensed. Current systems are manual and non-continuous in nature and is user dependent and it is also difficult to control powder dispensation. Recurrent dosing of powdered medicines in precise amounts quickly and accurately has been an all-time challenge. Various powder dispensing mechanisms are being designed to overcome these challenges. Battery operated screw conveyor mechanism is being innovated to overcome above problems faced. These inventions are numerically evaluated at concept development level by employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of gas-solids multiphase flow systems. CFD has been very helpful in the development of such devices, saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes and testing. In this study, powder dispensation from the trocar's end is simulated by using the Dense Discrete Phase Model technique along with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow. The powder is viewed as a secondary flow in air (DDPM-KTGF). By considering the volume fraction of powder as 50%, the transportation side is done by rotation of the screw conveyor. The performance is calculated for 1 sec time frame in an unsteady computation manner. This methodology will help designers in developing design concepts to improve the dispensation and the effective area within a quick turnaround time frame.

Keywords: Multiphase flow, screw conveyor, transient, DDPM - KTGF.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 246
2464 A Study on Improving the Flow Capacity of the Valves

Authors: A. G. Pradeep, Gorantla Giridhar Kumar, Vijay Turaga, Vinod Srinivasa


The major problem in the flow control valve is of lower Flow Capacity (Cv) which will reduce overall efficiency of flow circuit. Designers are continuously working to improve the Cv of the valve, but they need to validate the design ideas they have regarding the improvement of Cv. Traditional method of prototype and testing take a lot of time, that is where CFD comes into picture with very quick and accurate validation along with the visualization which is not possible with traditional testing method. We have developed a method to predict Cv value using CFD analysis by iterating on various Boundary conditions, solver settings and by carrying out grid convergence studies to establish correlation between the CFD model and Test data. The present study investigates 3 different ideas put forward by the designers for improving the flow capacity of the valves like reducing the cage thickness, changing the port position, and using the parabolic plug to guide the flow. Using CFD, we analyzed all design changes using the established methodology that we developed. We were able to evaluate the effect of these design changes on the Valve Cv. We optimized the wetted surface of the valve further by suggesting the design modification to the lower part of the valve to make the flow more streamlined. We could find that changing cage thickness and port position has little impact on the valve Cv. Combination of optimized wetted surface and introduction of parabolic plug improved the Cv of the valve significantly.

Keywords: Flow control valves, flow capacity, CFD simulations, design validation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 310
2463 An Intelligent Controller Augmented with Variable Zero Lag Compensation for Antilock Braking System

Authors: Benjamin C. Agwah, Paulinus C. Eze


Antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the important contributions by the automobile industry, designed to ensure road safety in such way that vehicles are kept steerable and stable when during emergency braking. This paper presents a wheel slip-based intelligent controller with variable zero lag compensation for ABS. It is required to achieve a very fast perfect wheel slip tracking during hard braking condition and eliminate chattering with improved transient and steady state performance, while shortening the stopping distance using effective braking torque less than maximum allowable torque to bring a braking vehicle to a stop. The dynamic of a vehicle braking with a braking velocity of 30 ms⁻¹ on a straight line was determined and modelled in MATLAB/Simulink environment to represent a conventional ABS system without a controller. Simulation results indicated that system without a controller was not able to track desired wheel slip and the stopping distance was 135.2 m. Hence, an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed with a variable zero lag compensator (VZLC) added to enhance the performance of FLC control variable by eliminating steady state error, provide improve bandwidth to eliminate the effect of high frequency noise such as chattering during braking. The simulation results showed that FLC-VZLC provided fast tracking of desired wheel slip, eliminated chattering, and reduced stopping distance by 70.5% (39.92 m), 63.3% (49.59 m), 57.6% (57.35 m) and 50% (69.13 m) on dry, wet, cobblestone and snow road surface conditions respectively. Generally, the proposed system used effective braking torque that is less than the maximum allowable braking torque to achieve efficient wheel slip tracking and overall robust control performance on different road surfaces.

Keywords: ABS, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Variable Zero Lag Compensator, Wheel Slip Tracking.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 231
2462 Operating Equipment Effectiveness with a Reliability Indicator

Authors: Carl D. Hays III


The purpose of this theory paper is to add a reliability indicator to Operating Equipment Effectiveness (OpEE) which is used to evaluate the productivity of machines and equipment with wheels and tracks. OpEE is a derivative of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) which has been widely used for many decades in factories that manufacture products. OEE has three variables, Availability Rate, Work Rate, and Quality Rate. When OpEE was converted from OEE, the Quality Rate variable was replaced with Travel Rate. Travel Rate is essentially utilization which is a common performance indicator in machines and equipment. OpEE was designed for machines operated in remote locations such as forests, roads, fields, and farms. This theory paper intends to add the Quality Rate variable back to OpEE by including a reliability indicator in the dashboard view. This paper will suggest that the OEE quality variable can be used with a reliability metric and combined with the OpEE score. With this dashboard view of both performance metrics and reliability, fleet managers will have a more complete understanding of equipment productivity and reliability. This view will provide both leading and lagging indicators of performance in machines and equipment. The lagging indicators will indicate the trends and the leading indicators will provide an overall performance score to manage.

Keywords: Operating Equipment Effectiveness, Operating Equipment Effectiveness, IoT, Contamination Monitoring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 334
2461 Geometric Representation of Modified Forms of Seven Important Failure Criteria

Authors: Ranajay Bhowmick


Elastoplastic analysis of a structural system involves defining failure/yield criterion, flow rules and hardening rules. The failure/yield criterion defines the limit beyond which the material flows plastically and hardens/softens or remains perfectly plastic before ultimate collapse. The failure/yield criterion is represented geometrically in three/two dimensional Haigh-Westergaard stress-space to facilitate a better understanding of the behavior of the material. In the present study geometric representations in three and two-dimensional stress-space of a few important failure/yield criterion are presented. The criteria presented are the modified forms obtained due to the conditional solutions of the equation of stress invariants. A comparison of the failure/yield surfaces is also presented here to obtain the effectiveness of each of them and it has been found that for identical conditions the Rankine’s criterion gives the largest values of limiting stresses.

Keywords: Deviatoric plane, failure criteria, geometric representation, hydrostatic axis, modified form.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 265
2460 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Airflow inside a Car Cabin

Authors: Mokhtar Djeddou, Amine Mehel, Georges Fokoua, Anne Tanière, Patrick Chevrier


Commuters’ exposure to air pollution, particularly to particle matter inside vehicles, is a significant health issue. Assessing particle concentrations and characterizing their distribution is an important first step in understanding and proposing solutions to improve car cabin air quality. It is known that particle dynamics is intimately driven by particle-turbulence interactions. In order to analyze and model pollutants distribution inside car cabins, it is crucial to examine first the single-phase flow topology and its associated turbulence characteristics. Within this context, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to model airflow inside a full-scale car cabin using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach combined with the first order Realizable k-ε model to close the RANS equations. To assess the numerical model, a campaign of velocity field measurements at different locations in the front and back of the car cabin has been carried out using hot-wire anemometry technique. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement of velocity profiles. Additionally, visualization of streamlines shows the formation of jet flow developing out of the dashboard air vents and the formation of large vortex structures, particularly between the front and back-seat compartments. These vortical structures could play a key role in the accumulation and clustering of particles in a turbulent flow.

Keywords: Car cabin, CFD, hot-wire anemometry, vortical flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 333
2459 Predictions and Comparisons of Thermohydrodynamic State for Single and Three Pads Gas Foil Bearings Operating at Steady-State Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Computer-Aided Engineering Simulations

Authors: Tai Yuan Yu, Pei-Jen Wang


Oil-free turbomachinery is considered one of the critical technologies for future green power generation systems as rotor machinery systems. Oil-free technology allows clean, compact, and maintenance-free working, and gas foil bearings (GFBs) are important for the technology. Since the first applications in the auxiliary power units and air cycle machines in the 1970s, obvious improvement has been created to the computational models for dynamic rotor behavior. However, many technical issues are still poorly understood or remain unsolved, and some of those are thermal management and the pattern of how pressure will be distributed in bearing clearance. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction model of single pad foil bearings and three pad foil bearings to predict bearing working behavior that researchers could compare characteristics of those. The coupling analysis model involves dynamic working characteristics applied to all the gas film and mechanical structures. Therefore, the elastic deformation of foil structure and the hydrodynamic pressure of gas film can both be calculated by a finite element method program. As a result, the temperature distribution pattern could also be iteratively solved by coupling analysis. In conclusion, the working fluid state in a gas film of various pad forms of bearings working characteristic at constant rotational speed for both can be solved for comparisons with the experimental results.

Keywords: Fluid structure interaction multi-physics simulations, gas foil bearing, oil-free, transient thermohydrodynamic.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 327