Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2367

Search results for: shallow water

2367 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: Aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave.

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2366 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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2365 Discontinuous Galerkin Method for 1D Shallow Water Flow with Water Surface Slope Limiter

Authors: W. Lai, A. A. Khan

Abstract:

A water surface slope limiting scheme is tested and compared with the water depth slope limiter for the solution of one dimensional shallow water equations with bottom slope source term. Numerical schemes based on the total variation diminishing Runge- Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method with slope limiter schemes based on water surface slope and water depth are used to solve one-dimensional shallow water equations. For each slope limiter, three different Riemann solvers based on HLL, LF, and Roe flux functions are used. The proposed water surface based slope limiter scheme is easy to implement and shows better conservation property compared to the slope limiter based on water depth. Of the three flux functions, the Roe approximation provides the best results while the LF function proves to be least suitable when used with either slope limiter scheme.

Keywords: Discontinuous finite element, TVD Runge-Kuttascheme, slope limiters, Riemann solvers, shallow water flow.

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2364 Numerical Modeling of Wave Run-Up in Shallow Water Flows Using Moving Wet/Dry Interfaces

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Michael Herty, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

We present a new class of numerical techniques to solve shallow water flows over dry areas including run-up. Many recent investigations on wave run-up in coastal areas are based on the well-known shallow water equations. Numerical simulations have also performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of coastal areas. In all these simulations the shallow water equations are solved in entire domain including dry areas and special treatments are used for numerical solution of singularities at these dry regions. In the present study we propose a new method to deal with these difficulties by reformulating the shallow water equations into a new system to be solved only in the wetted domain. The system is obtained by a change in the coordinates leading to a set of equations in a moving domain for which the wet/dry interface is the reconstructed using the wave speed. To solve the new system we present a finite volume method of Lax-Friedrich type along with a modified method of characteristics. The method is well-balanced and accurately resolves dam-break problems over dry areas.

Keywords: Run-up waves, Shallow water equations, finite volume method, wet/dry interface, dam-break problem.

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2363 Ginzburg-Landau Model for Curved Two-Phase Shallow Mixing Layers

Authors: Irina Eglite, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

Method of multiple scales is used in the paper in order to derive an amplitude evolution equation for the most unstable mode from two-dimensional shallow water equations under the rigid-lid assumption. It is assumed that shallow mixing layer is slightly curved in the longitudinal direction and contains small particles. Dynamic interaction between carrier fluid and particles is neglected. It is shown that the evolution equation is the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. Explicit formulas for the computation of the coefficients of the equation are obtained.

Keywords: Shallow water equations, mixing layer, weakly nonlinear analysis, Ginzburg-Landau equation

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2362 Tsunami Modelling using the Well-Balanced Scheme

Authors: Ahmad Izani M. Ismail, Md. Fazlul Karim, Mai Duc Thanh

Abstract:

A well balanced numerical scheme based on stationary waves for shallow water flows with arbitrary topography has been introduced by Thanh et al. [18]. The scheme was constructed so that it maintains equilibrium states and tests indicate that it is stable and fast. Applying the well-balanced scheme for the one-dimensional shallow water equations, we study the early shock waves propagation towards the Phuket coast in Southern Thailand during a hypothetical tsunami. The initial tsunami wave is generated in the deep ocean with the strength that of Indonesian tsunami of 2004.

Keywords: Tsunami study, shallow water, conservation law, well-balanced scheme, topography. Subject classification: 86 A 05, 86 A 17.

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2361 An Unstructured Finite-volume Technique for Shallow-water Flows with Wetting and Drying Fronts

Authors: Rajendra K. Ray, Kim Dan Nguyen

Abstract:

An unstructured finite volume numerical model is presented here for simulating shallow-water flows with wetting and drying fronts. The model is based on the Green-s theorem in combination with Chorin-s projection method. A 2nd-order upwind scheme coupled with a Least Square technique is used to handle convection terms. An Wetting and drying treatment is used in the present model to ensures the total mass conservation. To test it-s capacity and reliability, the present model is used to solve the Parabolic Bowl problem. We compare our numerical solutions with the corresponding analytical and existing standard numerical results. Excellent agreements are found in all the cases.

Keywords: Finite volume method, Projection method, Shallow water, Unstructured grid, wetting/drying fronts.

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2360 A Shallow Water Model for Computing Inland Inundation Due to Indonesian Tsunami 2004 Using a Moving Coastal Boundary

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Mohammed Ashaque Meah, Ahmad Izani M. Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for estimating the extent of inland inundation due to Indonesian tsunami of 2004 along the coastal belts of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. The model consists of the shallow water equations together with open and coastal boundary conditions. In order to route the water wave towards the land, the coastal boundary is treated as a time dependent moving boundary. For computation of tsunami inundation, the initial tsunami wave is generated in the deep ocean with the strength of the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. Several numerical experiments are carried out by changing the slope of the beach to examine the extent of inundation with slope. The simulated inundation is found to decrease with the increase of the slope of the orography. Correlation between inundation / recession and run-up are found to be directly proportional to each other.

Keywords: Inland Inundation, Shallow Water Equations, Tsunami, Moving Coastal Boundary.

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2359 Effect of Shallow Groundwater Table on the Moisture Depletion Pattern in Crop Root Zone

Authors: Vijay Shankar

Abstract:

Different techniques for estimating seasonal water use from soil profile water depletion frequently do not account for flux below the root zone. Shallow water table contribution to supply crop water use may be important in arid and semi-arid regions. Development of predictive root uptake models, under influence of shallow water table makes it possible for planners to incorporate interaction between water table and root zone into design of irrigation projects. A model for obtaining soil moisture depletion from root zone and water movement below it is discussed with the objective to determine impact of shallow water table on seasonal moisture depletion patterns under water table depth variation, up to the bottom of root zone. The role of different boundary conditions has also been considered. Three crops: Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn (Zea mays) and Potato (Solanum tuberosum), common in arid & semi-arid regions, are chosen for the study. Using experimentally obtained soil moisture depletion values for potential soil moisture conditions, moisture depletion patterns using a non linear root uptake model have been obtained for different water table depths. Comparative analysis of the moisture depletion patterns under these conditions show a wide difference in percent depletion from different layers of root zone particularly top and bottom layers with middle layers showing insignificant variation in moisture depletion values. Moisture depletion in top layer, when the water table rises to root zone increases by 19.7%, 22.9% & 28.2%, whereas decrease in bottom layer is 68.8%, 61.6% & 64.9% in case of wheat, corn & potato respectively. The paper also discusses the causes and consequences of increase in moisture depletion from top layers and exceptionally high reduction in bottom layer, and the possible remedies for the same. The numerical model developed for the study can be used to help formulating irrigation strategies for areas where shallow groundwater of questionable quality is an option for crop production.

Keywords: Moisture Depletion, crop root zone, ground water table, irrigation.

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2358 Conjunctive Surface Runoff and Groundwater Management in Salinity Soils

Authors: S. Chuenchooklin, T. Ichikawa, P. Mekpruksawong

Abstract:

This research was conducted in the Lower Namkam Irrigation Project situated in the Namkam River Basin in Thailand. Degradation of groundwater quality in some areas is caused by saline soil spots beneath ground surface. However, the tail regulated gate structure on the Namkam River, a lateral stream of the Mekong River. It is aimed for maintaining water level in the river at +137.5 to +138.5 m (MSL) and flow to the irrigation canals based on a gravity system since July 2009. It might leach some saline soil spots from underground to soil surface if lack of understanding of the conjunctive surface water and groundwater behaviors. This research has been conducted by continuously the observing of both shallow and deep groundwater level and quality from existing observation wells. The simulation of surface water was carried out using a hydrologic modeling system (HEC-HMS) to compute the ungauged side flow catchments as the lateral flows for the river system model (HEC-RAS). The constant water levels in the upstream of the operated gate caused a slight rising up of shallow groundwater level when compared to the water table. However, the groundwater levels in the confined aquifers remained less impacted than in the shallow aquifers but groundwater levels in late of wet season in some wells were higher than the phreatic surface. This causes salinization of the groundwater at the soil surface and might affect some crops. This research aims for the balance of water stage in the river and efficient groundwater utilization in this area.

Keywords: Surface water, groundwater observation, irrigation, water balance.

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2357 Linear Instability of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis of wake-shear layers in twophase shallow flows is performed in the present paper. Twodimensional shallow water equations are used in the analysis. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. The stability calculations are performed for different values of the particle loading parameter and two other parameters which characterize the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. The results show that the particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow while the increase in the velocity ratio or in the velocity deficit destabilizes the flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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2356 Modeling and Simulation of Motion of an Underwater Robot Glider for Shallow-water Ocean Applications

Authors: Chen Wang, Amir Anvar

Abstract:

This paper describes the modeling and simulation of an underwater robot glider used in the shallow-water environment. We followed the Equations of motion derived by [2] and simplified dynamic Equations of motion of an underwater glider according to our underwater glider. A simulation code is built and operated in the MATLAB Simulink environment so that we can make improvements to our testing glider design. It may be also used to validate a robot glider design.

Keywords: AUV, underwater glider, robot, modeling, simulation.

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2355 Linear Stability Characteristics of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability of wake-shear layers in two-phase shallow flows is analyzed in the present paper. Stability analysis is based on two-dimensional shallow water equations. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. Linear stability curves are obtained for different values of the particle loading parameter, the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. It is shown that the increase in the velocity ratio destabilizes the flow. The particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow. The role of the velocity deficit is also destabilizing: the increase of the velocity deficit leads to less stable flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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2354 Groundwater Level Prediction at a Pilot Area in Southeastern Part of the UAE using Shallow Seismic Method

Authors: Murad A, Baker H, Mahmoud S, Gabr A

Abstract:

The groundwater is one of the main sources for sustainability in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Intensive developments in Al-Ain area lead to increase water demand, which consequently reduced the overall groundwater quantity in major aquifers. However, in certain residential areas within Al-Ain, it has been noticed that the groundwater level is rising, for example in Sha-ab Al Askher area. The reasons for the groundwater rising phenomenon are yet to be investigated. In this work, twenty four seismic refraction profiles have been carried out along the study pilot area; as well as field measurement of the groundwater level in a number of available water wells in the area. The processed seismic data indicated the deepest and shallowest groundwater levels are 15m and 2.3 meters respectively. This result is greatly consistent with the proper field measurement of the groundwater level. The minimum detected value may be referred to perched subsurface water which may be associated to the infiltration from the surrounding water bodies such as lakes, and elevated farms. The maximum values indicate the accurate groundwater level within the study area. The findings of this work may be considered as a preliminary help to the decision makers.

Keywords: groundwater, shallow seismic method, United Arab Emirates

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2353 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri

Abstract:

A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: Hyperion, hyperspectral, Kolkata, water depth.

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2352 Simulation of Dam Break using Finite Volume Method

Authors: A.Roshandel, N.Hedayat, H.kiamanesh

Abstract:

Today, numerical simulation is a powerful tool to solve various hydraulic engineering problems. The aim of this research is numerical solutions of shallow water equations using finite volume method for Simulations of dam break over wet and dry bed. In order to solve Riemann problem, Roe-s approximate solver is used. To evaluate numerical model, simulation was done in 1D and 2D states. In 1D state, two dam break test over dry bed (with and without friction) were studied. The results showed that Structural failure around the dam and damage to the downstream constructions in bed without friction is more than friction bed. In 2D state, two tests for wet and dry beds were done. Generally in wet bed case, waves are propagated to canal sides but in dry bed it is not significant. Therefore, damage to the storage facilities and agricultural lands in wet bed case is more than in dry bed.

Keywords: dam break, dry bed, finite volume method, shallow water equations.

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2351 One Typical Jacket Platform’s Reactions in Front of Sea Water Level Variations

Authors: M. A. Lotfollahi Yaghin, R. Rezaei

Abstract:

Demanding structural safety under various loading conditions, has focused attention on their variation and structural elements behavior due to these variations. Jacket structures are designed for a specific water level (LAT). One of the important issues about these kinds of structures is the water level rise. For example, the level of water in the Caspian Sea has risen by 2.5m in the last fifteen years and is continuing to rise. In this paper, the structural behavior of one typical shallow or medium water jacket platform (a four-leg steel jacket platform in 55m water depth) under water level rise has been studied. The time history of Von Mises stress and nodal displacement has chosen for evaluating structural behavior. The results show that dependent on previous water depth and structural elements position; different structural elements have different behavior due to water level rise.

Keywords: Jacket offshore platform, Time- history, Von Mises, Water level rise, Utilization Ratio.

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2350 Water Budget in High Drought-Borne Area in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka during Dry Season

Authors: R. Kandiah, K. Miyamoto

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, the Jaffna area is a high drought affected area and depends mainly on groundwater aquifers for water needs. Water for daily activities is extracted from wells. As households manually extract water from the wells, it is not drawn from mid evening to early morning. The water inflow at night provides the maximum water level that decreases during the daytime due to extraction. The storage volume of water in wells is limited or at its lowest level during the dry season. This study analyzes the domestic water budget during the dry season in the Jaffna area. In order to evaluate the water inflow rate into wells, storage volume and extraction volume from wells over time, water pressure is measured at the bottom of three wells, which are located in coastal area denoted as well A, in nonspecific area denoted as well B, and agricultural area denoted as well C. The water quality at the wells A, B, and C, are mostly fresh, modest fresh, and saline respectively. From the monitoring, we can find that the daily inflow amount of water into the wells and daily water extraction depend on each other, that is, higher extraction yields higher inflow. And, in the dry season, the daily inflow volume and the daily extraction volume of each well are almost in balance.

Keywords: Domestic water, water balance, water budget, ground water, shallow well.

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2349 A Simple and Empirical Refraction Correction Method for UAV-Based Shallow-Water Photogrammetry

Authors: I GD Yudha Partama, A. Kanno, Y. Akamatsu, R. Inui, M. Goto, M. Sekine

Abstract:

The aerial photogrammetry of shallow water bottoms has the potential to be an efficient high-resolution survey technique for shallow water topography, thanks to the advent of convenient UAV and automatic image processing techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS)). However, it suffers from the systematic overestimation of the bottom elevation, due to the light refraction at the air-water interface. In this study, we present an empirical method to correct for the effect of refraction after the usual SfM-MVS processing, using common software. The presented method utilizes the empirical relation between the measured true depth and the estimated apparent depth to generate an empirical correction factor. Furthermore, this correction factor was utilized to convert the apparent water depth into a refraction-corrected (real-scale) water depth. To examine its effectiveness, we applied the method to two river sites, and compared the RMS errors in the corrected bottom elevations with those obtained by three existing methods. The result shows that the presented method is more effective than the two existing methods: The method without applying correction factor and the method utilizes the refractive index of water (1.34) as correction factor. In comparison with the remaining existing method, which used the additive terms (offset) after calculating correction factor, the presented method performs well in Site 2 and worse in Site 1. However, we found this linear regression method to be unstable when the training data used for calibration are limited. It also suffers from a large negative bias in the correction factor when the apparent water depth estimated is affected by noise, according to our numerical experiment. Overall, the good accuracy of refraction correction method depends on various factors such as the locations, image acquisition, and GPS measurement conditions. The most effective method can be selected by using statistical selection (e.g. leave-one-out cross validation).

Keywords: Bottom elevation, multi-view stereo, river, structure-from-motion.

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2348 Ginzburg-Landau Model : an Amplitude Evolution Equation for Shallow Wake Flows

Authors: Imad Chaddad, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

Linear and weakly nonlinear analysis of shallow wake flows is presented in the present paper. The evolution of the most unstable linear mode is described by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). The coefficients of the CGLE are calculated numerically from the solution of the corresponding linear stability problem for a one-parametric family of shallow wake flows. It is shown that the coefficients of the CGLE are not so sensitive to the variation of the base flow profile.

Keywords: Ginzburg-Landau equation, shallow wake flow, weakly nonlinear theory.

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2347 Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids

Authors: Rabih Ghostine, Craig Kapfer, Viswanathan Kannan, Ibrahim Hoteit

Abstract:

Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Theoretical test case and three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) wetting and drying in a parabolic basin (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; (iii) wave propagation on the Reyran river valley in consequence of the Malpasset dam-break in 1959 (France); and (iv) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.

Keywords: Flood modeling, dam-break, shallow water equations, Discontinuous Galerkin scheme, MUSCL scheme.

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2346 Numerical Simulation of Tidal Currents in Persian Gulf

Authors: Ameleh Aghajanloo, Moharam Dolatshahi Pirouz, Masoud Montazeri Namin

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model for the tidal currents simulation in Persian Gulf is presented. The model is based on the depth averaged equations of shallow water which consider hydrostatic pressure distribution. The continuity equation and two momentum equations including the effects of bed friction, the Coriolis effects and wind stress have been solved. To integrate the 2D equations, the Alternative Direction Implicit (ADI) technique has been used. The base of equations discritization was finite volume method applied on rectangular mesh. To evaluate the model validation, a dam break case study including analytical solution is selected and the comparison is done. After that, the capability of the model in simulation of tidal current in a real field is represented by modeling the current behavior in Persian Gulf. The tidal fluctuations in Hormuz Strait have caused the tidal currents in the area of study. Therefore, the water surface oscillations data at Hengam Island on Hormoz Strait are used as the model input data. The check point of the model is measured water surface elevations at Assaluye port. The comparison between the results and the acceptable agreement of them showed the model ability for modeling marine hydrodynamic.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, Tidal Currents, Shallow Water Equations, Finite Volumes

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2345 A Finite Element/Finite Volume Method for Dam-Break Flows over Deformable Beds

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Ashraf Osman, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

A coupled two-layer finite volume/finite element method was proposed for solving dam-break flow problem over deformable beds. The governing equations consist of the well-balanced two-layer shallow water equations for the water flow and a linear elastic model for the bed deformations. Deformations in the topography can be caused by a brutal localized force or simply by a class of sliding displacements on the bathymetry. This deformation in the bed is a source of perturbations, on the water surface generating water waves which propagate with different amplitudes and frequencies. Coupling conditions at the interface are also investigated in the current study and two mesh procedure is proposed for the transfer of information through the interface. In the present work a new procedure is implemented at the soil-water interface using the finite element and two-layer finite volume meshes with a conservative distribution of the forces at their intersections. The finite element method employs quadratic elements in an unstructured triangular mesh and the finite volume method uses the Rusanove to reconstruct the numerical fluxes. The numerical coupled method is highly efficient, accurate, well balanced, and it can handle complex geometries as well as rapidly varying flows. Numerical results are presented for several test examples of dam-break flows over deformable beds. Mesh convergence study is performed for both methods, the overall model provides new insight into the problems at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: Dam-break flows, deformable beds, finite element method, finite volume method, linear elasticity, Shallow water equations.

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2344 Mooring Analysis of Duct-Type Tidal Current Power System in Shallow Water

Authors: Chul H. Jo, Do Y. Kim, Bong K. Cho, Myeong J. Kim

Abstract:

The exhaustion of oil and the environmental pollution from the use of fossil fuel are increasing. Tidal current power (TCP) has been proposed as an alternative energy source because of its predictability and reliability. By applying a duct and single point mooring (SPM) system, a TCP device can amplify the generating power and keep its position properly. Because the generating power is proportional to cube of the current stream velocity, amplifying the current speed by applying a duct to a TCP system is an effective way to improve the efficiency of the power device. An SPM system can be applied at any water depth and is highly cost effective. Simple installation and maintenance procedures are also merits of an SPM system. In this study, we designed an SPM system for a duct-type TCP device for use in shallow water. Motions of the duct are investigated to obtain the response amplitude operator (RAO) as the magnitude of the transfer function. Parameters affecting the stability of the SPM system such as the fairlead departure angle, current velocity, and the number of clamp weights are analyzed and/or optimized. Wadam and OrcaFlex commercial software is used to design the mooring line.

Keywords: Mooring design, parametric analysis, response amplitude operator, single point mooring.

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2343 Tsunami Inundation Modeling in a Boundary Fitted Curvilinear Grid Model Using the Method of Lines Technique

Authors: M. Ashaque Meah, M. Shah Noor, M Asif Arefin, Md. Fazlul Karim

Abstract:

A numerical technique in a boundary-fitted curvilinear grid model is developed to simulate the extent of inland inundation along the coastal belts of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand due to 2004 Indian ocean tsunami. Tsunami propagation and run-up are also studied in this paper. The vertically integrated shallow water equations are solved by using the method of lines (MOL). For this purpose the boundary-fitted grids are generated along the coastal and island boundaries and the other open boundaries of the model domain. A transformation is used to the governing equations so that the transformed physical domain is converted into a rectangular one. The MOL technique is applied to the transformed shallow water equations and the boundary conditions so that the equations are converted into ordinary differential equations initial value problem. Finally the 4th order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. The moving boundary technique is applied instead of fixed sea side wall or fixed coastal boundary to ensure the movement of the coastal boundary. The extent of intrusion of water and associated tsunami propagation are simulated for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand. The simulated results are compared with the results obtained from a finite difference model and the data available in the USGS website. All simulations show better approximation than earlier research and also show excellent agreement with the observed data.

Keywords: Open boundary condition, moving boundary condition, boundary-fitted curvilinear grids, far field tsunami, Shallow Water Equations, tsunami source, Indonesian tsunami of 2004.

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2342 Water Quality and Freshwater Fish Diversity at Khao Luang National Park, Thailand

Authors: S. Sutin, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

Water quality and freshwater fish diversity from nine waterfalls at Khao Luang National Park, Thailand was examined. Streams were shallow, fast flowing with clear water and rocky and sandy substrate. The mean water quality of waterfalls at Khao Luang National Park were as following pH 7.50, air temperature 24.27 °C, water temperature 26.37 °C, dissolved oxygen 7.88 mg/l, hardness 4.44-21.33 mg/l, alkalinity 3.55-11.88 mg/(as CaCO3). Twenty fish species were found at Khao Luang National Park belonging to nine families. A cluster analysis of water quality at Khao Luang National Park revealed that waterfalls at Khao Luang National Park were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A composed of two waterfalls (i.e. Aie Kaew and Wangmaipak) that flew to the Gulf of Thailand side. Group B composed of seven waterfalls (i.e. Promlok, Kalom, Nuafa, Suankun, Soidaw, Suanhai, and Thapae) that flew to the Andaman Sea side (Fig. 2) .The Cyprinids represented the major species in all the waterfalls comprising of 45%.

Keywords: Water quality, Freshwater fishes, National Park, Khao Luang, Thailand.

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2341 Variations in Water Supply and Quality in Selected Groundwater Sources in a Part of Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Olajide Babawale, O. O. Ogunkoya

Abstract:

The study mapped selected wells in Inisa town, Osun state, in the guinea savanna region of southwest Nigeria, and determined the water quality considering certain elements. It also assessed the variation in the elevation of the water table surface to depth of the wells in the months of August and November. This is with a view to determine the level of contamination of the water with respect to land use and anthropogenic activities, and also to determine the variation that occurs in the quantity of well water in the rainy season and the start of the dry season. Results show a random pattern of the distribution of the mapped wells and shows that there is a shallow water table in the study area. The temporal changes in the elevation show that there are no significant variations in the depth of the water table surface over the period of study implying that there is a sufficient amount of water available to the town all year round. It also shows a high concentration of sodium in the water sample analyzed compared to other elements that were considered, which include iron, copper, calcium, and lead. This is attributed majorly to anthropogenic activities through the disposal of waste in landfill sites. There is a low concentration of lead which is a good indication of a reduced level of pollution.

Keywords: Water quality, temporal changes, elevation, water table surface, land use, anthropogenic activities.

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2340 Atmosphere Water Vapour As Main Sweet Water Resource in the Arid Zones of Central Asia

Authors: S.I.Nikolaeva, Yu.V. Petrov, L.Ye.Skipnikova

Abstract:

It has been shown that the solution of water shortage problem in Central Asia closely connected with inclusion of atmosphere water vapour into the system of response and water resources management. Some methods of water extraction from atmosphere have been discussed.

Keywords: potable water, water resources, water problems, water scarcity.

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2339 Land Subsidence and Fissuring Due to Ground Water Withdrawal in Yazd-Ardakan Basin, Central Iran

Authors: Eslamizadeh, Azat., Samanirad, Shahram

Abstract:

The Yazd-Ardakan basin in Central Iran has two separated aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer is supplies 40 Qanats. The deep saturated confined aquifer is the main water storage. Due to over-withdrawal, water table has been decreasing during last 25 years. Recent study shows that the shortage of the aquifer is about 16 meters and land subsidence is 0.5 - 1.2 meters. Long deep cracks are found just above the aquifer and devour the irrigation water and floods. Although the most cracks direction is NW-SE and could be compared to the main direction of YA basin, there is no direct evidence for relation between land subsidence and the huge cracks. Large-scale water pumping has been decreased the water pressure in aquifer. The pressure decline disturbed the balance and increased the pressure of overlying sediments. So porosity decreased and compaction started. Then, sediments compaction developed and made land subsidence and some huge cracks slowly.

Keywords: Land subsidence, Iran, Yazd, aquifer

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2338 Analytical Investigation of the Effects of a Standing Ocean Wave in a Wave-Power Device OWC

Authors: E.G. Bautista, F. Méndez, O. Bautista, J.C. Arcos

Abstract:

In this work we study analytically and numerically the performance of the mean heave motion of an OWC coupled with the governing equation of the spreading ocean waves due to the wide variation in an open parabolic channel with constant depth. This paper considers that the ocean wave propagation is under the assumption of a shallow flow condition. In order to verify the effect of the waves in the OWC firstly we establish the analytical model in a non-dimensional form based on the energy equation. The proposed wave-power system has to aims: one is to perturb the ocean waves as a consequence of the channel shape in order to concentrate the maximum ocean wave amplitude in the neighborhood of the OWC and the second is to determine the pressure and volume oscillation of air inside the compression chamber.

Keywords: Oscillating water column, Shallow flow, Waveenergy.

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