Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: viscous damper

81 A Comparative Study on the Performance of Viscous and Friction Dampers under Seismic Excitation

Authors: Apetsi K. Ampiah, Zhao Xin

Abstract:

Earthquakes over the years have been known to cause devastating damage on buildings and induced huge loss on human life and properties. It is for this reason that engineers have devised means of protecting buildings and thus protecting human life. Since the invention of devices such as the viscous and friction dampers, scientists/researchers have been able to incorporate these devices into buildings and other engineering structures. The viscous damper is a hydraulic device which dissipates the seismic forces by pushing fluid through an orifice, producing a damping pressure which creates a force. In the friction damper, the force is mainly resisted by converting the kinetic energy into heat by friction. Devices such as viscous and friction dampers are able to absorb almost all the earthquake energy, allowing the structure to remain undamaged (or with some amount of damage) and ready for immediate reuse (with some repair works). Comparing these two devices presents the engineer with adequate information on the merits and demerits of these devices and in which circumstances their use would be highly favorable. This paper examines the performance of both viscous and friction dampers under different ground motions. A two-storey frame installed with both devices under investigation are modeled in commercial computer software and analyzed under different ground motions. The results of the performance of the structure are then tabulated and compared. Also included in this study is the ease of installation and maintenance of these devices.

Keywords: Friction damper, seismic, slip load, viscous damper.

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80 Earthquake Analysis of Reinforce Concrete Framed Structures with Added Viscous Dampers

Authors: F. Hejazi, J. Noorzaei, M. S. Jaafar, A. A. Abang Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a numerical finite element algorithm used for the analysis of reinforced concrete structure equipped with shakes energy absorbing device subjected to earthquake excitation. For this purpose a finite element program code for analysis of reinforced concrete frame buildings is developed. The performance of developed program code is evaluated by analyzing of a reinforced concrete frame buildings model. The results are show that using damper device as seismic energy dissipation system effectively can reduce the structural response of framed structure during earthquake occurrence.

Keywords: Viscous Damper, finite element, program coding

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79 Optimum Parameter of a Viscous Damper for Seismic and Wind Vibration

Authors: Soltani Amir, Hu Jiaxin

Abstract:

Determination of optimal parameters of a passive  control system device is the primary objective of this study.  Expanding upon the use of control devices in wind and earthquake  hazard reduction has led to development of various control systems.  The advantage of non-linearity characteristics in a passive control  device and the optimal control method using LQR algorithm are  explained in this study. Finally, this paper introduces a simple  approach to determine optimum parameters of a nonlinear viscous  damper for vibration control of structures. A MATLAB program is  used to produce the dynamic motion of the structure considering the  stiffness matrix of the SDOF frame and the non-linear damping  effect. This study concluded that the proposed system (variable  damping system) has better performance in system response control  than a linear damping system. Also, according to the energy  dissipation graph, the total energy loss is greater in non-linear  damping system than other systems.

 

Keywords: Passive Control System, Damping Devices, Viscous Dampers, Control Algorithm.

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78 Seismic Protection of Automated Stocker System by Customized Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Y. P. Wang, J. K. Chen, C. H. Lee, G. H. Huang, M. C. Wang, S. W. Chen, Y. T. Kuan, H. C. Lin, C. Y. Huang, W. H. Liang, W. C. Lin, H. C. Yu

Abstract:

The hi-tech industries in the Science Park at southern Taiwan were heavily damaged by a strong earthquake early 2016. The financial loss in this event was attributed primarily to the automated stocker system handling fully processed products, and recovery of the automated stocker system from the aftermath proved to contribute major lead time. Therefore, development of effective means for protection of stockers against earthquakes has become the highest priority for risk minimization and business continuity. This study proposes to mitigate the seismic response of the stockers by introducing viscous fluid dampers in between the ceiling and the top of the stockers. The stocker is expected to vibrate less violently with a passive control force on top. Linear damper is considered in this application with an optimal damping coefficient determined from a preliminary parametric study. The damper is small in size in comparison with those adopted for building or bridge applications. Component test of the dampers has been carried out to make sure they meet the design requirement. Shake table tests have been further conducted to verify the proposed scheme under realistic earthquake conditions. Encouraging results have been achieved by effectively reducing the seismic responses of up to 60% and preventing the FOUPs from falling off the shelves that would otherwise be the case if left unprotected. Effectiveness of adopting a viscous fluid damper for seismic control of the stocker on top against the ceiling has been confirmed. This technique has been adopted by Macronix International Co., LTD for seismic retrofit of existing stockers. Demonstrative projects on the application of the proposed technique are planned underway for other companies in the display industry as well.

Keywords: Hi-tech industries, seismic protection, automated stocker system, viscous fluid damper.

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77 Electromagnetic Tuned Mass Damper Approach for Regenerative Suspension

Authors: S. Kopylov, C. Z. Bo

Abstract:

This study is aimed at exploring the possibility of energy recovery through the suppression of vibrations. The article describes design of electromagnetic dynamic damper. The magnetic part of the device performs the function of a tuned mass damper, thereby providing both energy regeneration and damping properties to the protected mass. According to the theory of tuned mass damper, equations of mathematical models were obtained. Then, under given properties of current system, amplitude frequency response was investigated. Therefore, main ideas and methods for further research were defined.

Keywords: Electromagnetic damper, oscillations with two degrees of freedom, regeneration systems, tuned mass damper.

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76 Evaluation of Hybrid Viscoelastic Damper for Passive Energy Dissipation

Authors: S. S. Ghodsi, M. H. Mehrabi, Zainah Ibrahim, Meldi Suhatril

Abstract:

This research examines the performance of a hybrid passive control device for enhancing the seismic response of steel frame structures. The device design comprises a damper which employs a viscoelastic material to control both shear and axial strain. In the design, energy is dissipated through the shear strain of a two-layer system of viscoelastic pads which are located between steel plates. In addition, viscoelastic blocks have been included on either side of the main shear damper which obtains compressive strains in the viscoelastic blocks. These dampers not only dissipate energy but also increase the stiffness of the steel frame structure, and the degree to which they increase the stiffness may be controlled by the size and shape. In this research, the cyclical behavior of the damper was examined both experimentally and numerically with finite element modeling. Cyclic loading results of the finite element modeling reveal fundamental characteristics of this hybrid viscoelastic damper. The results indicate that incorporating a damper of the design can significantly improve the seismic performance of steel frame structures.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, energy dissipation, hybrid damper, passive control system, viscoelastic damper.

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75 A Parametric Assessment of Friction Damper in Eccentric Braced Frame

Authors: J. Vaseghi, S.Navaei, B. Navayinia, F. Roshantabari

Abstract:

In This paper, the behavior of eccentric braced frame (EBF) is studied with replacing friction damper (FD) in confluence of these braces, in 5 and 10-storey steel frames. For FD system, the main step is to determine the slip load. For this reason, the performance indexes include roof displacement, base shear, dissipated energy and relative performance should be investigated. In nonlinear dynamic analysis, the response of structure to three earthquake records has been obtained and the values of roof displacement, base shear and column axial force for FD and EBF frames have been compared. The results demonstrate that use of the FD in frames, in comparison with the EBF, substantially reduces the roof displacement, column axial force and base shear. The obtained results show suitable performance of FD in higher storey structure in comparison with the EBF.

Keywords: Friction Damper (FD), Slip Load, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis, Performance Index.

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74 Design, Fabrication and Evaluation of MR Damper

Authors: A. Ashfak, A. Saheed, K. K. Abdul Rasheed, J. Abdul Jaleel

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, fabrication and evaluation of magneto-rheological damper. Semi-active control devices have received significant attention in recent years because they offer the adaptability of active control devices without requiring the associated large power sources. Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers are semi- active control devices that use MR fluids to produce controllable dampers. They potentially offer highly reliable operation and can be viewed as fail-safe in that they become passive dampers if the control hardware malfunction. The advantage of MR dampers over conventional dampers are that they are simple in construction, compromise between high frequency isolation and natural frequency isolation, they offer semi-active control, use very little power, have very quick response, has few moving parts, have a relax tolerances and direct interfacing with electronics. Magneto- Rheological (MR) fluids are Controllable fluids belonging to the class of active materials that have the unique ability to change dynamic yield stress when acted upon by an electric or magnetic field, while maintaining viscosity relatively constant. This property can be utilized in MR damper where the damping force is changed by changing the rheological properties of the fluid magnetically. MR fluids have a dynamic yield stress over Electro-Rheological fluids (ER) and a broader operational temperature range. The objective of this papert was to study the application of an MR damper to vibration control, design the vibration damper using MR fluids, test and evaluate its performance. In this paper the Rheology and the theory behind MR fluids and their use on vibration control were studied. Then a MR vibration damper suitable for vehicle suspension was designed and fabricated using the MR fluid. The MR damper was tested using a dynamic test rig and the results were obtained in the form of force vs velocity and the force vs displacement plots. The results were encouraging and greatly inspire further research on the topic.

Keywords: Magneto-rheological Fluid, MR Damper, Semiactive controller, Electro-rheological fluid.

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73 Analytical Evaluation on Hysteresis Performance of Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

The idea of adding metallic energy dissipaters to a structure to absorb a large part of the seismic energy began four decades ago. There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of both stiffened and non stiffened circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. Diameter-to-thickness ratio is employed as main parameter to investigate the hysteresis performance of stiffened and unstiffened circular shear panel. Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. Hence, the hysteresis behavior is identified, specimens which deform without strength degradation so it will be used as passive energy dissipating device in civil engineering structures.

Keywords: Circular shear panel damper, FE analysis, Hysteretic behavior, Large deformation.

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72 Transient Solution of an Incompressible Viscous Flow in a Channel with Sudden Expansion/Contraction

Authors: Durga C. Dalal, Swapan K. Pandit

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical study has been made to analyze the transient 2-D flows of a viscous incompressible fluid through channels with forward or backward constriction. Problems addressed include flow through sudden contraction and sudden expansion channel geometries with rounded and increasingly sharp reentrant corner. In both the cases, numerical results are presented for the separation and reattachment points, streamlines, vorticity and flow patterns. A fourth order accurate compact scheme has been employed to efficiently capture steady state solutions of the governing equations. It appears from our study that sharpness of the throat in the channel is one of the important parameters to control the strength and size of the separation zone without modifying the general flow patterns. The comparison between the two cases shows that the upstream geometry plays a significant role on vortex growth dynamics.

Keywords: Forward and backward constriction, HOC scheme, Incompressible viscous flows, Separation and reattachment points.

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71 One Some Effective Solutions of Stokes Axisymmetric Equation for a Viscous Fluid

Authors: N. Khatiashvili, K. Pirumova, D. Janjgava

Abstract:

The Stokes equation connected with the fluid flow over the axisymmetric bodies in a cylindrical area is considered. The equation is studied in a moving coordinate system with the appropriate boundary conditions. Effective formulas for the velocity components are obtained. The graphs of the velocity components and velocity profile are plotted.

Keywords: Stokes system, viscous fluid.

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70 A Study on the Performance Characteristics of Variable Valve for Reverse Continuous Damper

Authors: Se Kyung Oh, Young Hwan Yoon, Ary Bachtiar Krishna

Abstract:

Nowadays, a passenger car suspension must has high performance criteria with light weight, low cost, and low energy consumption. Pilot controlled proportional valve is designed and analyzed to get small pressure change rate after blow-off, and to get a fast response of the damper, a reverse damping mechanism is adapted. The reverse continuous variable damper is designed as a HS-SH damper which offers good body control with reduced transferred input force from the tire, compared with any other type of suspension system. The damper structure is designed, so that rebound and compression damping forces can be tuned independently, of which the variable valve is placed externally. The rate of pressure change with respect to the flow rate after blow-off becomes smooth when the fixed orifice size increases, which means that the blow-off slope is controllable using the fixed orifice size. Damping forces are measured with the change of the solenoid current at the different piston velocities to confirm the maximum hysteresis of 20 N, linearity, and variance of damping force. The damping force variance is wide and continuous, and is controlled by the spool opening, of which scheme is usually adapted in proportional valves. The reverse continuous variable damper developed in this study is expected to be utilized in the semi-active suspension systems in passenger cars after its performance and simplicity of the design is confirmed through a real car test.

Keywords: Blow-off, damping force, pilot controlledproportional valve, reverse continuous damper.

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69 Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Vipin Kumar Verma, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.

Keywords: Transient, Convection, MHD, Viscous, Porous.

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68 Analytical Evaluation on Structural Performance and Optimum Section of CHS Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jeonghyun Jang, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the effective size, section and structural characteristics of circular hollow steel (CHS) damper. CHS damper is among steel dampers which are used widely for seismic energy dissipation because they are easy to install, maintain and are inexpensive. CHS damper dissipates seismic energy through metallic deformation due to the geometrical elasticity of circular shape and fatigue resistance around connection part. After calculating the effective size, which is found to be height to diameter ratio of √3, nonlinear FE analyses were carried out to evaluate the structural characteristics and effective section (diameter-to-ratio).

Keywords: Circular hollow steel damper, structural characteristics, effective size, effective section, large deformation, FE analysis.

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67 Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi

Abstract:

Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis.

Keywords: Fast nonlinear analysis, friction damper, base isolator, seismic vibration control, seismic response.

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66 Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao, G. Ravi Kumar, P. Sowmya

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness.

Keywords: ANOVA, Damper, End Milling, Optimization, Surface roughness, Taguchi design.

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65 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: Slit circular shear panel damper, Hysteresis Characteristics, Slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis.

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64 Unsteady Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Electrically Conducting Fluid in Tube of Elliptical Cross Section under the Influence of Magnetic Field

Authors: Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

Abstract:

Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous electrically conducting fluid through a porous media in a tube of elliptical cross section under the influence of constant pressure gradient and magnetic field has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of elliptical cross section by taking into account of the transverse magnetic field and porosity factor of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional porosity parameter (K), magnetic parameter (m) and elastico-viscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non- Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter and magnetic parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, magnetic parameter and the porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

Keywords: Elastico-viscous fluid, Elliptic cross-section, Porous media, Second order fluids.

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63 Effect of Mesh Size on the Viscous Flow Parameters of an Axisymmetric Nozzle

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow in the axisymmetric nozzle taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier- Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the supersonic flow parameters at the exit of convergingdiverging nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the boundary layer thickness is significant at the exit of the nozzle. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid, especially near the wall, where we have a strong variation of velocity, temperature and shear stress. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, nozzle

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62 Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: R. Haoui

Abstract:

Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.

Keywords: Hypersonic flow, viscous flow, chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen and non-equilibrium flow.

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61 Impact of Viscous and Heat Relaxation Loss on the Critical Temperature Gradients of Thermoacoustic Stacks

Authors: Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil

Abstract:

A stack with a small critical temperature gradient is desirable for a standing wave thermoacoustic engine to obtain a low onset temperature difference (the minimum temperature difference to start engine-s self-oscillation). The viscous and heat relaxation loss in the stack determines the critical temperature gradient. In this work, a dimensionless critical temperature gradient factor is obtained based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. It is indicated that the impedance determines the proportion between the viscous loss, heat relaxation losses and the power production from the heat energy. It reveals the effects of the channel dimensions, geometrical configuration and the local acoustic impedance on the critical temperature gradient in stacks. The numerical analysis shows that there exists a possible optimum combination of these parameters which leads to the lowest critical temperature gradient. Furthermore, several different geometries have been tested and compared numerically.

Keywords: Critical temperature gradient, heat relaxation, stack, viscous effect.

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60 Hall Effect on MHD Mixed Convection Flow of Viscous-Elastic Incompressible Fluid Past of an Infinite Porous Medium

Authors: T. K. Das, N. Senapatil, R. K. Dhal

Abstract:

An unsteady mixed free convection MHD flow of elastic-viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate is investigated when the presence of heat Source/sink, temperature and concentration are assumed to be oscillating with time and hall effect. The governing equations are solved by complex variable technique. The expressions for the velocity field, temperature field and species concentration are demonstrated in graphs. The effects of the Prandtl number, the Grashof number, modified Grashof number, the Schimidt number, the Hall parameter, Elastic parameter & Magnetic parameter are discussed.

Keywords: MHD, Mixed convective, Elastic-viscous incompressible, rotational, heat transfer, mass transfer, suction and injection.

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59 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong

Abstract:

Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: Equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper.

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58 Parametric Investigation of Aircraft Door’s Emergency Power Assist System (EPAS)

Authors: Marshal D. Kafle, Jun H. Kim, Hyun W. Been, Kyoung M. Min, Sung H. Kim

Abstract:

Fluid viscous damping systems are well suited for many air vehicles subjected to shock and vibration. These damping system work with the principle of viscous fluid throttling through the orifice to create huge pressure difference between compression and rebound chamber and obtain the required damping force. One application of such systems is its use in aircraft door system to counteract the door’s velocity and safely stop it. In exigency situations like crash or emergency landing where the door doesn’t open easily, possibly due to unusually tilting of fuselage or some obstacles or intrusion of debris obstruction to move the parts of the door, such system can be combined with other systems to provide needed force to forcefully open the door and also securely stop it simultaneously within the required time i.e. less than 8 seconds. In the present study, a hydraulic system called snubber along with other systems like actuator, gas bottle assembly which together known as emergency power assist system (EPAS) is designed, built and experimentally studied to check the magnitude of angular velocity, damping force and time required to effectively open the door. Whenever needed, the gas pressure from the bottle is released to actuate the actuator and at the same time pull the snubber’s piston to operate the emergency opening of the door. Such EPAS installed in the suspension arm of the aircraft door is studied explicitly changing parameters like orifice size, oil level, oil viscosity and bypass valve gap and its spring of the snubber at varying temperature to generate the optimum design case. Comparative analysis of the EPAS at several cases is done and conclusions are made. It is found that during emergency condition, the system opening time and angular velocity, when snubber with 0.3mm piston and shaft orifice and bypass valve gap of 0.5 mm with its original spring is used, shows significant improvement over the old ones.

Keywords: Aircraft Door Damper, Bypass Valve, Emergency Power Assist System, Hydraulic Damper, Oil viscosity.

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57 Robust Control Design and Analysis Using SCILAB for a Mass-Spring-Damper System

Authors: Yoonsoo Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces an open-source software package SCILAB [1], an alternative of MATLAB [2], which can be used for robust control design and analysis of a typical mass-spring-damper (MSD) system. Using the previously published ideas in [3,4], this popular mechanical system is considered to provide another example of usefulness of SCILAB for advanced control design.

Keywords: Robust Control, SCILAB, Mass-Spring-Damper(MSD).

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56 Unsteady MHD Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid in a Tube of Spherical Cross Section on a Porous Boundary

Authors: Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

Abstract:

Exact solution of an unsteady MHD flow of elasticoviscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of spherical cross section under the influence of magnetic field and constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of spherical cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in two-stages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a non-dimensional porosity parameter (K), magnetic parameter (m) and elasticoviscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter and magnetic parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

Keywords: Elastico-viscous fluid, Porous media, Second order fluids, Spherical cross-section, Magnetic parameter.

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55 Unsteady Poiseuille Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid in a Tube of Spherical Cross Section on a Porous Boundary

Authors: Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

Abstract:

Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of spherical cross section under the influence of constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of spherical cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional porosity parameter (K) and elastico-viscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

Keywords: Elastico-viscous fluid, Porous media, Second order fluids, Spherical cross-section.

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54 Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Capillary Instability through Porous Media

Authors: Mukesh Kumar Awasth, Mohammad Tamsir

Abstract:

The effect of porous medium on the capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of axial electric field has been investigated using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow, the viscous term in Navier-Stokes equation vanishes as vorticity is zero but viscosity is not zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance in the viscous potential flow theory and tangential stresses are not considered. A dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, viscosity ratio, permittivity ratio on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial electric field and porous medium both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.

Keywords: Capillary instability, Viscous potential flow, Porous media, Axial electric field.

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53 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body.

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52 RANS Simulation of Viscous Flow around Hull of Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: M. Nakisa, A. Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, F. Behrouzi, A. Tarmizi

Abstract:

The practical application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), for predicting the flow pattern around Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle (MAV) hull has made much progress over the last decade. Today, several of the CFD tools play an important role in the land and water going vehicle hull form design. CFD has been used for analysis of MAV hull resistance, sea-keeping, maneuvering and investigating its variation when changing the hull form due to varying its parameters, which represents a very important task in the principal and final design stages. Resistance analysis based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has become a decisive factor in the development of new, economically efficient and environmentally friendly hull forms. Three-dimensional finite volume method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) has been used to simulate incompressible flow around three types of MAV hull bow models in steady-state condition. Finally, the flow structure and streamlines, friction and pressure resistance and velocity contours of each type of hull bow will be compared and discussed.

Keywords: RANS Simulation, Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle, Viscous Flow Structure.

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