Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4735

Search results for: working women

4735 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
4734 Role of Emotional Support and Work Motivation for Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: Komang Rahayu Indrawati, Ni Wayan Sinthia Widiastuti, Ratna Dewi Santosa

Abstract:

Today the career of Balinese working women has been highly developed where able to work with loyalty and high professionalism. Career for a woman is one conscious choice and a call of conscience, which provides financial support for her family. Career for women can develop their own potencies, intellectually, and socially, so women feel that their role is meaningful and beneficial for herself and others. Emotional support becomes important to understand certainly for women who have multirole like Balinese working women to meet the demands of their role and also enhancing their work motivation and the quality of work life. This research used quantitative research method with questionnaires dissemination to 120 respondents and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The purpose of this study was to see the role of emotional support for work motivation and quality of work life in working Balinese women. The results of this study showed that emotional support and work motivation give a significant role in the quality of work life on Balinese working women.

Keywords: Balinese working women, emotional support, quality of work life, work motivation

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4733 The Effect of Emotional Support towards Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: I. Ketut Yoga Adityawira, Putu Ayu Novia Viorica, Komang Rahayu Indrawati

Abstract:

In addition to work and take care of the family, Balinese women also have a role to participate in social activities in Bali. So this will have an impact on the quality of work life of Balinese women. One way to reduce the impact of the fulfillment of the role of Balinese women namely through emotional support. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Data were retrieved by quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The number of subjects in this research is 30 people with the criteria: Balinese Women, aged 27 to 55 years old, have a minimum of two years experience of work and has been married. The analysis showed that there is no effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women, with information there is no significant of probability value p = 0.304 (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Balinese women, emotional support, quality of work life, working women

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4732 Socio-Demographic Predictors of Divorce Adjustment in Pakistani Women

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Nida Zafar

Abstract:

The present research investigated socio-demographic predictors of divorce adjustment in Pakistani women. The sample comprised of 80 divorced women from different areas of Lahore. Self developed Socio-Demographic predictor scale and Divorce Adjustment Scale by (Fisher, 2001) was used for assessment. Analyses showed that working divorced women living with joint family system are more adjusted as compared to non-working divorced women living with joint family system. Women having one child are more adjusted as compared to women having more than one child. Findings highlight importance of presence of father for healthy development of adolescents. Adjustment of divorcee women was positively associated with income, social support from the family, having favorable attitudes toward marital dissolution prior to divorce, and being the partner who initiated the divorce. In addition, older women showed some evidence of poorer adjustment than did younger women. Findings highlight importance of support for divorce adjustment.

Keywords: socio-demographic, adjustment, women, divorce

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
4731 Association of Work Pattern with the Well-Being and Happiness: Evidence from Married Women Working in Delhi, India

Authors: Kanchan Negi

Abstract:

Background: Modern work culture has driven demands for people to work long hours and weekends and take work to home at times. Research on the health effects of these exhaustive temporal work patterns is scant or contradictory. This study examines the relationship between work patterns and well-being (including happiness) in a sample of working women. Method: Primary data of 360 currently married women working in the education, health, banking and IT sector in Delhi, India, were analysed. Logistic regression was used to estimate physical and psychological well-being and happiness across work characteristics. Results: Relative to 35–40 hours/week, working longer related to poor well-being (ß=0.75, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.39). Compared with not working weekends, working most or all weekends is related to poor physical (ß=0.34, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.61) and psychological well-being (ß=0.50, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.79). Rigid work patterns (ß=0.17, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.42) are also related to poor well-being. Conclusion: Decreased well-being and unhappiness are significantly linked to strenuous and rigid work patterns, suggesting that modern work culture may contribute to poor well-being. Flexible timings, compensatory holidays, work-from-home, and daycare facilities for young ones must be welcomed by companies to ease the dual burden of homemakers and career makers.

Keywords: happiness, well-being, work pattern, working women

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
4730 Perceived Parenting Styles and Body Dissatisfaction among Women

Authors: Tazvin Ijaz, Aisha Shahid Sheikh

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between body dissatisfaction and the perceived parenting styles of women. For the purpose of study a sample of adult women (N=308) was drawn through the process of stratified random sampling. The sample consisted of women belonging to different categories which were based on their occupation. Two instruments, the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDSS) and Perceived Parenting Styles (PPSS) were used in the study to find the relationship between the two variables. The results showed that the controlling parenting style in father led to higher body dissatisfaction while the nurturing parenting style lead to lesser symptoms of body dissatisfaction. The results also proved that the controlling parenting style in mother also lead to high symptoms of body dissatisfaction as well. It was revealed that the women with high education showed more body dissatisfaction than women with lower education. It was also seen that there was a significant difference in the body dissatisfaction of working and the non-working women.

Keywords: body dissatisfaction, perceived parenting styles, Pakistani women, gender

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4729 Obesity-Associated Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Women

Authors: Archana Surendran, Kalpana C. A.

Abstract:

Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in women. Vitamin D bioavailability could be reduced in obesity due to increased sequestration by white adipose tissue. Increased sun exposure due to more frequent outdoor physical activity as well as a diet rich in vitamin D could be the common cause of both higher levels of 25(OH)D and a more favorable lipid profile. The study was conducted with the aim to assess the obesity status among selected working women in Coimbatore, determine their lifestyle and physical activity pattern, study their dietary intake, estimate the vitamin D and lipid profile of selected women and associate the relationship between Vitamin D and obesity among the selected women. A total of 100 working women (non pregnant, non lactating) working in IT sector, hotels and teaching staff were selected for the study. Anthropometric measurements and dietary recall were conducted for all. The women were further categorized as obese and non-obese based on their BMI. Fifteen obese and 15 non-obese women were selected and their fasting blood glucose level, serum Vitamin D and lipid profile were measured. Association between serum vitamin D, lipid profile, anthropometric measurements, food intake and sun exposure was correlated. Fifty six percent of women in the age group between 25-39 years and 44 percent of women in the age group between 40-45 years were obese. Waist and hip circumference of women in the age group between 40-45 years (89.7 and 107.4 cm) were higher than that of obese women in the age group between 25-39 years (88.6 and 102.8 cm). There were no women with sufficient vitamin D levels. In the age group between 40-45 years (obese women), serum Vitamin D was inversely proportional to waist-hip ratio and LDL cholesterol. There was an inverse relationship between body fat percentage and Total cholesterol with serum vitamin D among the women of the age group between 25-39 years. Consumption of milk and milk products were low among women. Intake of calcium was deficit among the women in both the age groups and showed a negative correlation. Sun exposure was less for all the women. Findings from the study revealed that obese women with a higher consumption of fat and less intake of calcium-rich foods have low serum Vitamin D levels than the non-obese women. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an association between Vitamin D status and obesity among adult women.

Keywords: obesity, sun exposure, vitamin D, women

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4728 Impact of Stress on Physical-Mental Wellbeing of Working Women in India: Awareness and Acceptability

Authors: Meera Shanker

Abstract:

Excellent education and financial need have encouraged Indian women to go out and work in well-paid and high-status occupations. In the era of cutthroat competition, women are expected to work hard to produce the desired result; hence, workload and expectations haveincreased. At home, they are anticipated to take care of family members, children, and household work. Women are stretching themselves mechanically to remain in the job competition and try to give their best at home. Consequentially, they are under tremendous pressure, stressed, and having issues related to physical-mental wellness. Mental healthcare is often ignored and not accepted due to a lack of awareness and cultural barriers. These further compounds the problem, resulting in decreased productivity in economic terms and an increase in stress-related physical-mental ailments. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of stress on the physical-mental wellbeing of working women in India, along with their awareness and acceptability related to mental health. Six hundred and one woman working at various levels took part in this study, responding to the items related to stress and physical-mental illness. Finally, 21 items were retained under four meaningful factors measuring stress dimensions along with 17 items with three factors measuring physical-mental wellbeing. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), path analysis, in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), was used to get a relationship, validity of the instruments. The psychometric properties of items and Cronbach’s Alpha reliabilities calculated for the subscales were relatively acceptable. The subscale correlations, regression, and path analysis of stress dimensions with physical-mental illness were found to be positive, indicating the growing stress among working women in India, which is impacting their physical-mental health. Single item analysis revealed that 77 percent of women have never visited psychologists. However, 70 percent of working women were not ready to seek the help of a psychologist.

Keywords: working women, stress, physical-mental well-being, confirmatory factor analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
4727 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

Abstract:

In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
4726 Association between Occupational Characteristics and Well-Being: An Exploratory Study of Married Working Women in New Delhi, India

Authors: Kanchan Negi

Abstract:

Background: Modern and urban occupational culture have driven demands for people to work long hours and weekends and take work to home at times. Research on the health effects of these exhaustive temporal work patterns is scant or contradictory. This study examines the relationship between work patterns and wellbeing in a sample of women living in the metropolitan hub of Delhi. Method: This study is based on the data collected from 360 currently married women between age 29 and 49 years, working in the urban capital hub of India, i.e., Delhi. The women interviewed were professionals from the education, health, banking and information and technology (IT) sector. Bivariate analysis was done to study the characteristics of the sample. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the physical and psychological wellbeing across occupational characteristics. Results: Most of the working women were below age 35 years; around 30% of women worked in the education sector, 23% in health, 21% in banking and 26% in the IT sector. Over 55% of women were employed in the private sector and only 36% were permanent employees. Nearly 30% of women worked for more than the standard 8 hours a day. The findings from logistic regression showed that compared to women working in the education sector, those who worked in the banking and IT sector more likely to have physical and psychological health issues (OR 2.07-4.37, CI 1.17-4.37); women who bear dual burden of responsibilities had higher odds of physical and psychological health issues than women who did not (OR 1.19-1.85 CI 0.96-2.92). Women who worked for more than 8 hours a day (OR 1.15, CI 1.01-1.30) and those who worked for more than five days a week (OR 1.25, CI 1.05-1.35) were more likely to have physical health issues than women who worked for 6-8 hours a day and five days e week, respectively. Also, not having flexible work timings and compensatory holidays increased the odds of having physical and psychological health issues among working women (OR 1.17-1.29, CI 1.01-1.47). Women who worked in the private sector, those employed temporarily and who worked in the non-conducive environments were more likely to have psychological health issues as compared to women in the public sector, permanent employees and those who worked in a conducive environment, respectively (OR 1.33-1.67, CI 1.09-2.91). Women who did not have poor work-life balance had reduced the odds of psychological health issues than women with poor work-life balance (OR 0.46, CI 0.25-0.84). Conclusion: Poor wellbeing significantly linked to strenuous and rigid work patterns, suggesting that modern and urban work culture may contribute to the poor wellbeing of working women. Noticing the recent decline in female workforce participation in Delhi, schemes like Flexi-timings, compensatory holidays, work-from-home and daycare facilities for young ones must be welcomed; these policies already exist in some private sector firms, and the public sectors companies should also adopt such changes to ease the dual burden as homemaker and career maker. This could encourage women in the urban areas to readily take up the jobs with less juggle to manage home and work.

Keywords: occupational characteristics, urban India, well-being, working women

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4725 Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Woman's Lifestyle: A Female Banking Professionals Case Study

Authors: Ruqiya Anwar

Abstract:

The present study is aimed to find out the Impact of Foreign direct Investment on lifestyle of working women in Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan). It was hypothesized that easy access to consumer loans uplifts the lifestyle of women. First part of the research study was aimed at developing a tool to measure the Impact of FDI on living pattern of women in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Purposive sampling technique was used to collect the more reliable and valid data.81 females working in different banks of Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan) were included in the sample. The value of Alpha Reliability coefficient is .774 for the tool of study. Which was found satisfactory and indicated that tool is reliable to measure the study objectives. Finding of the study showed that foreign direct investment has significant and positive impact on lifestyle of women in Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan). Study also revealed that there is moderate and high level of consumption power women have through foreign direct investment, which supports the hypothesis.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, lifestyle of women, consumption power, consumer loans

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4724 Women Entrepreneurs in Haryana, India: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Neerja Ahlawat

Abstract:

In Indian society, women have always been an active part of the production process. Be it agriculture, dairy, or other home-based industries, Indian women have been competent and enterprising engaged in multiple economic activities. In recent times, women across the country have started establishing business enterprise and managing and working very hard. Despite their skills and capabilities, however, women are faced with varied problems and challenges. Women entrepreneurs in Haryana face a double challenge – a gender bias against women denies them the education and the opportunities available to their male counterparts and the lack of such learning and skills development inhibits any entrepreneurial ambitions. In many parts of the state, women venturing out of the household domain face much opposition and criticism. The present paper highlights the various problems and challenges faced by the women entrepreneurs while running the enterprises in the present competitive world in Haryana. An attempt has been made to investigate women entrepreneurs about the specific issues such as working capital, distribution channel, sales promotion, electricity, human resources and competition with other industries. The present empirical study was carried out in Rohtak city of Haryana using Interview schedule and Case study method. The study revealed the nature of problems women entrepreneurs face while dealing with issues of labour, market, and bureaucracy. The study categorically pointed out the difficulties women are confronted with while keeping a balance between domestic responsibilities and workplace challenges. The study concluded that women entrepreneurs are redefining their identities and priorities in the male dominant society.

Keywords: entrepreneur, gender bias, capital, human resource

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4723 The Labor Participation-Fertility Trade-Off: Exploring Fecundity and Its Consequences to Women's Employment in the Philippines

Authors: Ariane C. Lim, Daphne Ashley L. Sze, Kenneth S. Santos

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child-rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

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4722 A Comparative Analysis of Social Stratification in the Participation of Women in Agricultural Activity: A Case Study of District Khushab (Punjab) and D. I. Khan (KPK), Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Ahmad Umer

Abstract:

Since last few decades a question is raising on the subject of the importance of women in different societies of the world particularly in the developing societies of Asia and Africa. Female population constitutes almost 50% of the total population of the world and is playing a significant role in the economy with male population. In Pakistan, a developing country of Asia with majority of Muslim population, working women role is more focused. Women of rural background who are working as voluntary workers and their working hours are neither recorded nor recognized. Agricultural statistics shows that the female participation rate is below 40% while other sources claim them below 20%. Here in present study, another effort has been made to compare the women role in two different provinces of Pakistan to analyze the participation of women in agricultural activities like sowing, picking, irrigating the fields, harvesting and threshing of crops, caring and feeding of the animals, collecting the firewood and etc,as without these activities the farming would be incomplete. One hundred villages in the district Khushab (Punjab) and one hundred villages in district D.I.Khan (KPK) were selected and 33% of the families of each village have been interviewed to study their input in agriculture work. Another important feature is the social stratification therefore the contribution by different variables like the ownership, tenancy, education and caste has also been studied.

Keywords: caste, social stratification, tenancy, voluntary workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
4721 Organizational Stress in Women Executives

Authors: Poornima Gupta, Sadaf Siraj

Abstract:

The study examined the organizational causes of organizational stress in women executives and entrepreneurs in India. This was done so that mediation strategies could be developed to combat the organizational stress experienced by them, in order to retain the female employees as well as attract quality talent. The data for this research was collected through the self- administered survey, from the women executives across various industries working at different levels in management. The research design of the study was descriptive and cross-sectional. It was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire filled in by the women executives and entrepreneurs in the NCR region. Multistage sampling involving stratified random sampling was employed. A total of 1000 questionnaires were distributed out of which 450 were returned and after cleaning the data 404 were fit to be considered for analyses. The overall findings of the study suggested that there were various job-related factors that induce stress. Fourteen factors were identified which were a major cause of stress among the working women by applying Factor analysis. The study also assessed the demographic factors which influence the stress in women executives across various industries. The findings show that the women, no doubt, were stressed by organizational factors. The mean stress score was 153 (out of a possible score of 196) indicating high stress. There appeared to be an inverse relationship between the marital status, age, education, work experience, and stress. Married women were less stressed compared to single women employees. Similarly, female employees 29 years or younger experienced more stress at work. Women having education up to 12th standard or less were more stressed compared to graduates and post graduates. Women who had spent more than two years in the same organization perceived more stress compared to their counterparts. Family size and income, interestingly, had no significant impact on stress. The study also established that the level of stress experienced by women across industries differs considerably. Banking sector emerged as the industry where the women experienced the most stress followed by Entrepreneurs, Medical, BPO, Advertising, Government, Academics, and Manufacturing, in that order. The results contribute to the better understanding of the personal and economic factors surrounding job stress and working women. It concludes that the organizations need to be sensitive to the women’s needs. Organizations are traditionally designed around men with the rules made by the men for the men. Involvement of women in top positions, decision making, would make them feel more useful and less stressed. The invisible glass ceiling causes more stress than realized among women. Less distinction between the men and women colleagues in terms of giving responsibilities, involvement in decision making, framing policies, etc. would go a long way to reduce stress in women.

Keywords: women, stress, gender in management, women in management

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4720 The Labor Participation–Fertility Trade-off: The Case of the Philippines

Authors: Daphne Ashley Sze, Kenneth Santos, Ariane Gabrielle Lim

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
4719 Importance of Women Education: Mother To Be Education in Order to Brighten Future Generation’s Foredoom

Authors: Ummi Sholihah Pertiwi Abidin, Eva Fadhilah

Abstract:

Social changes are more and more growing and having many different forms as the time passed and thought methods in the society. One of many forms of that social changes is the emancipation of women that is flourishing by the inception of gender equality perception between men and women in all aspects including education. It’s not anymore found the distinction between genders in learning and the education achieving right at this globalized era. But, it is still many perceptions which are against that equality of education achieving right, either come from the women’s selves or many external factors. They assumed that they are going to be a mother in the future, and a wife, someone with responsible for taking care of the household and everything inside, while the husband is the one who has the responsible for looking for the living. So comes from this kind of assumption, the perception against the education equality between genders, which means there is no need for them –women- to achieve the high education because they will still end up as housewives. Except those working or career women that need high education to support their works. These women are not aware that even a mother needs the high and capable education. Because, as the 'mother to be,' they surely need broad knowledge from the education to educate their children in the future. It is such a big fault to say the kind of thing, 'It is no matter that I am not educated, in case I’m just a housewife. The important thing is my children get a great education'. Unfortunately, it is still often found, saying 'A housewife job is not a big deal to do with high education.' This qualitative method paper raises a theme about the importance of education for women, no matter what will they be in the future. Because however, and whatever is the woman’s career outside the house, or even not working outside, she’s still a mother for her children, and 'educational provision' is a great need. And so forth, this educational provision is a big deal to do with future generation’s foredoom, regarding the first source of children’s knowledge and the first school for them is their mother.

Keywords: women education, mother to be, educational provision, first school, future generation’s foredoom

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4718 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda

Abstract:

The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: domestic violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

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4717 Faceless Women: The Blurred Image of Women in Film on and Off-Screen

Authors: Ana Sofia Torres Pereira

Abstract:

Till this day, women have been underrepresented and stereotyped both in TV and Cinema Screens all around the World. While women have been gaining a different status and finding their own voice in the work place and in society, what we see on-screen is still something different, something gender biased, something that does not show the multifaceted identities a woman might have. But why is this so? Why are we stuck on this shallow vision of women on-screen? According to several cinema industry studies, most film screenwriters in Hollywood are men. Women actually represent a very low percentage of screenwriters. So why is this relevant? Could the underrepresentation of women screenwriters in Hollywood be affecting the way women are written, and as a result, are depicted in film? Films are about stories, about people, and if these stories are continuously told through a man’s gaze, is that helping in the creation of a gender imbalance towards women? On the other hand, one of the reasons given for the low percentage of women screenwriters is: women are said to be better at writing specific genres, like dramas and comedies, and not as good writing thrillers and action films, so, as women seem to be limited in the genres they can write, they are undervalued and underrepresented as screenwriters. It seems the gender bias and stereotype isn’t saved exclusively for women on-screen, but also off-screen and behind the screen. So film appears to be a men’s world, on and off-screen, and since men seem to write the majority of scripts, it might be no wonder that women have been written in a specific way and depicted in a specific way on-screen. Also, since films are a mass communication medium, maybe this over-sexualization and stereotyping on-screen is indoctrinating our society into believing this bias is alive and well, and thus targeting women off-screen as well (ergo, screenwriters). What about at the very begging of film? In the Silent Movies and Early Talkies era, women dominated the screenwriting industry. They wrote every genre, and the majority of scripts were written by women, not men. So what about then? How were women depicted in films then? Did women screenwriters, in an era that was still very harsh on women, use their stories and their power to break stereotypes and show women in a different light, or did they carry on with the stereotype, did they continue it and standardize it? This papers aims to understand how important it is to have more working women screenwriters in order to break stereotypes regarding the image of women on and off-screen. How much can a screenwriter (male or female) influence our gaze on women (on and off-screen)?

Keywords: cinema, gender bias, stereotype, women on-screen, women screenwriters

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4716 Prophet and Philosopher Mohammed: A Precursor of Feminism

Authors: Mohammad Mozammel Haque

Abstract:

That feminism is nothing but the name of a belief that women should have the same rights as men needs no telling. The history of modern western feminism is divided into three waves and each is described as dealing with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave refers to the movement of the 19th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with suffrage, working conditions and educational rights for women. The second wave (1960s-1980s) dealt with the inequality of laws and the role of women in society. The third wave (late 1980s-early 2000s) is seen as both a continuation of the second wave and a response to the perceived failures. Mary Wollstonecraft struggled for the emancipation and freedom of the women of Europe, Begum Rokeya brought about revolution for the women of the East and West Bengal, Jeremy Bentham wrote for the independence of women in England. But if feminism refers to the movement of giving women what they deserve, then it won’t be an overstatement to state that Mohammad is the precursor of what we call feminism. This paper investigates the background of official starting of feminism, and also the backdrop of the women of Muhammad’s time. The article, besides showing that this great prophet and philosopher firstly brought about a movement for the education and rights of women and took them out of grave where they were buried alive, also delineates Mohammedan endeavours he attempted to give the women what they ought to have.

Keywords: education, equality, feminism, precursor

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4715 Exploring the Impact of Cultural Values on the Performance of Women Bureaucrats in Pakistan

Authors: Fariya Tahreen

Abstract:

Women are an important part of the society comprising more than 50% population of the world. Participation of women in public services is increasing in the present era while cultural values embedded with gender differences still influencing the performance of working women. Many researches have been carried out on cultural impact on working women like managers, doctors, and lawyers and other public servants. But very rare efforts were made to study the impact of cultural values on the performance of women bureaucrats. The present study aimed to find out the relationship of cultural values (i.e., collective identity, gender segregation, and gender asymmetrical relations) with the performance of women bureaucrats. Sample of the present study comprised of 130 women bureaucrats from the Office Management Group, Inland Revenue, District Management Group, and Pakistan Police Services which is selected by convenient sampling technique. The locale of the study was Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore city. The current research study was conducted by using a quantitative approach in research method and data were collected through survey method. The measures used in the study included: personal information, three main cultural values, and performance of women bureaucrats. Uni-variate and bi-variate analyses were implied by using correlation and multiple linear regression test. The current study shows a negative significant relationship between cultural values and performance of women bureaucrats (R²= 0.790, p-value 0.000). It shows that cultural values (collective identity, gender segregation and gender asymmetrical relations) significantly influence the performance of women bureaucrats. Due to the influence and pressure of these cultural values, women bureaucrats give less time to the office and avail more leaves. They also avoid contacting with male colleagues, public dealings, field visits and playing leadership role. Further, they attend fewer meetings of policy formulation due to given less importance for it. In a nutshell, the study concluded that cultural values significantly influence the performance of women bureaucrats in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural values, performance, Pakistan, women bureaucrats

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4714 Exploring Women's Embodied Experiences of 'the Gaze' in Fitness Cultures

Authors: Amy Clark

Abstract:

To date, the focus of feminist research surrounding men looking at women, with the analysis of how women make sense of looks between women remains limited and scattered. Drawing upon ethnographic data obtained from an on-going research project, this presentation delves into the embodied experiences of female exercisers within a UK ‘working-class’ gym. By exploring the women’s own accounts of their living, breathing and sensing bodies as they exercise, the researcher attempts to understand how they make sense of the gym space, their embodied selves as well as broader constructions of the gendered body. Utilising a feminist phenomenological approach, this research examines the social-structural position of women in a patriarchal system of gender relations, whilst simultaneously acknowledging and analysing the structural, cultural, and historical forces and location, upon individual lived body experiences and gendered embodiment. The discussion is provided on how the gym can be identified as a sexually objectifying environment, and how women make sense and interpret specific ‘gazes’ encountered within the gym.

Keywords: embodiment, feminism, gazes, sociology

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4713 Rising Prevalence of Diabetes among Elderly People in Kerala: Evidence from NSS Data

Authors: Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years and more women than men. As in many areas of the India, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has become major problems. Now it is spreading among the middle class and poor at an alarming stage in India and Kerala is turning to be the world capital of diabetes. This study uses two round NSS data from the ‘National Sample Survey Organization, India’ to investigate the predictors of diabetes in Kerala. The overall estimates for diabetes prevalence among elderly show that higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics, further respondent working status, caste/tribe have substantial impact on diabetes in Kerala. The disease is more common for people who are mostly physically inactive. This whole picture is very much prominent in the urban areas compared with the rural ones. Not working elderly have significantly higher with diabetes than for those working in elderly. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with diabetes prevalence. For men and women, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption was more prevalent in the rural population. High alcohol intake increases diabetes risk among elderly. Finally these findings specified that an increase improve health care services and changing life style of elderly which should in turn raise diabetes patient survival and should decrease comorbidities due to diabetes in Kerala.

Keywords: elderly, diabetes, prevalence, Kerala

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4712 A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome: Career Barriers of Women Academics

Authors: Serdar Öge, Alpay Karasoy, Özlem Kara

Abstract:

Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher education institutions. To this end, our study was performed on female academics working at Selcuk University, Konya / Turkey. Our study's main aim can be expressed as to determine whether there are glass ceiling obstacles for female academics working at the higher education institution in question, to measure their glass ceiling perceptions and, thus, to identify what the glass ceiling barrier components for them to promotion to senior management positions are.

Keywords: career, career barriers, glass ceiling syndrome, academics

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4711 Comparison of Women’s Political Participation in Korea and China

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of women’s political participation in Korea and China. Korean women are participated more in higher education. As the economic development and the women's social participation can enhance the possibility of women's political participation in advanced democratic countries, in Asian countries such as Korea and China in which Confucianism prohibited women to participate in public life and the process of nation building is different from western countries, the political power takes an initiative to implement policies for women's participation in politics and for women's consciousness.

Keywords: korea, china, women, political participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
4710 Gendered Narratives of ‘Respectability’: Migrant Garo Women and Their Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

Authors: A. Drong, K. S. Kerkhoff

Abstract:

Migration affects women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper reports on the social constructs of gender, and livelihood pursuits as beauty parlours workers amongst the young Garo women in Bangladesh, and studies changes in their accessibility to the healthcare services due to migration and livelihood. The paper is based on in-depth interviews and participant-led group discussions with 30 women working in various beauty parlours across the city. The data indicate that social perceptions of ‘good’, ‘bad’ and ‘respectable’ determine the expression of sexuality, and often dictates sexual and reproductive practices for these women. This study also reveals that unregulated work conditions, and the current cost of local healthcare services, have a strong impact on the women’s accessibility to the healthcare services; thus often limiting their choices to only customary and/or unqualified practitioners for abortions and child-births. Development programmes on migrant indigenous women’s health must, therefore, take the contextual gender norms and livelihood choices into account.

Keywords: gender, indigenous women, reproductive rights, sexual rights, Garo, migration, livelihood, healthcare

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4709 My Dress, My Body and My Choice Politics in Kenya

Authors: Emmy Kipsoi

Abstract:

Kenya legalized the Sexual offence bill (2001), after vigorous campaigning and lobbying by feminist both in and out of parliament to ensure that the bill passed with minimal amendments. The sexual offense act provides for a good description on what constitutes sexual offences and the penalties that follow. It is from this context that the paper explores and interrogated the lived experiences of women living and working in Kenyan urban towns, who had experienced some form of sexual harassment. The study employed phenomenology to interpret the experiences of twenty (20) women in an urban town between the ages of 20 to 65 years women who had received at least some formal education and where engaged in some formal form of employment. The findings indicated that various forms of sexual harassment were experienced in the Kenyan town. Secondly, the knowledge about the contents of the bill wanting most of the women interviews were not aware of the protection accorded by law. The number of reported cases of sexual harassment shed light on the isolation, frustration and fear that women live despite a progressive law in print

Keywords: Kenya, phenomenology, sexual harassment, women

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4708 The Status and Role of Women in Indian IT Industry and Relevant Role and Scope of HRM

Authors: Shivani Kolarkar

Abstract:

Splendid growth in Indian IT has generated women employment on a large scale in India and continues to do it. Indian IT industry has achieved this in spite of total masculine dominance in other Indian engineering industries, where the ratio of women employment is almost negligible as compared to men. Indian IT today proudly enjoys a strong pool of technically educated, intellectual, and skillful women employees. IT industry has encouraged technical education for women in India, to a great extent. The software industry has definitely contributed to developing a positive and dignified role and status of women employees in Indian IT industry. It has promoted women’s social and economic role and status. In spite of all, gender discrimination still persists in Indian IT, also, which is low as compared to other industries, but it is a matter of concern. An Indian woman is bound to carry dual roles which are equally over-stressed for IT women employees. Long working hours, night shifts, work pressures and insufficient safety majors and necessary facilities for women contributes to making her physical-mental life, family and married life troublesome. Which forces her either to cluster at low-end jobs in IT/elsewhere or to sacrifice her career. Nature, role and status of HRM needs to be broadened, deepened and shaped into research-oriented multidimensional perspective in the context of really enhancing role and status of Indian IT women with high appreciation of women employees’ dignity and entity.

Keywords: attrition, gender discrimination, HRM, Indian IT, software industry, job satisfaction, safety, technical education, women employment

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4707 Coping for Academic Women Departmental Heads during COVID-19: A Capabilities Approach Perspective

Authors: Juliet Ramohai

Abstract:

This paper explores how women departmental heads in higher education experience leadership in a time of the COVID-19 crises. The focus is mostly on their care and coping as they work in virtual spaces. Most scholars have looked at the effects and challenges that different employees face while working from home during a lockdown. However, very few take a dedicated focus on women in leadership and the coping mechanisms and resources that they use for effective leadership during this difficult time. The paper draws on two aspects of Sen’s Capabilities approach, functionings, and agency, to cast a closer understanding of the institutional and individual coping mechanisms that might be at these women's disposal. The qualitative approach used for this paper and a feminist lens provides a critical and in-depth understanding of the real-life stories of the women and how they make sense of their virtual leadership. Data for this paper was collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 women in the positions of head of departments and analysed thematically using capabilities approach concepts as an analytical tool. The findings in this paper indicate that functionings and freedoms are tightly linked to institutional ethnographies. These ethnographies might support or hamper coping for women leaders, especially during times of crisis.

Keywords: capability approach, women leaders, higher education, COVID-19

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4706 Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health

Authors: Sangita Bharati

Abstract:

Violence against women is now well recognised as a public health problem and human rights violation of worldwide significance. It is an important risk factor for women's ill health, with far reaching consequences for both their physical and mental health. Gender based violence takes many forms and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm to the women throughout their lives. Gender based violence often manifests unequal power relation between men and women in society and the secondary status of the women because of which women have to suffer a range of health problems in silence. This paper will aim at describing a few problems related to women’s health which are directly linked to their experience as victims of gender based violence.

Keywords: violence, health, women, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 379