Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 153

Search results for: segregation

153 From 'Segregation' to 'Integration': The Dynamic Mechanism of Residential Segregation and the Responsive Sustainable Regeneration Methods in China

Authors: Yang Chen

Abstract:

The property-led regeneration has played an important role in the process of rapid urbanization during the past twenty years in China, but it is also been criticized unsustainable as it always focuses on the economic aspect and overlooks the social issues, especially it has exacerbated the residential segregation in the inner city. Based on author’s studying the area around Nanjing railway station, this paper demonstrates that residential segregation indeed exists in the inner city through synthetic analysis on patterns of residents’ living, consumption and welfare, and to some extent, the segregation distribution characteristics represent in a concentric ring model. According to author’s further investigation on the property right and age of the dwelling buildings, the housing-commercialization-led regeneration is defined as the mainspring of the segregation. To solve these problems, the system of sustainable community should be established in both policy and practice, above all, well-designed public facilities including green infrastructure will be appropriate to promote the residential integration and sustainable development in contemporary China.

Keywords: China, dynamic mechanism, residential segregation, sustainable regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
152 Elimination of Occupational Segregation By Sex: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Mutiat Temitayo James, Oladapo Olakunle James, Kabiru Oyetunde

Abstract:

This paper examines occupational segregation by sex and sought to justify a case for its elimination or not. In doing this, we found that occupations are categorised among men and women in all parts of the world and this, in turn, affects the labour force participation rate of men and women in different sectors and aspects of the labour market. Data from the previous study shows that women are the most discriminated against as regards occupational segregation as many high profile jobs are regarded as men’s job and women relegated to the background. This has brought about low productivity for women and inequity in the labour market which can hinder the productivity levels of participants. It was however recommended that occupational segregation should be eliminated totally so that men and women alike can choose occupations of their choice irrespective of what gender the society ascribe to such occupation.

Keywords: occupation, gender, gender equality, labour market, segregation, discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 584
151 Effect of Rotation Rate on Chemical Segregation during Phase Change

Authors: Nouri Sabrina, Benzeghiba Mohamed, Ghezal Abderrahmane

Abstract:

Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended Darcy model, which includes the time derivative and Coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It was found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetic field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axially. When the convection is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: numerical simulation, heat and mass transfer, vertical solidification, chemical segregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
150 Teachers' Preferences on the Issue of Segregation of Gifted Pupils in Czech Educational System

Authors: I. Kočvarová, E. Machů, N. Bártlová

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The issue of inclusion - segregation in the current Czech educational system is highly actual due to changes in legislation. It applies primarily to pupils with special educational needs, but it should also apply to pupils with giftedness. The paper presents chosen results of an exploratory survey that was carried out on a convenience sample of 1101 Czech teachers working in lower secondary education (ISCED2). The rate of teachers´ agreement with segregation of gifted pupils in the education system was monitored during this investigation. A validated questionnaire of our own design was used for the purpose of this investigation. The results were compared across groups of teachers in terms of selected variables. Results show that 36,3 % of teachers incline to segregation (rather than inclusion) of gifted pupils. Teachers who are not educated in this field and have no experience in teaching gifted pupils tend to support their segregation more in comparison with other teachers. Teachers of specialized schools for gifted pupils paradoxically agree with segregation to a slightly lesser extent than teachers from traditional schools, but they also manifest the most hesitant attitude in this issue. Preferences for segregation of gifted pupils are not related to attitudes toward gifted pupils or teachers' self-evaluation in terms of care for the gifted. Investigation indicates that the issue of education of gifted children and their inclusion in the educational system needs more space within the further education of teachers.

Keywords: educational system, evaluation, gifted pupil, inclusion, segregation, teacher

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149 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György

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Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: GBST, cementite, segregation, Fe-C alloy

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148 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

Abstract:

In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
147 Numerical Simulation of the Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

Authors: Nouri Sabrina

Abstract:

Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in Vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended darcy model, whıch includes the time derivative and coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It is found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetıc field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axıally. When the convectıon is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: rotating vertical solidification, Finite Volume Method, heat and mass transfer, porous medium, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
146 Effect of Segregation Pattern of Mn, Si, and C on through Thickness Microstructure and Properties of Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Waleed M. Al-Othman, Hamid Bayati, Abdullah Al-Shahrani, Haitham Al-Jabr

Abstract:

Pearlite bands commonly form parallel to the surface of the hot rolled steel and have significant influence on the properties of the steel. This study investigated the correlation between segregation pattern of Mn, Si, C and formation of the pearlite bands in hot rolled Gr 60 steel plate. Microstructural study indicated formation of a distinguished thick band at centerline of the plate with number of parallel bands through thickness of the steel plate. The thickness, frequency, and continuity of the bands are reduced from mid-thickness toward external surface of the steel plate. Analysis showed a noticeable increase of C, Si and Mn levels within the bands. Such alloying segregation takes place during metal solidification. EDS analysis verified presence of particles rich in Ti, Nb, Mn, C, N, within the bands. Texture analysis by Electron Backscatter Detector (EBSD) indicated the grains size/misorientation can noticeably change within the bands. Effect of banding on through-thickness properties of the steel was examined by carrying out microhardness, toughness and tensile tests. Results suggest the Mn and C contents are changed in sinusoidal pattern through thickness of the hot rolled plate and pearlite bands are formed at the peaks of this sinusoidal segregation pattern. Changes in grain size/misorientation, formation of highly alloyed particles, and pearlite within these bands, facilitate crack formation along boundaries of these bands.

Keywords: pearlite band, alloying segregation, hot rolling, Ti, Nb, N, C

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145 Segregation of Domestic Solid Waste: An Evidence of Households’ Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior, and Challenges from Manipal, India

Authors: Vidya Pratap, Seena Biju, A. Keshavdev

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The ever-increasing quantity and variety of domestic solid waste pose a major challenge to both households as well as to municipal authorities. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (Clean India), the local municipal administration distributed 2 buckets to each household in a residential colony in Manipal (an educational town in southern India). Households were instructed to segregate their waste into wet and dry waste and keep these buckets at their gate for daily collection. This paper captures the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 145 households along with the challenges they face in segregating their wastes. Survey representatives self-administered a questionnaire based on 107 variables that gathered demographic details, attitude and behavior constructs, knowledge about waste segregation and method of disposal for organic, recyclable and hazardous wastes. The study used descriptive tools to explore the data. While 95% of the respondents preferred good segregation practices, only 86% of them exhibited such behavior. 88% of the families observed had members who were either graduates or post-graduates whereas only 37% of the families had women who were working. In both attitude and behavior, 63% of the households did not have working women. Also, among those who practiced segregation, 7% were observed to not practice segregation in spite of the lady member being at home (The authors of this study in no way intend to name women as responsible for waste segregation at home; this thought is based on the fact that while in conversation with households, all respondents opined that women lead this activity). The findings of the study are intended to add value to the existing perceptions of the municipality regarding citizen behavior towards policy implementation/improvement. India as a country faces roadblocks at many levels of policy implementation. The findings of this study are meant to contribute/clarify about the Clean India drive.

Keywords: attitude, behavior, knowledge, segregation of domestic waste

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144 Self-Compacting White Concrete Mix Design Using the Particle Matrix Model

Authors: Samindi Samarakoon, Ørjan Sletbakk Vie, Remi Kleiven Fjelldal

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White concrete facade elements are widely used in construction industry. It is challenging to achieve the desired workability in casting of white concrete elements. Particle Matrix model was used for proportioning the self-compacting white concrete (SCWC) to control segregation and bleeding and to improve workability. The paper presents how to reach the target slump flow while controlling bleeding and segregation in SCWC. The amount of aggregates, binders and mixing water, as well as type and dosage of superplasticizer (SP) to be used are the major factors influencing the properties of SCWC. Slump flow and compressive strength tests were carried out to examine the performance of SCWC, and the results indicate that the particle matrix model could produce successfully SCWC controlling segregation and bleeding.

Keywords: white concrete, particle matrix model, mix design, construction industry

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143 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

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Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

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142 Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline and Ultra-Fine Grained Materials

Authors: Haiming Wen

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Grain growth is an important and consequential phenomenon that generally occurs in the presence of thermal and/or stress/strain fields. Thermally activated grain growth has been extensively studied and similarly, there are numerous experimental and theoretical studies published describing stress-induced grain growth in single-phase materials. However, studies on grain growth during the simultaneous presence of an elevated temperature and an external stress are very limited, and moreover, grain growth phenomena in materials containing second-phase particles and solute segregation at GBs have received limited attention. This lecture reports on a study of grain growth in the presence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) during high-temperature deformation of an ultra-fine grained (UFG) Al alloy synthesized via consolidation of mechanically milled powders. The mechanisms underlying the grain growth were identified as GB migration and grain rotation, which were accompanied by dynamic recovery and geometric dynamic recrystallization, while discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was not operative. A theoretical framework that incorporates the influence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on grain growth in presence of both elevated temperature and external stress is formulated and discussed. The effect of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on GB migration and grain rotation was quantified using the proposed theoretical framework, indicating that both second-phase particles and solutes/impurities segregated GBs reduce the velocities of GB migration and grain rotation as compared to those in commercially pure Al. Our results suggest that grain growth predicted by the proposed theoretical framework is in agreement with experimental results. Hence, the developed theoretical framework can be applied to quantify grain growth in simultaneous presence of external stress, elevated temperature, GB segregation and second-phase particles, or in presence of one or more of the aforementioned factors.

Keywords: nanocrystalline materials, ultra-fine grained materials, grain growth, grain boundary migration, grain rotation

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141 Modelling Affordable Waste Management Solutions for India

Authors: Pradip Baishya, D. K. Mahanta

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Rapid and unplanned urbanisation in most cities of India has progressively increased the problem of managing municipal waste in the past few years. With insufficient infrastructure and funds, Municipalities in most cities are struggling to cope with the pace of waste generated. Open dumping is widely in practice as a cheaper option. Scientific disposal of waste in such a large scale with the elements of segregation, recycling, landfill, and incineration involves sophisticated and expensive plants. In an effort to finding affordable and simple solutions to address this burning issue of waste disposal, a semi-mechanized plant has been designed underlying the concept of a zero waste community. The fabrication work of the waste management unit is carried out by local skills from locally available materials. A resident colony in the city of Guwahati has been chosen, which is seen as a typical representative of most cities in India in terms of size and key issues surrounding waste management. Scientific management and disposal of waste on site is carried out on the principle of reduce, reuse and recycle from segregation to compositing. It is a local community participatory model, which involves all stakeholders in the process namely rag pickers, residents, municipality and local industry. Studies were conducted to testify the plant as revenue earning self-sustaining model in the long term. Current working efficiency of plant for segregation was found to be 1kg per minute. Identifying bottlenecks in the success of the model, data on efficiency of the plant, economics of its fabrication were part of the study. Similar satellite waste management plants could potentially be a solution to supplement the waste management system of municipalities of similar sized cities in India or South East Asia with similar issues surrounding waste disposal.

Keywords: affordable, rag pickers, recycle, reduce, reuse, segregation, zero waste

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140 How Digital Empowerment Affects Dissolution of Segmentation Effect and Construction of Opinion Leaders in Isolated Communities: Ethnographic Investigation of Leprosy Rehabilitation Groups

Authors: Lin Zhang

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The fear of leprosy has been longstanding throughout the human history. In an era where isolation is practiced as a means of epidemic prevention, the leprosy rehabilitation group has itself become an isolated community with an entrenched metaphor. In the process of new mediatization of the leprosy isolation community, what are the relations among media literacy, the leprosy internalized stigma and social support? To address the question, the “portrait” of leprosy rehabilitation group is re-delineated through two field studies in the “post-leprosy age” in 2012 and 2020, respectively. Taking an isolation community on Si’an Leprosy Island in Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China as the study object, it is found that new media promotes the dissolution of segregation effect of the leprosy isolation community and the cultivation of opinion leaders by breaking spatial, psychological and social segregation and by building a community of village affairs and public space in the following way: the cured patients with high new media literacy, especially those who use WeChat and other applications and largely rely on new media for information, have a low level of leprosy internalized stigma and a high level of social support, and they are often the opinion leaders inside their community; on the contrary, the cured patients with low new media literacy, a high level of leprosy internalized stigma and a low level of social support are often the followers inside their community. Such effects of dissolution and construction are reflected not only in the vertical differentiation of the same individual at different times, but also in the horizontal differentiation between different individuals at the same time.

Keywords: segregation, the leprosy rehabilitation group, new mediatization, digital empowerment, opinion leaders

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139 Development of a Quick On-Site Pass/Fail Test for the Evaluation of Fresh Concrete Destined for Application as Exposed Concrete

Authors: Laura Kupers, Julie Piérard, Niki Cauberg

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The use of exposed concrete (sometimes referred to as architectural concrete), keeps gaining popularity. Exposed concrete has the advantage to combine the structural properties of concrete with an aesthetic finish. However, for a successful aesthetic finish, much attention needs to be paid to the execution (formwork, release agent, curing, weather conditions…), the concrete composition (choice of the raw materials and mix proportions) as well as to its fresh properties. For the latter, a simple on-site pass/fail test could halt the casting of concrete not suitable for architectural concrete and thus avoid expensive repairs later. When architects opt for an exposed concrete, they usually want a smooth, uniform and nearly blemish-free surface. For this choice, a standard ‘construction’ concrete does not suffice. An aesthetic surface finishing requires the concrete to contain a minimum content of fines to minimize the risk of segregation and to allow complete filling of more complex shaped formworks. The concrete may neither be too viscous as this makes it more difficult to compact and it increases the risk of blow holes blemishing the surface. On the other hand, too much bleeding may cause color differences on the concrete surface. An easy pass/fail test, which can be performed on the site just before the casting, could avoid these problems. In case the fresh concrete fails the test, the concrete can be rejected. Only in case the fresh concrete passes the test, the concrete would be cast. The pass/fail tests are intended for a concrete with a consistency class S4. Five tests were selected as possible onsite pass/fail test. Two of these tests already exist: the K-slump test (ASTM C1362) and the Bauer Filter Press Test. The remaining three tests were developed by the BBRI in order to test the segregation resistance of fresh concrete on site: the ‘dynamic sieve stability test’, the ‘inverted cone test’ and an adapted ‘visual stability index’ (VSI) for the slump and flow test. These tests were inspired by existing tests for self-compacting concrete, for which the segregation resistance is of great importance. The suitability of the fresh concrete mixtures was also tested by means of a laboratory reference test (resistance to segregation) and by visual inspection (blow holes, structure…) of small test walls. More than fifteen concrete mixtures of different quality were tested. The results of the pass/fail tests were compared with the results of this laboratory reference test and the test walls. The preliminary laboratory results indicate that concrete mixtures ‘suitable’ for placing as exposed concrete (containing sufficient fines, a balanced grading curve etc.) can be distinguished from ‘inferior’ concrete mixtures. Additional laboratory tests, as well as tests on site, will be conducted to confirm these preliminary results and to set appropriate pass/fail values.

Keywords: exposed concrete, testing fresh concrete, segregation resistance, bleeding, consistency

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138 The Determination of the Phosphorous Solubility in the Iron by the Function of the Other Components

Authors: Andras Dezső, Peter Baumli, George Kaptay

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The phosphorous is the important components in the steels, because it makes the changing of the mechanical properties and possibly modifying the structure. The phosphorous can be create the Fe3P compounds, what is segregated in the ferrite grain boundary in the intervals of the nano-, or microscale. This intermetallic compound is decreasing the mechanical properties, for example it makes the blue brittleness which means that the brittle created by the segregated particles at 200 ... 300°C. This work describes the phosphide solubility by the other components effect. We make calculations for the Ni, Mo, Cu, S, V, C, Si, Mn, and the Cr elements by the Thermo-Calc software. We predict the effects by approximate functions. The binary Fe-P system has a solubility line, which has a determinating equation. The result is below: lnwo = -3,439 – 1.903/T where the w0 means the weight percent of the maximum soluted concentration of the phosphorous, and the T is the temperature in Kelvin. The equation show that the P more soluble element when the temperature increasing. The nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and the chromium make dependence to the maximum soluted concentration. These functions are more dependent by the elements concentration, which are lower when we put these elements in our steels. The copper, sulphur and carbon do not make effect to the phosphorous solubility. We predict that all of cases the maximum solubility concentration increases when the temperature more and more high. Between 473K and 673 K, in the phase diagram, these systems contain mostly two or three phase eutectoid, and the singe phase, ferritic intervals. In the eutectoid areas the ferrite, the iron-phosphide, and the metal (III)-phospide are in the equilibrium. In these modelling we predicted that which elements are good for avoid the phosphide segregation or not. These datas are important when we make or choose the steels, where the phosphide segregation stopping our possibilities.

Keywords: phosphorous, steel, segregation, thermo-calc software

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137 Distribution and Segregation of Aerosols in Ambient Air

Authors: S. Ramteke, K. S. Patel

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Aerosols are complex mixture of particulate matters (PM) inclusive of carbons, silica, elements, various salts, etc. Aerosols get deep into the human lungs and cause a broad range of health effects, in particular, respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. They are one of the major culprits for the climate change. They are emitted by the high thermal processes i.e. vehicles, steel, sponge, cement, thermal power plants, etc. Raipur (22˚33'N to 21˚14'N and 82˚6'E) to 81˚38'E) is a growing industrial city in central India with population of two million. In this work, the distribution of inorganics (i.e. Cl⁻, NO³⁻, SO₄²⁻, NH₄⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) associated to the PM in the ambient air is described. The PM₁₀ in ambient air of Raipur city was collected for duration of one year (December 2014 - December 2015). The PM₁₀ was segregated into nine modes i.e. PM₁₀.₀₋₉.₀, PM₉.₀₋₅.₈, PM₅.₈₋₄.₇, PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₃.₃₋₂.₁, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇, PM₀.₇₋₀.₄ and PM₀.₄ to know their emission sources and health hazards. The analysis of ions and metals was carried out by techniques i.e. ion chromatography and TXRF. The PM₁₀ concentration (n=48) was ranged from 100-450 µg/m³ with mean value of 73.57±20.82 µg/m³. The highest concentration of PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇ was observed in the commercial, residential and industrial area, respectively. The effect of meteorology i.e. temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction in the PM₁₀ and associated elemental concentration in the air is discussed.

Keywords: ambient aerosol, ions, metals, segregation

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136 Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Viscosity Modifying Agent in Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Mushtaq Zeb, Fawad Bilal, Faizan Akbar, Syed Aamir Abbas

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Self Compacting Concrete as the name implies--is the concrete requiring a very little or no vibration to fill the form homogeneously. Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is defined by two primary properties: Ability to flow or deform under its own weight (with or without obstructions) and the ability to remain homogeneous while doing so. Flow ability is achieved by utilizing high range water reducing admixtures and segregation resistance is ensured by introducing a chemical viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) or increasing the amount of fines in the concrete. The study explores the use waste marble dust (WMD) to increase the amount of fines and hence achieve self-compatibility in an economical way, suitable for Pakistani construction industry. The study focuses on comparison of fresh properties of SCC containing varying amounts of waste marble dust (WMD) with that containing commercially available viscosity modifying admixture. The comparison is done at different dosages of super plasticizer keeping cement, water, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregate contents constant.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, waste marble dust (WMD), flow ability, segregation resistance

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135 Gender Discrepancies in Current Pedagogical and Curricular Practices in EFL Higher Education Settings

Authors: Hamad Aldosari

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of sexism, or gender discrepancies, in current pedagogical and curricular practices in EFL learning higher education settings. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of both course contents and pedagogies in Saudi higher education institutions are to be discussed with reference to female/male topic presentation in dialogs and reading passages, sex-based activity types, stereotyped sex roles and the masculine generic conceptions of male superiority subliminally related in EFL curriculum and pedagogical practices, as well as the causes and effects of segregated language education practices in Saudi Arabia from a holistic vantage point of analysis. Analysis findings show that language educational practices including educational settings and segregation are gender-biased in attitude, but with regard to curriculum, sexism has not been traced. Findings also show that sexism is rampant due to socio-cultural aspects of language education rather than to religious reasons: a finding that seems to mirror the institutionalized unfair sex discrimination to the disadvantage of women in the Arabian societies at large.

Keywords: genderism, sex segregation, Saudi Arabia, EFL

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134 Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-Spatial Segregation, Livelihood of Artists/Craftsmen in Delhi

Authors: Sophy Joseph

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The study uses the concept of ‘Settler city’ to understand the nature of peripheralization that a neoliberal city initiates. The settler city designs powerless communities without inherent rights, title and sovereignty. Kathputli Colony, home to generations of artists/craftsmen, who have kept heritage of arts/crafts alive, has undergone eviction of its population from urban space. The proposed study, ‘Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-spatial segregation and livelihood of artists/craftsmen in Delhi’ would problematize the settler city as a colonial technology. The colonial regime has ‘erased’ the ‘unwanted’ as primitive and swept them to peripheries in the city. This study would also highlight how structural change in political economy has undermined their crafts/arts by depriving them from practicing/performing it with dignity in urban space. The interconnections between citizenship and In-Situ Private Public Partnership in Kathputli rehabilitation has become part of academic exercise. However, a comprehensive study connecting inherent characteristics of neoliberal settler city, trajectory of political economy of unorganized workers - artists/craftsmen and legal containment and exclusion leading to dispossession and marginalization of communities from the city site, is relevant to contextualize the trauma of spatial segregation. This study would deal with political, cultural, social and economic dominant behavior of the structure in the state formation, accumulation of property and design of urban space, fueled by segregation of marginalized/unorganized communities and disowning the ‘footloose proletariat’, the migrant workforce. The methodology of study involves qualitative research amongst communities and the field work-oral testimonies and personal accounts- becomes the primary material to theorize the realities. The secondary materials in the forms of archival materials about historical evolution of Delhi as a planned city from various archives, would be used. As the study also adopt ‘narrative approach’ in qualitative study, the life experiences of craftsmen/artists as performers and emotional trauma of losing their livelihood and space forms an important record to understand the instability and insecurity that marginalization and development attributes on urban poor. The study attempts to prove that though there was a change in political tradition from colonialism to constitutional democracy, new state still follows the policy of segregation and dispossession of the communities. It is this dispossession from the space, deprivation of livelihood and non-consultative process in rehabilitation that reflects the neoliberal approach of the state and also critical findings in the study. This study would entail critical spatial lens analyzing ethnographic and sociological data, representational practices and development debates to understand ‘urban otherization’ against craftsmen/artists. This seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the resistance of communities against primitivity attached with them and to decolonize the city. This would help to contextualize the demand for declaring Kathputli Colony as ‘heritage artists village’. The conceptualization and contextualization would help to argue for right to city of the communities, collective rights to property, services and self-determination. The aspirations of the communities also help to draw normative orientation towards decolonization. It is important to study this site as part of the framework, ‘inclusive cities’ because cities are rarely noted as important sites of ‘community struggles’.

Keywords: neoliberal settler city, socio-spatial segregation, the livelihood of artists/craftsmen, dispossession of indigenous communities, urban planning and cultural uprooting

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133 Socio Economic Impact and Status of the Islamic Perspective of Veil

Authors: Shagufta Jahangir, Nadeemullah, Yaqoob, Raisa Jahangir

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The Persian language word ‘Purdah’ and in Arabic ‘Hajab’ is used for veil. Veil has been used by women for being escaped from men. In one way or the other veil has been continuously used in ancient as well as modern civilizations by women. Developed nations have blamed the use of veil an obstacle in the process of development. Therefore, modern nations have struggled to get rid of the use of veil. They argue that it is a sign of slavery for women and it is an obstacle in the path of development. The modern secular Muslims considered veil as the biggest obstacle for social and economic development. It makes a woman helpless, as being zanjir in her feet. It has become an obstacle in the process of development for women. It is also considered as a tool for segregation among men and women. The so called Muslims of the modern era are trying to introduce changes in religion by imitation the modern nations of the world. In particular ways for Muslim woman use of veil in Islam is must. It is a right provided her by religion. It provides her strength. In the Holy Quran word ‘Hajab’ is used 5 times. Islam is against domination and forceful practice of veil, as a part of teaching of Islam it is being adopted by women as a protection. This article aims at: (1) historical background of veil (2) Its existence in civilizations, (3) Meaning and interpretation of veil in Islamic context, (4) Economic impact of it on women (5) Discussion on its practice in Islamic (eastern) and other (European) circles and conclusions followed by concerted bibliography.

Keywords: veil, economic development, civilizations, obstacle, secular Muslims, segregation

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132 A Network Economic Analysis of Friendship, Cultural Activity, and Homophily

Authors: Siming Xie

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In social networks, the term homophily refers to the tendency of agents with similar characteristics to link with one another and is so robustly observed across many contexts and dimensions. The starting point of my research is the observation that the “type” of agents is not a single exogenous variable. Agents, despite their differences in race, religion, and other hard to alter characteristics, may share interests and engage in activities that cut across those predetermined lines. This research aims to capture the interactions of homophily effects in a model where agents have two-dimension characteristics (i.e., race and personal hobbies such as basketball, which one either likes or dislikes) and with biases in meeting opportunities and in favor of same-type friendships. A novel feature of my model is providing a matching process with biased meeting probability on different dimensions, which could help to understand the structuring process in multidimensional networks without missing layer interdependencies. The main contribution of this study is providing a welfare based matching process for agents with multi-dimensional characteristics. In particular, this research shows that the biases in meeting opportunities on one dimension would lead to the emergence of homophily on the other dimension. The objective of this research is to determine the pattern of homophily in network formations, which will shed light on our understanding of segregation and its remedies. By constructing a two-dimension matching process, this study explores a method to describe agents’ homophilous behavior in a social network with multidimension and construct a game in which the minorities and majorities play different strategies in a society. It also shows that the optimal strategy is determined by the relative group size, where society would suffer more from social segregation if the two racial groups have a similar size. The research also has political implications—cultivating the same characteristics among agents helps diminishing social segregation, but only if the minority group is small enough. This research includes both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Providing the friendship formation model, the author first uses MATLAB to perform iteration calculations, then derives corresponding mathematical proof on previous results, and last shows that the model is consistent with empirical evidence from high school friendships. The anonymous data comes from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health).

Keywords: homophily, multidimension, social networks, friendships

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131 Strengthening Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance Sector for Development in Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Dugasa Fite

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This paper analyses regulatory and supervisory issues in the Ethiopian micro finance sector, which caters to the needs of those who have been excluded from the formal financial sector. Micro-finance has received increased importance in development because of its grand goal to give credits to the poor to raise their economic and social well-being and improve the quality of lives. The micro-finance at present has been moving towards a credit-plus period through covering savings and insurance functions. It thus helps in reducing the rate of financial exclusion and social segregation, alleviating poverty and, consequently, stimulating development. The Ethiopian micro finance policy has been generally positive and developmental but major regulatory and supervisory limitations such as the absolute prohibition of NGOs to participate in micro credit functions, higher risks for depositors of micro-finance institutions, lack of credit information services with research and development, the unmet demand, and risks of market failures due to over-regulation are disappointing. Therefore, to remove the limited reach and high degree of problems typical in the informal means of financial intermediation plus to deal with the failure of formal banks to provide basic financial services to a significant portion of the country’s population, more needs to be done on micro finance. Certain key regulatory and supervisory revisions hence need to be taken to strengthen the Ethiopian micro finance sector so that it can practically provide majority poor access to a range of high quality financial services that help them work their way out of poverty and the incapacity it imposes.

Keywords: micro-finance, micro-finance regulation and supervision, micro-finance institutions, financial access, social segregation, poverty alleviation, development, Ethiopia

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130 Transgressing Gender Norms in Addiction Treatment

Authors: Sara Matsuzaka

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At the center of emerging policy debates on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations is the collision of gender binary views with transgender perspectives that challenge conventional gender norms. The results of such socio-political debates could have significant ramifications for the policies and infrastructures of public and private institutions nationwide, including within the addiction treatment field. Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender segregated housing, bathrooms, and counseling sessions. Such heteronormative structural barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic al attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need. A literature review is performed to explore the mechanisms by which gender segregation alienates transgender populations within inpatient addiction treatment. The constituent parts of the current debate on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations are situated the context of inpatient addiction treatment facilities. Minority Stress Theory is used as a theoretical framework for understanding substance abuse issues among transgender populations as a maladaptive behavioral response for coping with chronic stressors related to gender minority status and intersecting identities. The findings include that despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in and benefiting from addiction treatment. These barriers are present in the form of anticipated or real interpersonal stigma and discrimination by service providers and structural stigma in the form of policy and programmatic components in addiction treatment that marginalize transgender populations. Transphobic manifestations within addiction treatment may dissuade transgender individuals from seeking help, if not reinforce a lifetime of stigmatic experience, potentially exacerbating their substance use issues. Conclusive recommendations for social workers and addiction treatment professionals include: (1) dismantling institutional policies around gender segregation that alienate transgender individuals, (2) developing policies that provide full protections for transgender clients against discrimination based on their gender identity, and (3) implementing trans-affirmative cultural competency training requirements for all staff. Directions for future research are provided.

Keywords: addiction treatment, gender segregation, stigma, transgender

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129 Effect of Segregation on the Reaction Rate of Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, A. Morato-Godino, L. M. García-Gutiérrez, N. García-Hernando

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The evolution of the pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a fixed and a fluidized bed was analyzed using a novel measuring technique. This original measuring technique consists of installing the whole reactor over a precision scale, capable of measuring the mass of the complete reactor with enough precision to detect the mass released by the sewage sludge sample during its pyrolysis. The inert conditions required for the pyrolysis process were obtained supplying the bed with a nitrogen flowrate, and the bed temperature was adjusted to either 500 ºC or 600 ºC using a group of three electric resistors. The sewage sludge sample was supplied through the top of the bed in a batch of 10 g. The measurement of the mass released by the sewage sludge sample was employed to determine the evolution of the reaction rate during the pyrolysis, the total amount of volatile matter released, and the pyrolysis time. The pyrolysis tests of sewage sludge in the fluidized bed were conducted using two different bed materials of the same size but different densities: silica sand and sepiolite particles. The higher density of silica sand particles induces a flotsam behavior for the sewage sludge particles which move close to the bed surface. In contrast, the lower density of sepiolite produces a neutrally-buoyant behavior for the sewage sludge particles, which shows a proper circulation throughout the whole bed in this case. The analysis of the evolution of the pyrolysis process in both fluidized beds show that the pyrolysis is faster when buoyancy effects are negligible, i.e. in the bed conformed by sepiolite particles. Moreover, sepiolite was found to show an absorbent capability for the volatile matter released during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed, pyrolysis, reaction rate, segregation effects, sewage sludge

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128 Full-Scale 3D Simulation of the Electroslag Rapid Remelting Process

Authors: E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig

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The standard electroslag remelting (ESR) process can ideally control the solidification of an ingot and produce homogeneous structure with minimum defects. However, the melt rate of electrode is rather low that makes the whole process uneconomical especially to produce small ingot sizes. In contrast, continuous casting is an economical process to produce small ingots such as billets at high casting speed. Unfortunately, deep liquid melt pool forms in the billet ingot of continuous casting that leads to center porosity and segregation. As such, continuous casting is not suitable to produce segregation prone alloys like tool steel or several super alloys. On the other hand, the electro slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process has advantages of both traditional ESR and continuous casting processes to produce billets. In the ESRR process, a T-shaped mold is used including a graphite ring that takes major amount of current through the mold. There are only a few reports available in the literature discussing about this topic. The research on the ESRR process is currently ongoing aiming to improve the design of the T-shaped mold, to decrease overall heat loss in the process, and to obtain a higher temperature at metal meniscus. In the present study, a 3D model is proposed to investigate the electromagnetic, thermal, and flow fields in the whole process as well as solidification of the billet ingot. We performed a fully coupled numerical simulation to explore the influence of the electromagnetically driven flow (MHD) on the thermal field in the slag and ingot. The main goal is to obtain some fundamental understanding of the formation of melt pool of the solidifying billet ingot in the ESRR process.

Keywords: billet ingot, magnetohydrodynamics (mhd), numerical simulation, remelting, solidification, t-shaped mold.

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127 Circumstantial Loneliness and Existential Isolation in the Works of Flutura Açka

Authors: Elvira Lumi & Hans Jazxhi

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In the works of the writer Flutura Açka, the play with these questions is acute, and in almost each of them, the act of loneliness and isolation builds in a completely involuntary way unique and frequent conceptual spaces. Because the object of study is too broad to grasp all the works, this study lays out a rapid paradox of our access to three of the novels in the line of numerous authorial works. The novel "Woman Loneliness" (2001), also marked as the first work in prose by the author, declares in the title the paradigm of what she has decided to confess. The gender segregation proclaimed in the title will be revealed step by step in the work as conventional human segregation without gender. In this novel, the analysis of the state of "loneliness" will require a contemplation beyond man, when the role of the environment and the distance from the center of the narrative base will be extremely visible in the work. The novel "Cross of Oblivion" (2004) has another form of perception of loneliness, which, unlike the one built by the characters themselves in the novel "Woman Loneliness," is imposed and obligatory to live by the circumstances. Its characters are trapped in loneliness, as loneliness that comes from impossibility, from the past, from dependence on fate, from fear of change, and from the obligation to accept it. At the heart of the novel, the plot of the novel game is dictated by the Kanun and its rules and the loneliness of the basis of life in unbroken waves towards the periphery of the event, a periphery that has very large geography and is played in today's Europe. The novel "Where are you?" (2009) has a completely different form of constructing the concept of loneliness and isolation that comes under conditions of repression and political pressure. The loneliness in this novel takes the form of the protective element from the circumstances that actually require a social inclusion; it is personal loneliness that ensures relative mental health of the characters, up to a new trap created by the circumstances, thus building life fragmentary “healthy” in the order of a mentally ill and socially ill society.

Keywords: loneliness, existential, isolation, woman, prose

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126 Distribution and Diversity of Pyrenocarpous Lichens in India with Special Reference to Forest Health

Authors: Gaurav Kumar Mishra, Sanjeeva Nayaka, Dalip Kumar Upreti

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Our nature exhibited presence of a number of unique plants which can be used as indicator of environmental condition of particular place. Lichens are unique plant which has an ability to absorb not only organic, inorganic and metaloties but also absorb radioactive nuclide substances present in the environment. In the present study pyrenocarpous lichens will used as indicator of good forest health in a particular place. The Pyrenocarpous lichens are simple crust forming with black dot like perithecia have few characters for their taxonomical segregation as compared to their foliose and fruticose brethrean. The thallus colour and nature, presence and absence of hypothallus are only few characters of thallus are used to segregate the pyrenocarpous taxa. The fruiting bodies of pyrenolichens i.e. ascocarps are perithecia. The perithecia and the contents found within them posses many important criteria for the segregation of pyrenocarpous lichen taxa. The ascocarp morphology, ascocarp arrangement, the perithecial wall, ascocarp shape and colour, ostiole shape and position, ostiole colour, ascocarp anatomy including type of paraphyses, asci shape and size, ascospores septation, ascospores wall and periphyses are the valuable charcters used for segregation of different pyrenocarpous lichen taxa. India is represented by the occurrence of the 350 species of 44 genera and eleven families. Among the different genera Pyrenula is dominant with 82 species followed by the Porina with 70 species. Recently, systematic of the pyrenocarpous lichens have been revised by American and European lichenologists using phylogenetic methods. Still the taxonomy of pyrenocarpous lichens is in flux and information generated after the completion of this study will play vital role in settlement of the taxonomy of this peculiar group of lichens worldwide. The Indian Himalayan region exhibit rich diversity of pyrenocarpous lichens in India. The western Himalayan region has luxuriance of pyrenocarpous lichens due to its unique topography and climate condition. However, the eastern Himalayan region has rich diversity of pyrenocarpous lichens due to its warmer and moist climate condition. The rich moist and warmer climate in eastern Himalayan region supports forest with dominance of evergreen tree vegetation. The pyrenocarpous lichens communities are good indicator of young and regenerated forest type. The rich diversity of lichens clearly indicates that moist of the forest within the eastern Himalayan region has good health of forest. Due to fast pace of urbanization and other developmental activities will defiantly have adverse effects on the diversity and distribution of pyrenocarpous lichens in different forest type and the present distribution pattern will act as baseline data for carried out future biomonitoring studies in the area.

Keywords: lichen diversity, indicator species, environmental factors, pyrenocarpous

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125 Study and Fine Characterization of the SS 316L Microstructures Obtained by Laser Beam Melting Process

Authors: Sebastien Relave, Christophe Desrayaud, Aurelien Vilani, Alexey Sova

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Laser beam melting (LBM) is an additive manufacturing process that enables complex 3D parts to be designed. This process is now commonly employed for various applications such as chemistry or energy, requiring the use of stainless steel grades. LBM can offer comparable and sometimes superior mechanical properties to those of wrought materials. However, we observed an anisotropic microstructure which results from the process, caused by the very high thermal gradients along the building axis. This microstructure can be harmful depending on the application. For this reason, control and prediction of the microstructure are important to ensure the improvement and reproducibility of the mechanical properties. This study is focused on the 316L SS grade and aims at understanding the solidification and transformation mechanisms during process. Experiments to analyse the nucleation and growth of the microstructure obtained by the LBM process according to several conditions. These samples have been designed on different type of support bulk and lattice. Samples are produced on ProX DMP 200 LBM device. For the two conditions the analysis of microstructures, thanks to SEM and EBSD, revealed a single phase Austenite with preferential crystallite growth along the (100) plane. The microstructure was presented a hierarchical structure consisting columnar grains sizes in the range of 20-100 µm and sub grains structure of size 0.5 μm. These sub-grains were found in different shapes (columnar and cellular). This difference can be explained by a variation of the thermal gradient and cooling rate or element segregation while no sign of element segregation was found at the sub-grain boundaries. A high dislocation concentration was observed at sub-grain boundaries. These sub-grains are separated by very low misorientation walls ( < 2°) this causes a lattice of curvature inside large grain. A discussion is proposed on the occurrence of these microstructures formation, in regard of the LBM process conditions.

Keywords: selective laser melting, stainless steel, microstructure

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124 Exploring the Impact of Cultural Values on the Performance of Women Bureaucrats in Pakistan

Authors: Fariya Tahreen

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Women are an important part of the society comprising more than 50% population of the world. Participation of women in public services is increasing in the present era while cultural values embedded with gender differences still influencing the performance of working women. Many researches have been carried out on cultural impact on working women like managers, doctors, and lawyers and other public servants. But very rare efforts were made to study the impact of cultural values on the performance of women bureaucrats. The present study aimed to find out the relationship of cultural values (i.e., collective identity, gender segregation, and gender asymmetrical relations) with the performance of women bureaucrats. Sample of the present study comprised of 130 women bureaucrats from the Office Management Group, Inland Revenue, District Management Group, and Pakistan Police Services which is selected by convenient sampling technique. The locale of the study was Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore city. The current research study was conducted by using a quantitative approach in research method and data were collected through survey method. The measures used in the study included: personal information, three main cultural values, and performance of women bureaucrats. Uni-variate and bi-variate analyses were implied by using correlation and multiple linear regression test. The current study shows a negative significant relationship between cultural values and performance of women bureaucrats (R²= 0.790, p-value 0.000). It shows that cultural values (collective identity, gender segregation and gender asymmetrical relations) significantly influence the performance of women bureaucrats. Due to the influence and pressure of these cultural values, women bureaucrats give less time to the office and avail more leaves. They also avoid contacting with male colleagues, public dealings, field visits and playing leadership role. Further, they attend fewer meetings of policy formulation due to given less importance for it. In a nutshell, the study concluded that cultural values significantly influence the performance of women bureaucrats in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural values, performance, Pakistan, women bureaucrats

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