Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6401

Search results for: emotional support

6401 A Longitudinal Study of Academic Achievement: Parental Warm Support and Moderating Role of Teacher’s Emotional Support and Mediating Role of Self Control on Academic Achievement

Authors: Maaza Saeed, Caina Li

Abstract:

The current 2-wave longitudinal study attempts to illuminate the well-established association between parental warm support and academic achievement through the mediating role of self-control while taking into account the moderating role of teacher emotional support. The present research has assessed 2569 Chinese students (aged 10-18 years, M = 13.27, SD = 0.67). They were recruited from the three public middle schools in Xi’an, a middle-sized city in the central part of China. Meditation analysis revealed that self-control mediated the relationship between parental warm support and academic achievement. Additionally, it was found the direct effect of parental warm support was not significant after controlling for the age and gender. Furthermore, moderation analysis revealed high parental warm support and higher teacher emotional support was related to increased self-control compared to lower teacher emotion support. The findings highlighted the importance of parental warm support, teacher emotional support, and self-control on academic achievement.

Keywords: self control, academic achievement, teacher emotional support/conflict, adolescent

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6400 The Effect of Emotion Self-Confidence and Perceived Social Support on Hong Kong Higher-Education Students' Suicide-Related Emotional Experiences

Authors: K. C. Ching

Abstract:

There is growing public concern over the increasing prevalence of student suicide in Hong Kong. Some identify the problem with insufficient social support, while some attribute it to the vast fluctuations in emotional experience and the hindrances to emotion-regulation, both typical of adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study is thus designed to explore the respective effect of perceived social support and emotion self-confidence, on positive emotions and negative emotions. Fifty-seven Hong Kong higher-education students (17 males, 40 females) aged between 18 and 25 (M = 21.78) responded to an online questionnaire consisted of self-reported measures of perceived social support, emotional self-confidence, positive emotions, and negative emotions. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that emotional self-confidence positively associated with positive emotions and negatively with negative emotions, while perceived social support positively associated with positive emotions but was not related to negative emotions. Perceived social support and emotional self-confidence both predicted positive emotions, but did not interact to predict any emotional outcome. It is concluded that students’ positive and negative emotional experiences are closely related to their emotion-regulation process. But for social support, its effect is merely protective, meaning that although perceived social support generally promotes positive emotions, it alone does not suffice to alleviate students’ negative emotions. These conclusions carry profound implications to suicide prevention practices, including that most existing suicide prevention campaigns should advance from merely fostering mutual support to directly promoting adaptive coping of emotional negativity.

Keywords: emerging adulthood, emotional self-confidence, hong kong, perceived social support, suicide prevention

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6399 Role of Emotional Support and Work Motivation for Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: Komang Rahayu Indrawati, Ni Wayan Sinthia Widiastuti, Ratna Dewi Santosa

Abstract:

Today the career of Balinese working women has been highly developed where able to work with loyalty and high professionalism. Career for a woman is one conscious choice and a call of conscience, which provides financial support for her family. Career for women can develop their own potencies, intellectually, and socially, so women feel that their role is meaningful and beneficial for herself and others. Emotional support becomes important to understand certainly for women who have multirole like Balinese working women to meet the demands of their role and also enhancing their work motivation and the quality of work life. This research used quantitative research method with questionnaires dissemination to 120 respondents and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The purpose of this study was to see the role of emotional support for work motivation and quality of work life in working Balinese women. The results of this study showed that emotional support and work motivation give a significant role in the quality of work life on Balinese working women.

Keywords: Balinese working women, emotional support, quality of work life, work motivation

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6398 The Effect of Emotional Support towards Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: I. Ketut Yoga Adityawira, Putu Ayu Novia Viorica, Komang Rahayu Indrawati

Abstract:

In addition to work and take care of the family, Balinese women also have a role to participate in social activities in Bali. So this will have an impact on the quality of work life of Balinese women. One way to reduce the impact of the fulfillment of the role of Balinese women namely through emotional support. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Data were retrieved by quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The number of subjects in this research is 30 people with the criteria: Balinese Women, aged 27 to 55 years old, have a minimum of two years experience of work and has been married. The analysis showed that there is no effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women, with information there is no significant of probability value p = 0.304 (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Balinese women, emotional support, quality of work life, working women

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6397 Job Characteristics, Emotion Regulation and University Teachers' Well-Being: A Job Demands-Resources Analysis

Authors: Jiying Han

Abstract:

Teaching is widely known to be an emotional endeavor, and teachers’ ability to regulate their emotions is important for their well-being and the effectiveness of their classroom management. Considering that teachers’ emotion regulation is an underexplored issue in the field of educational research, some studies have attempted to explore the role of emotion regulation in teachers’ work and to explore the links between teachers’ emotion regulation, job characteristics, and well-being, based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. However, those studies targeted primary or secondary teachers. So far, very little is known about the relationships between university teachers’ emotion regulation and its antecedents and effects on teacher well-being. Based on the job demands-resources model and emotion regulation theory, this study examined the relationships between job characteristics of university teaching (i.e., emotional job demands and teaching support), emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression), and university teachers’ well-being. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 643 university teachers in China were analysed. The results indicated that (1) both emotional job demands and teaching support had desirable effects on university teachers’ well-being; (2) both emotional job demands and teaching support facilitated university teachers’ use of reappraisal strategies; and (3) reappraisal was beneficial to university teachers’ well-being, whereas suppression was harmful. These findings support the applicability of the job demands-resources model to the contexts of higher education and highlight the mediating role of emotion regulation.

Keywords: emotional job demands, teaching support, emotion regulation strategies, the job demands-resources model

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6396 Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Support and Wellbeing in People with Vitiligo

Authors: Rafia Rafique, Mutmina Zainab

Abstract:

The present study investigated the relationship between fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social support and well-being in people with Vitiligo. It was hypothesized that low level of FNE and greater social support is likely to predict well-being. It was also hypothesized that social support is likely to moderate the relationship between FNE and well-being. Correlational research design was used for the present study. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect a sample (N=122) of people with Vitiligo. Hierarchical Moderated Regression analysis was used to test prediction and moderation. Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Mental Health Continuum-Short form (MHC-SF) were used to evaluate the study variables. Fear of negative evaluation negatively predicted well-being (emotional and psychological). Social support from significant others and friends predicted social well-being. Social Support from family predicted emotional and psychological well-being. It was found that social support from significant others moderated the relationship between FNE and emotional well-being and social support from family moderated the relationship between FNE and social well-being. Dermatologists treating people with Vitiligo need to educate them and their families about the buffering role of social support (family and significant others). Future studies need to focus on other important mediating factors that can possibly explain the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and wellbeing.

Keywords: fear of negative evaluation, hierarchical moderated regression, vitiligo, well-being

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6395 The Effect of Family Support on Employee Satisfaction and Perception of Work-Family Conflict: The Case of Oil Sector Employees in Kuwait

Authors: Ali H. Muhammad

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This paper investigates both instrumental and emotional family support on employee job satisfaction and perception of work-family conflict. Instrumental family support is manifested in family behavior that contributes to the reduction of employee’s family responsibilities and keeping the physical home environment in a proper shape. Emotional family support includes the encouragement and praise that the employee receives from his family and families for the employee’s work problem and their role in assisting the employees in dealing with these problems. The paper suggests that instrumental and emotional family support increases employee’s job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study proposes that family support decreases employee’s perception of work-family conflict. In addition, this study examines the reliability and validity of the family support index developed by Lynda King and her colleagues in 1995. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the validity of the instrument in an Arab business setting. A paper-pencil questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 70 Kuwaiti employees working in the oil sector. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, reliability tests, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the research hypothesis. Family support had a positive effect on job satisfaction. Furthermore, family support significantly contributed to the reduction of employee perception of work-family conflict.

Keywords: family support, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, Kuwait oil sector

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6394 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

Abstract:

Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support, psychological contract, turnover intention

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6393 Supervisory Emotional Display Affects Employee’s Well-Being

Authors: Huan Zhang, Darius K. S Chan

Abstract:

Despite a large number of studies linking emotional labor and its detrimental impact for laborer, research on how emotional labor would influence the receiver is still in its infancy. Especially under the call for “people management”, supervisors inside the organization are more inclined to display happy mood to support their employees, thus endorsing emotional labor. The present study focuses on the employees in the service industry as emotional labor recipients and investigates how they respond to their supervisors’ emotional display, given their sensitivity to emotional cues. Targeted at a sample of 250 survey data from a wide range of customer service professions, this ongoing study examines how perceived supervisory emotional labor would moderate the relationship between employees surface acting and their well-being. Our major hypotheses are that employees’ surface acting predicts well-being level, and that perceived supervisory emotional labor to moderate the surface acting—outcome links. Preliminary findings have provided some support to the hypothesized model. Specifically, supervisors who are perceived to be high in surface acting are also regarded as fake and pseudo, hence the enhancing the detrimental effect of employees’ surface acting is attenuated, resulting in lower job satisfaction, higher physical stress and burnout; whereas perceived high supervisor’s deep acting, as associated with genuine and authenticity, buffers the negative impact and leads to higher job satisfaction, lower physical stress and burnout. This study first confirms the negative impacts of the surface acting on well-being for service industry employees as laborer and then extends the emotional labor studies by considering them as recipients of supervisory emotional labor. The findings provide insights for leaders by pointing out the importance of authentic emotional expression in workplace.

Keywords: perceived supervisory emotional labor, surface acting, well-being

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6392 Use of Social Support for Fathers with Developmental Disabilities in Japan

Authors: Shiori Ishida, Hiromi Okuno, Hisato Igarashi, Akemi Yamazaki, Hiroko Takahashi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences and similarities regarding the social support of fathers and mothers towards considering increased assistance for the paternity of children with developmental disabilities. Written questionnaires were completed by fathers (n=85) and mothers (n=101) of children using rehabilitation facilities between infancy and 5 years of age. The survey contained multiple-choice questions on four categories: information support (6 items), emotional support (7 items), evaluation support (3 items), and daily living support (3 items). Regarding information support, fathers answered ‘spouse’ as the provider in over 50% of cases for all 6 items, which was significantly different compared with mothers (all p < 0.001). For emotional support, fathers were significantly more likely to get support from the workplace (p < 0.001) and from spouse (p < 0.001). The ‘evaluation support’ did not have significant differences for fathers in all the items, but the most frequent support providers were ‘spouses’. ‘Daily living support’ was significantly different from fathers in the workplace (p < 0.000) in terms of make allowances for work and duties. Thus, it appeared that fathers had fewer social support sources as compared with mothers and limited non-spouse support. The understanding of developmental disabilities, acquisition of methods of rehabilitation, and sources of support might have been inadequately addressed among fathers, which could be a hindrance to the involvement of fathers in the rearing of children with developmental disabilities. On the other hand, we also observed that some fathers were involved in the care of developmentally troubled children while providing mental support for their spouse, cooperating with housework, and adjusting their work life. However, the results on the external and social backgrounds of fathers indicated a necessity for greater empowerment and peer support to improve the paternal care of children with developmental disabilities in the family survey.

Keywords: children with developmental disabilities, family support, father, social support

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6391 Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.

Keywords: social emotional, children, play activities, stimulating

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6390 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor.

Keywords: emotion labor, dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting

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6389 Work-Home Interference and Emotional Exhaustion: The Role of Psychological Detachment, Relaxation and Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work

Authors: Nidhi S. Bisht

Abstract:

The study examines the role of work-home interference, on enhancing emotional exhaustion in the branch officers of private MFIs in India. Additionally, the moderating role of recovery experiences and technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) were studied. With the increasing expectations to perform job related tasks at home, technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) was hypothesized to positively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Further, it was expected that recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation will help to recover and unwind from work and negatively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Results of SEM-analyses largely offered support for the hypotheses. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to increased emotional exhaustion and suggest that employees can protect themselves from emotional exhaustion by keeping a tab on technology-assisted supplemental work and facilitating recovery experiences.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, India, microfinance institutions (MFIs), work-home interference

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6388 Analysis of Teachers' Self Efficacy in Terms of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Ercan Yilmaz, Ali Murat Sünbül

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy with regards to their emotional intelligence. The relational model was used in the study. The participant of the study included 194 teachers from secondary schools in Konya, Turkey. In order to assess teachers’ emotional intelligence, “Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short Form was implemented. For teachers’ self-efficacy, “Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” was used. As a result of the study, a significant relationship is available between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence enucleates approximate eighteen percent of the variable in dimension named teachers’ self-efficacy for the students’ involvement. About nineteen percent of the variable in dimension “self-efficacy for teaching strategies is represented through emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence demonstrates about seventeen percent of variable aimed at classroom management.

Keywords: teachers, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, education

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6387 Influence of Perceived Organizational Support and Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Cynicism among Millennials

Authors: Paridhi Agarwal, Kusum M. George

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A cynic is someone upset about the future prematurely. In today’s highly competitive workplace, cynicism has become a prominent concern. It is a controversial issue that brings about psychological disengagement and antagonism towards the management. In organizational sciences, scientific investigation of this negative work behavior is lacking, and so there is no universal definition so far. But most commonly, Organizational Cynicism (OC) has been characterized as an unfavorable attitude towards the organization, encompassing a belief that the organization has low integrity, negative affect, and depreciative behavioral tendencies. Given its prevalence, this study aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on OC. This research examines the predictability of OC from two factors- Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) among millennials in India as well as identify contradictions in today’s scenario. Standardized Organizational Cynicism Scale comprising of three components, Perceived Organizational Support Questionnaire and Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Test are used on a convenient sample of 104 corporate sector employees in the age range 22-35 years. Correlation test elucidated the relationships, and regression analysis revealed the level of influence of the above variables on OC. Surprisingly, Emotional-Social Awareness had stronger relationships with all dimensions of OC in males as compared to females. It was also seen that EI and POS, together with predicted OC, but separately, only POS accounted for variability in OC, and this impact was much stronger for males, implying that there are other important factors that make females cynical at work. Thus, the over-emphasis on EI training for the millennial generation has also been challenged in this study. It can be said that there are avertible preconditions to the negative attitude- OC. This research has important managerial implications in areas of recruitment, training, and organizational environment.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, millennials, organizational cynicism, perceived organizational support.

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6386 The Role of Family’s Emotional Climate and Emotional Expression Style in Academic Well-Being of Students with Military Parent

Authors: Ala Rakhshandeh, Zahra Ashkar, Solmaz Dehghani Dolatabadi, Hossein Bayat

Abstract:

The present study has been conducted to investigate the role of family emotional climate and emotional expression style in the academic well-being of students with military parents. Children, including 280 female students of Shahriar police officers, were selected by random sampling method, and they have been investigated through Alfred B. Hillburn's family emotional climate questionnaire (1964), King and Ammon's emotional expression questionnaire (1990), and Pitrinen, Sweeney, and Falto's academic well-being questionnaire (2014). The data were analyzed using statistical methods of correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression under the SPSS23 program. The results reveal that the variables of family emotional climate and emotional expression can explain 36.4% of the variance in academic well-being. This finding reveals that with an increase of standard deviation on the scores of family emotional climate and emotional expression, 0.513 and 0.155 standard deviations are added to the scores of academic well-being, respectively. The emotional climate of the family has a superior distinctive role in predicting the educational well-being of female students. Thus, the emotional climate of the family and the style of emotional expression play a meaningful role in the academic well-being of students with the military parent.

Keywords: emotional climate, family, emotional expression style, academic well-being

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6385 Investigating Problems and Social Support for Mothers of Poor Households

Authors: Niken Hartati

Abstract:

This study provides a description of the problem and sources of social support that given to 90 mothers from poor households. Data were collected using structured interviews with the three main questions: 1) what kind of problem in mothers daily life, 2) to whom mothers ask for help to overcome it and 3) the form of the assistances that provided. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques were then coded and categorized. The results of the study illustrate the problems experienced by mothers of poor households in the form of: subsistence (37%), child care (27%), management of money and time (20%), housework (5%), bad place of living (5%), the main breadwinner (3%), and extra costs (3%). While the sources of social support that obtained by mothers were; neighbors (10%), extended family (8%), children (8%), husband (7%), parents (7%), and siblings (5%). Unfortunately, more mothers who admitted not getting any social support when having problems (55%). The form of social support that given to mother from poor household were: instrumental support (91%), emotional support (5%) and informational support (2%). Implications for further intervention also discussed in this study.

Keywords: household problems, social support, mothers, poor households

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6384 The Impact of Animal-Assisted Learning on Emotional Wellbeing and Engagement with Reading

Authors: Jill Steel

Abstract:

Introduction: Animal-assisted learning (AAL) interventions are increasing exponentially, yet a paucity of quality research in the field exists. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the promotion of emotional wellbeing, through AAL, in this case, a dog, may support children’s engagement with reading in a Primary 1 classroom. Research indicates that dogs can provide emotional support to children; by forming a trusting attachment with a non-critical ‘friend’ who confers unconditional positive regard on the child, confidence may be boosted and anxiety reduced. By promoting emotional wellbeing through interactions with the dog, it is hoped that children begin to associate reading with feelings of wellbeing, which then results in increased engagement with reading. Methodology: A review of the literature was conducted. The relationship between emotional wellbeing and learning was explored, followed by an examination of the literature relating to Animal-Assisted Therapy and AAL. Scottish educational policy and legislation were analysed to establish the extent to which AAL might be suitable for the Scottish pedagogical context. An empirical study was conducted in a mainstream Primary 1 classroom over a four-week period. An inclusive approach was adopted whereby all children that wanted to interact with the dog were given the opportunity to do so, and all 25 children subsequently chose to participate. Children were not withdrawn from the classroom. Primary methods included interviews, observations, and questionnaires. Three focus children were selected for closer study. Main Results: Results were remarkably close to previous research and literature. Children’s emotional wellbeing was boosted, and engagement in reading improved. Principal Conclusions and Implications for Field: It was concluded that AAL could support emotional wellbeing and, in turn, promote children’s engagement with reading. The main limitation of the study was its short-term nature, and a longer randomised controlled trial with a larger sample, currently being undertaken by the author, would provide a fuller answer to the research question. Barriers to AAL include health and safety concerns and steps to ensure the welfare of the dog.

Keywords: animal-assisted learning, emotional wellbeing, reading, reading to dogs

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6383 Integrated Social Support through Social Networks to Enhance the Quality of Life of Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: B. Thanasansomboon, S. Choemprayong, N. Parinyanitikul, U. Tanlamai

Abstract:

Being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, the patients as well as their caretakers are affected physically and mentally. Although the medical systems in Thailand have been attempting to improve the quality and effectiveness of the treatment of the disease in terms of physical illness, the success of the treatment also depends on the quality of mental health. Metastatic breast cancer patients have found that social support is a key factor that helps them through this difficult time. It is recognized that social support in different dimensions, including emotional support, social network support, informational support, instrumental support and appraisal support, are contributing factors that positively affect the quality of life of patients in general, and it is undeniable that social support in various forms is important in promoting the quality of life of metastatic breast patients. However, previous studies have not been dedicated to investigating their quality of life concerning affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to develop integrated social support through social networks to improve the quality of life of metastatic breast cancer patients in Thailand.

Keywords: social support, metastatic breath cancer, quality of life, social network

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6382 Support Provided by Midwives to Women during Labour in a Public Hospital, Limpopo Province, South Africa: A Participant Observation Study

Authors: Sonto Maputle

Abstract:

Background: Support during labour increase women's chances of having positive childbirth experiences as well as childbirth outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the support provided by midwives to women during labour at the public hospital in Limpopo Province. The study was conducted at the Tertiary hospital in Limpopo Province. Methods: A qualitative, participant observation approach was used. Population consisted of all women that were admitted to deliver their babies and the midwives who provided midwifery care in the obstetric unit of one tertiary public hospital in Limpopo Province. Non-probability, purposive and convenience sampling were used to sample 24 women and 12 midwives. Data were collected through participant observations which included unstructured conversations with the use of observational guide, field notes of events and conversations that occurred when women interact with midwives were recorded verbatim and a Visual Analog Scale to complement the observations. Data was analysed qualitatively but were presented in the tables and bar graphs. Results: Five themes emerged as support provided by midwives during labour, namely; communication between women and midwives, informational support, emotional support activities, interpretation of the experienced labour pain and supportive care activities during labour. Conclusion: The communication was occurring when the midwife was rendering midwifery care and very limited for empowering. The information sharing focused on the assistive actions rather than on the activities that would promote mothers’ participation. The emotional support activities indicated lack of respect and disregard cultural preferences and this contributed to inability to exercise choices in decision-making. The study recommended the implementation of Batho Pele principles in order to provide woman-centred care during labour.

Keywords: communication between women and midwives, labour pains, informational and emotional support, physical comforting measures

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6381 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran

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6380 The Effect of Family SES (Income) On Children’s Socio-Emotional Development

Authors: Xiao Hu

Abstract:

Children’s social and emotional development is critical for developing their future relationships and behaviors, and poor social skills may result in serious emotional externalizations such as anxiety, distress and aggression. Recent research has emphasized the role of family socio-economic status on children’s emotional development, and this study contributes to this academic discussion by reviewing how socio-economic status affects children at three critical development stages: infancy (0-3months), pre-school (4 months-5 years) and school aged (6-10 years). Results show a consensus in the research literature on a positive relationship between family socio-economic status and children’s emotional development. Socialization, a crucial development milestone, is highly affected by a family’s socio-economic status, as families with higher incomes have access to improved social environments, healthier parenting styles and greater access to social capital and peer support. In contrast, families with lower income and SES (socio-economic status) have lower access to these benefits and are frequently ignored within social environments. This review concludes with a critical discussion on how family income affects children’s social environment, highlighting the important role that “permanent” income plays in children’s development. Consequently, the review suggests that future governments should provide temporary economic support for lower-income families, allowing children to be raised in a healthy social environment with limited economic fluctuation.

Keywords: family socio-economic status, parenting style, children’s emotional development, family permanent income

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6379 An Investigation into Kenyan Teachers’ Views of Children’s Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

Authors: Fred Mageto

Abstract:

A great number of children in mainstream schools across Kenya are currently living with emotional, behavioural difficulties. This study aims to explore teachers’ perceptions of children’s emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) and their attributions of the causes of EBD. The relevance of this area of study to current educational practice is illustrated in the fact that primary school teachers in Kenya find classroom behaviour problems one of the major difficulties they face. The information presented in this study was gathered from 182 teachers that responded back to the survey, of whom 27 teachers were later interviewed. In general, teachers’ perceptions of EBD reflect personal experience, training, and attitudes. Teachers appear from this study to use words such as indifferent, frightened, withdrawn, aggressive, disobedient, hyperactive, less ambitious, lacking concentration, and academically weak to describe pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). The implications of this study are envisaged as being extremely important to support teachers addressing children’s EBD and shed light on the contributing factors to EBD for a successful teaching-learning process in Libyan primary schools.

Keywords: teachers, children, learning, emotional and behaviour difficulties

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6378 An Investigation into Libyan Teachers’ Views of Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour

Abstract:

A great number of children in mainstream schools across Libya are currently living with emotional, behavioral difficulties. This study aims to explore teachers’ perceptions of children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) and their attributions of the causes of EBD. The relevance of this area of study to current educational practice is illustrated in the fact that primary school teachers in Libya find classroom behavior problems one of the major difficulties they face. The information presented in this study was gathered from 182 teachers that responded back to the survey, of whom 27 teachers were later interviewed. In general, teachers’ perceptions of EBD reflect personal experience, training, and attitudes. Teachers appear from this study to use words such as indifferent, frightened, withdrawn, aggressive, disobedient, hyperactive, less ambitious, lacking concentration, and academically weak to describe pupils with emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD). The implications of this study are envisaged as being extremely important to support teachers addressing children’s EBD and shed light on the contributing factors to EBD for a successful teaching-learning process in Libyan primary schools.

Keywords: children, emotional and behavior difficulties, learning, teachers'

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6377 Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction

Authors: Nadezda Sergunicheva, Victoria Vasilenko

Abstract:

The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.

Keywords: emotional characteristics, family interaction, fears, parental styles, preschoolers

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6376 Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria

Abstract:

The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.

Keywords: aggression, CWB, emotional intelligence, labeling

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6375 Elderly Care for Bereaved Parents Following the Death of an Only Child in Mainland China

Authors: Chao Fang

Abstract:

Due to the Confucian emphasis on filial piety and an undeveloped social welfare system in mainland China, adult children are both socially and legally obliged to care for their parents, including financial assistance and physical care as well as emotional and social support. Thus a family-centred care pattern for elderly people has been firmly established in China. However, because of the nationwide ‘One Child Policy’, over one million parents are excluded from such care because of the death of their only child and, therefore, their primary caregiver. Without their child’s support, these parents must manage the day to day challenges of growing old alone, with little support from society. By overturning established expectations of a ‘good’ elderly life, the loss of an only child may be accompanied by social and self-stigmatization, pushing these bereaved parents to the margin of society and threatening their economic, physical, emotional and social well-being. More importantly, since the One Child Policy was implemented from the late 1970s and early 1980s, the first generation of bereaved or ‘Shidu’ parents has reached an age at which those parents need elderly care. However, their predicament has been largely ignored. This paper reports on a qualitative interview study that found elderly care to be the main concern for Shidu parents’ everyday life. The paper identifies and discusses the concerns these bereaved parents raised about the prospect of having nowhere to turn at a time of increased need for financial, physical, social and emotional support in old age. The paper also identifies how Shidu parents have been coming together in grief and negotiate to make their predicament known to the government and wider society and to re-define their elderly life by rebuilding a sense of ‘family’.

Keywords: culture, bereavement, China, elderly care

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6374 'You Block Yourself from the Emotion': A Qualitative Inquiry into Teacher's Use of Discordant Emotional Labor Strategies in Student Aggression

Authors: Michal Levy

Abstract:

Despite the emotional impact students' misbehavior and aggression has on teacher's emotional wellbeing, teachers frequently use suppressive strategies in the classroom, which maintain a discordance between felt and expressed emotions. The current study sought to gain a deeper insight into teachers' utilization of discordant emotional labor strategies (i.e., expressive suppression, surface acting and emotional dissonance) and their motives to using these strategies in student aggression. A qualitative study was conducted on 16 special education Jewish Israeli teachers. Thematic analysis of the in-depth semi-structured interviews revealed novice teachers were inclined to use expressive suppression, while experienced teachers used emotional dissonance. The teacher's motives for using discordant emotional labor strategies included both instrumental and hedonic goals. Implications for policymakers and professionals in practice are discussed to improve teachers' emotional wellbeing.

Keywords: discordant strategies, emotional labor, student aggression, teachers

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6373 A Challenge of the 3ʳᵈ Millenium: The Emotional Intelligence Development

Authors: Florentina Hahaianu, Mihaela Negrescu

Abstract:

The analysis of the positive and negative effects of technology use and abuse in Generation Z comes as a necessity in order to understand their ever-changing emotional development needs. The article quantitatively analyzes the findings of a sociological questionnaire on a group of students in social sciences. It aimed to identify the changes generated by the use of digital resources in the emotional intelligence development. Among the outcomes of our study we include a predilection for IT related activities – be they social, learning, entertainment, etc. which undermines the manifestation of emotional intelligence, especially the reluctance to face-to-face interaction. In this context, the issue of emotional intelligence development comes into focus as a solution to compensate for the undesirable effects that contact with technology has on this generation.

Keywords: digital resources, emotional intelligence, generation Z, students

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6372 The Role of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities

Authors: Alfalah Tasneem, Abdallah Bataineh, Falah Jannat, Alfalah Salsabeel

Abstract:

The term emotional intelligence has been unnoticed by a number of scholars in the early 1990s, which was then a major factor that many business managers became interested in understanding its meaning, functions and how it could be integrated in their business life, emotional intelligence is very important for the top managers, to operate in emotionally intelligence way to meet the needs of their employees. Speaking of emotional intelligence success is influenced by personal qualities such as self-awareness, motivation, empathy and relationship skills. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential contribution of emotional intelligence for the Jordanian universities on the level of job satisfaction and the performance of faculty as well as its positive impact on the educational standards.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, higher education, job performance, job satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 253