Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Serdar Öge

24 Effect of the Hardness of Spacer Agent on Structural Properties of Metallic Scaffolds

Authors: Mohammad Khodaei, Mahmood Meratien, Alireza Valanezhad, Serdar Pazarlioglu, Serdar Salman, Ikuya Watanabe


Pore size and morphology plays a crucial role on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. In this research, titanium scaffold was prepared using space holder technique. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate were utilized as spacer agent separately. The effect of the hardness of spacer on the cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical stereo microscopy. Image analyzing software was used to interpret the microscopic images quantitatively. It was shown that sodium chloride, due to its higher hardness, maintain its morphology during cold compaction, and cause better replication in porous scaffolds.

Keywords: Spacer, Titanium Scaffold, Pore Morphology, Space Holder Technique

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23 Investigation of Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: A Research in Health Sector

Authors: Serdar Öge, Pinar Ertürk


The main objective of this research is to describe the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to examine this relationship, a research is intended to be carried out in relevant institutions and organizations operating in the health sector in Turkey. It will be found whether there is a statistically significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior through elated scientific research methods and statistical analysis. In addition, elationships between the dimensions of organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior subscales will be questioned statistically.

Keywords: organizational climate, organizational citizenship, organizational citizenship behavior, climate

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22 Assessment of Collapse Potential of Degrading SDOF Systems

Authors: Muzaffer Borekci, Murat Serdar Kirçil


Predicting the collapse potential of a structure during earthquakes is an important issue in earthquake engineering. Many researchers proposed different methods to assess the collapse potential of structures under the effect of strong ground motions. However most of them did not consider degradation and softening effect in hysteretic behavior. In this study, collapse potential of SDOF systems caused by dynamic instability with stiffness and strength degradation has been investigated. An equation was proposed for the estimation of collapse period of SDOF system which is a limit value of period for dynamic instability. If period of the considered SDOF system is shorter than the collapse period then the relevant system exhibits dynamic instability and collapse occurs.

Keywords: collapse, degradation, dynamic instability, seismic response

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21 Strategic Communication in Turkish Independence War

Authors: Özkan Özgenç, Serdar Hacisalihoğlu, Murat Yanik


History has shown that quantitative and qualitative supremacy in terms of military and economic power has been inadequate to reach the desired results. In addition, public support has been a crucial requirement for the success of the any struggle. As a leader seeking ways for the independence of the country, Ataturk comprehended that the only solution was possible with the help of public will and determination. Ataturk needed an impeccable communication strategy to combine efforts by establishing a united notion and action; to convince the world and Turkish nation of the legitimacy and sacredness of Independence struggle; and to show the resolution and determination of Turkish nation against the invaders. To emancipate the Turkish nation, Ataturk shaped the nation's emotions, ideas, and behaviors by using the most appropriate tools at the best time and place since the start of Independence War in May 19, 1919.

Keywords: Atatürk, Turkish independence struggle, strategic communication, independence war

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20 Implementation of a Web-Based Wireless ECG Measuring and Recording System

Authors: Onder Yakut, Serdar Solak, Emine Dogru Bolat


Measuring the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an essential process for the diagnosis of the heart diseases. The ECG signal has the information of the degree of how much the heart performs its functions. In medical diagnosis and treatment systems, Decision Support Systems processing the ECG signal are being developed for the use of clinicians while medical examination. In this study, a modular wireless ECG (WECG) measuring and recording system using a single board computer and e-Health sensor platform is developed. In this designed modular system, after the ECG signal is taken from the body surface by the electrodes first, it is filtered and converted to digital form. Then, it is recorded to the health database using Wi-Fi communication technology. The real time access of the ECG data is provided through the internet utilizing the developed web interface.

Keywords: ECG, e-health sensor shield, Raspberry Pi, wiFi technology

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19 A Study on Measuring Emotional Labor and Burnout Levels of Shopping Mall Employess: The Case of the Province of Konya

Authors: Ilknur Çevik Tekin, Serdar Öge


As a result of globalization and changing consumer preferences, the number of shopping malls has increased significantly in recent years. Consumers prefer shopping malls to both do comfortable shopping in a short time and benefit from the social facilities there. Employees, who are obliged to behave to the consumers in the way the company wants them to do, often spend intensive emotional effort because companies buy the emotions the employees must display to customers in order to ensure customer satisfaction. The emotions the employees constantly try to contain may lead to the phenomenon of burn-out in time. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between the emotional labor and burn-out levels of shopping mall employees, who work in shopping malls and are supposed to reflect the corporate culture.

Keywords: emotional labor, burnout, shopping mall employees

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18 A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome: Career Barriers of Women Academics

Authors: Serdar Öge, Alpay Karasoy, Özlem Kara


Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher education institutions. To this end, our study was performed on female academics working at Selcuk University, Konya / Turkey. Our study's main aim can be expressed as to determine whether there are glass ceiling obstacles for female academics working at the higher education institution in question, to measure their glass ceiling perceptions and, thus, to identify what the glass ceiling barrier components for them to promotion to senior management positions are.

Keywords: career, career barriers, glass ceiling syndrome, academics

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17 Evaluation of Manual and Automatic Calibration Methods for Digital Tachographs

Authors: Sarp Erturk, Levent Eyigel, Cihat Celik, Muhammet Sahinoglu, Serdar Ay, Yasin Kaya, Hasan Kaya


This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the need for automotive calibration methods for digital tachographs. Digital tachographs are mandatory for vehicles used in people and goods transport and they are an important aspect for road safety and inspection. Digital tachographs need to be calibrated for workshops in order for the digital tachograph to display and record speed and odometer values correctly. Calibration of digital tachographs can be performed either manual or automatic. It is shown in this paper that manual calibration of digital tachographs is prone to errors and there can be differences between manual and automatic calibration parameters. Therefore automatic calibration methods are imperative for digital tachograph calibration. The presented experimental results and error analysis clearly support the claims of the paper by evaluating and statistically comparing manual and automatic calibration methods.

Keywords: digital tachograph, road safety, tachograph calibration, tachograph workshops

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16 Salinity Response of Some Cowpea Genotypes in Germination of Periods

Authors: Meryem Aydin, Serdar Karadas, Ercan Ceyhan


The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence of cowpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2014 on the laboratory of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to “Randomized Plots Design” by two factors and four replications with three replications. Samandag, Akkiz-86, Karnikara and Sarigobek cowpea genotypes have been used as trial material in this study. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility were evaluated. Responses of the cowpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the cowpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt application. According to the effects of salt application, the cowpea genotypes Samandag and Karnikara were the most tolerant in respect to index of sensibility while the Sarigobek genotypes was the most sensitive.

Keywords: cowpea, Vigna sinensis, emergence, salt tolerant

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15 Secure Cryptographic Operations on SIM Card for Mobile Financial Services

Authors: Kerem Ok, Serafettin Senturk, Serdar Aktas, Cem Cevikbas


Mobile technology is very popular nowadays and it provides a digital world where users can experience many value-added services. Service Providers are also eager to offer diverse value-added services to users such as digital identity, mobile financial services and so on. In this context, the security of data storage in smartphones and the security of communication between the smartphone and service provider are critical for the success of these services. In order to provide the required security functions, the SIM card is one acceptable alternative. Since SIM cards include a Secure Element, they are able to store sensitive data, create cryptographically secure keys, encrypt and decrypt data. In this paper, we design and implement a SIM and a smartphone framework that uses a SIM card for secure key generation, key storage, data encryption, data decryption and digital signing for mobile financial services. Our frameworks show that the SIM card can be used as a controlled Secure Element to provide required security functions for popular e-services such as mobile financial services.

Keywords: SIM card, mobile financial services, cryptography, secure data storage

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14 Temporal Variation of Reference Evapotranspiration in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Meteorological Drought Analysis via Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index Method

Authors: Alper Serdar Anli


Analysis of temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important in arid and semi-arid regions where water resources are limited. In this study, temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and meteorological drought analysis through SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) method have been carried out in provinces of Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Reference evapotranspiration of concerning provinces in the region has been estimated using Penman-Monteith method and one calendar year has been split up four periods as r1, r2, r3 and r4. Temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration according to four periods has been analyzed through parametric Dickey-Fuller test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. As a result, significant increasing trends for reference evapotranspiration have been detected and according to SPEI method used for estimating meteorological drought in provinces, mild drought has been experienced in general, and however there have been also a significant amount of events where moderate and severely droughts occurred.

Keywords: central Anatolia region, drought index, Penman-Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, temporal variation

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13 Effect of Temperatures on Growth and Development Time of Aphis fabae Scopoli (Homoptera: Aphididae): On Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: Rochelyn Dona, Serdar Satar


The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of A. fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Developmental, survival, and reproductive data were collected for Aphis fabae reared on detached bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ‘pinto beans’ at five temperature regimes (12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 °C), 65% relative humidity (RH), relative and a photoperiod of 16:8 (LD) h. The developmental times of immature stages ranged from 16, 65 days at 12°C to 5.70 days at 24°C, but a slight increase again at 28°C (6.62 days). At 24°C from this study presented the developmental threshold for A. fabae slightly to 24°C. The average longevity of mature females significantly decreased from 42.32 days at 12°C to 16.12 days at 28°C. The reproduction rate per female was 62.27 at 16°C and 12.72 at 28°C. The mean generation period of the population ranged from 29.24 at 12°C to 11.50 at 28°C. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm = 0.41) were recorded at 24°C, the lowest at 12°C (rm = 0.15). It was evident that temperatures over 28°C augmented the development time, accelerated the death ratio of the nymphal stages, Shrunk Adult longevity, and reduced fecundity. The optimal range of temperature for the population growth of A. fabae on the bean was 16°C-24°C, according to this study.

Keywords: developmental time, intrinsic rate, reproduction period, temperature dependence

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12 The Effect of Different Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Varieties on Growth and Development Time of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Authors: Rochelyn Dona, Mohamed F. Nur, Serdar Satar


The biological response of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom. Aphididae) was investigated on the effects of seven cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) such as Kitir, Muhika, Ayda, Beit, 14-F1, Ruzgar, and Ptk in the laboratory condition at 24±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity (RH) and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) hour. The results were related that the developmental time of A. gossypii at the nymphal stages was presented a significant difference only on the first instar stage. From the lowest to the highest respectively, 0.98 days on ruzgar to 1.18 days on Kitir, the second nymphal stage 0.98 days to Beit alfa, 1.08 days on Muhika, the third from 0.94 days to Kitir, from 1.16 days to 14-F1, and the last instar 1.22 days on Ptk, 1.48 days on Kitir were investigated. The total development time was evaluated at 4.46 days Beit on alfa 4.72 days on Kitir. The offspring number was 60.42 aphids on ayda and 83.72 aphids on muhika, the significant differences between varieties were based on one-way ANOVA (Tukey test). The lifetime of A. gossypii was recorded 19.10 days on Kitir, 27.64 days on Ptk. The results showed that cucumber cultivars were affected by the biological life of A. gossypii. The combination of this study with the other methods of the IPM tactics can serve as the best strategy for controlling this pest on cucumber varieties into the greenhouse.

Keywords: cucumber cultivars, fecundity, intrinsic rate, mortality, resistance

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11 Comparison of Seismic Response for Two RC Curved Bridges with Different Column Shapes

Authors: Nina N. Serdar, Jelena R. Pejović


This paper presents seismic risk assessment of two bridge structure, based on the probabilistic performance-based seismic assessment methodology. Both investigated bridges are tree span continuous RC curved bridges with the difference in column shapes. First bridge (type A) has a wall-type pier and second (type B) has a two-column bent with circular columns. Bridges are designed according to European standards: EN 1991-2, EN1992-1-1 and EN 1998-2. Aim of the performed analysis is to compare seismic behavior of these two structures and to detect the influence of column shapes on the seismic response. Seismic risk assessment is carried out by obtaining demand fragility curves. Non-linear model was constructed and time-history analysis was performed using thirty five pairs of horizontal ground motions selected to match site specific hazard. In performance based analysis, peak column drift ratio (CDR) was selected as engineering demand parameter (EDP). For seismic intensity measure (IM) spectral displacement was selected. Demand fragility curves that give probability of exceedance of certain value for chosen EDP were constructed and based on them conclusions were made.

Keywords: RC curved bridge, demand fragility curve, wall type column, nonlinear time-history analysis, circular column

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10 The Role of Personality Characteristics and Psychological Harassment Behaviors Which Employees Are Exposed on Work Alienation

Authors: Hasan Serdar Öge, Esra Çiftçi, Kazım Karaboğa


The main purpose of the research is to address the role of psychological harassment behaviors (mobbing) to which employees are exposed and personality characteristics over work alienation. Research population was composed of the employees of Provincial Special Administration. A survey with four sections was created to measure variables and reach out the basic goals of the research. Correlation and step-wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the separate and overall effects of sub-dimensions of psychological harassment behaviors and personality characteristic on work alienation of employees. Correlation analysis revealed significant but weak relationships between work alienation and psychological harassment and personality characteristics. Step-wise regression analysis revealed also significant relationships between work alienation variable and assault to personality, direct negative behaviors (sub dimensions of mobbing) and openness (sub-dimension of personality characteristics). Each variable was introduced into the model step by step to investigate the effects of significant variables in explaining the variations in work alienation. While the explanation ratio of the first model was 13%, the last model including three variables had an explanation ratio of 24%.

Keywords: alienation, five-factor personality characteristics, mobbing, psychological harassment, work alienation

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9 The Analysis of Acute Pancreatitis Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Adnan Sahin, Ufuk Uylas, Ercument Pasaoglu, Tarik Caga, Enver Ihtiyar, Serdar Erkasap, Ersin Ates, Fatih Yasar


Background: In this study, it was evaluated the demographic features, etiological factors and the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: 106 patient hospitalized due to acute pancreatitis were retrospectively examined from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 in Department of General Surgery of ESOGUMF. The data of gender, signs and symptoms, etiological factors, WBC, AST, ALT, Amilase, USG and CT findings treatment options ERCP, and complications, mortality rate were analysed. Results: The mean age of patients were 58.8 (53 men and 53 women). The causes of acute pancreatitis were as follows: gallbladder stone was 89, hyperlipidemia was 5 and idiopathic were 16 patients. Severe pancreatitis was developed in 16 patients in the biliary pancreatitis group and ERCP was performed. Cholecystectomy was performed to all biliary pancreatitis group patients after acute pancreatitis subside. The mean hospital stay period was 9.33 (2-37) day. Discussion and conclusion: Severe acute pancreatitis is a mortal disease. The most common etiological cause of acute pancreatitis is biliary origin. The first line treatment modality of acute pancreatitis is medical. Cholecystectomy should be planned to the all-biliary caused acute pancreatitis patients after the attack subside. ERCP is a useful treatment modality in the case of clinical worsening and suspicion of acute cholangitis. ERCP procedure used 16 patients in our series and these patients have a good morbidity and mean hospital period is lower than the others. We suppose that ERCP procedure should be planned selectively and conservatively.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, ERCP, morbidity, treatment

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8 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams

Authors: Ferhat Erdal, Osman Tunca, Serkan Tas, Serdar Carbas


Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.

Keywords: steel structures, web-expanded beams, angelina beam, optimum design, failure modes, finite element analysis

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7 'Performance-Based' Seismic Methodology and Its Application in Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Jelena R. Pejović, Nina N. Serdar


This paper presents an analysis of the “Performance-Based” seismic design method, in order to overcome the perceived disadvantages and limitations of the existing seismic design approach based on force, in engineering practice. Bearing in mind, the specificity of the earthquake as a load and the fact that the seismic resistance of the structures solely depends on its behaviour in the nonlinear field, traditional seismic design approach based on force and linear analysis is not adequate. “Performance-Based” seismic design method is based on nonlinear analysis and can be used in everyday engineering practice. This paper presents the application of this method to eight-story high reinforced concrete building with combined structural system (reinforced concrete frame structural system in one direction and reinforced concrete ductile wall system in other direction). The nonlinear time-history analysis is performed on the spatial model of the structure using program Perform 3D, where the structure is exposed to forty real earthquake records. For considered building, large number of results were obtained. It was concluded that using this method we could, with a high degree of reliability, evaluate structural behavior under earthquake. It is obtained significant differences in the response of structures to various earthquake records. Also analysis showed that frame structural system had not performed well at the effect of earthquake records on soil like sand and gravel, while a ductile wall system had a satisfactory behavior on different types of soils.

Keywords: ductile wall, frame system, nonlinear time-history analysis, performance-based methodology, RC building

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6 A Visual Decoding of Environmental Awareness in Mass Media

Authors: Nergis Aşar, Elif Serdar Yakut


Media is a formative driver shaped and evolved by cultural momentum. The environmental consciousness, without an exception, has been part of this cultural momentum, especially after the 1960s where environmental problems were trending due to visible consequences in urban content. This popularity resonated in the media, and environmental problems became a part of mass media. Natural disasters such as water and air pollution or the destruction of nature due to urbanization, which affects social life and entails risks, come to the fore as ever-increasing matters. This substantial increase in environmental issues makes them more visible than ever before. There are many factors that cause this visibility, such as; public attention, accessibility of information, and media coverage. Although mass media, in particular, has a great potential for public awareness, it manifests as a latent and implicit capacity around the globe. In developing countries such as Turkey, the connexions of environmental issues and mass media is still impotent. Therefore, strengthening these relationships is crucial to anticipating social trends in the near future. In this paper, the aim is to elaborate on the elements of mass media in Turkey through the lenses of environmental awareness, climate-positive impact, and sustainability. For this purpose, visual media data is extracted from the mainstream broadcasts of certain channels that are able to reach a significant number of viewers. The main objective is to decode and identify the relationships between visual and syntactic associations relevant to environmental perception on a local scale. These associations are mostly pertaining to advertising, which gives indirect and direct messages to societies and mediately to the cities. The study has four phases: (1) identification of visuo-audio sources among mainstream media, (2) collection and preparation of visuo-audio data, (3) content analysis, and (4) evaluation of results. During this process of decoding and analyzing, the relevant concepts of sustainability will be elaborated to understand the key characteristics of the current situation about environmental problem communication in mass media. The outcomes of this study will portray the current trends in the communication of environmental issues in the mass media. With this approach, the research conducts an important debate on the awareness of society for the improvement of policies and directions on cities that change the environment. In this way, the research provides a basis for further and extended research on the impact on individual interaction with social media data.

Keywords: content analysis, environmental awareness, environmental problems in communication, mass media

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5 Reactivities of Turkish Lignites during Oxygen Enriched Combustion

Authors: Ozlem Uguz, Ali Demirci, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman


Lignitic coal holds its position as Turkey’s most important indigenous energy source to generate energy in thermal power plants. Hence, efficient and environmental-friendly use of lignite in electricity generation is of great importance. Thus, clean coal technologies have been planned to mitigate emissions and provide more efficient burning in power plants. In this context, oxygen enriched combustion (oxy-combustion) is regarded as one of the clean coal technologies, which based on burning with oxygen concentrations higher than that in air. As it is known that the most of the Turkish coals are low rank with high mineral matter content, unburnt carbon trapped in ash is, unfortunately, high, and it leads significant losses in the overall efficiencies of the thermal plants. Besides, the necessity of burning huge amounts of these low calorific value lignites to get the desired amount of energy also results in the formation of large amounts of ash that is rich in unburnt carbon. Oxygen enriched combustion technology enables to increase the burning efficiency through the complete burning of almost all of the carbon content of the fuel. This also contributes to the protection of air quality and emission levels drop reasonably. The aim of this study is to investigate the unburnt carbon content and the burning reactivities of several different lignite samples under oxygen enriched conditions. For this reason, the combined effects of temperature and oxygen/nitrogen ratios in the burning atmosphere were investigated and interpreted. To do this, Turkish lignite samples from Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Kütahya-Tunçbilek regions were characterized first by proximate and ultimate analyses and the burning profiles were derived using DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) curves. Then, these lignites were subjected to slow burning process in a horizontal tube furnace at different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 600ºC for Adıyaman-Gölbaşı lignite and 200ºC, 450ºC, 800ºC for Kütahya-Tunçbilek lignite) under atmospheres having O₂+N₂ proportions of 21%O₂+79%N₂, 30%O₂+70%N₂, 40%O₂+60%N₂, and 50%O₂+50%N₂. These burning temperatures were specified based on the burning profiles derived from the DTA curves. The residues obtained from these burning tests were also analyzed by proximate and ultimate analyses to detect the unburnt carbon content along with the unused energy potential. Reactivity of these lignites was calculated using several methodologies. Burning yield under air condition (21%O₂+79%N₂) was used a benchmark value to compare the effectiveness of oxygen enriched conditions. It was concluded that oxygen enriched combustion method enhanced the combustion efficiency and lowered the unburnt carbon content of ash. Combustion of low-rank coals under oxygen enriched conditions was found to be a promising way to improve the efficiency of the lignite-firing energy systems. However, cost-benefit analysis should be considered for a better justification of this method since the use of more oxygen brings an unignorable additional cost.

Keywords: coal, energy, oxygen enriched combustion, reactivity

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4 Influence of Torrefied Biomass on Co-Combustion Behaviors of Biomass/Lignite Blends

Authors: Aysen Caliskan, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman


Co-firing of coal and biomass blends is an effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released by burning coals, thanks to the carbon-neutral nature of biomass. Besides, usage of biomass that is renewable and sustainable energy resource mitigates the dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. However, most of the biomass species has negative aspects such as low calorific value, high moisture and volatile matter contents compared to coal. Torrefaction is a promising technique in order to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass through thermal treatment. That is, this technique improves the calorific value of biomass along with serious reductions in the moisture and volatile matter contents. In this context, several woody biomass materials including Rhododendron, hybrid poplar, and ash-tree were subjected to torrefaction process in a horizontal tube furnace at 200°C under nitrogen flow. In this way, the solid residue obtained from torrefaction that is also called as 'biochar' was obtained and analyzed to monitor the variations taking place in biomass properties. On the other hand, some Turkish lignites from Elbistan, Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Çorum-Dodurga deposits were chosen as coal samples since these lignites are of great importance in lignite-fired power stations in Turkey. These lignites were blended with the obtained biochars for which the blending ratio of biochars was kept at 10 wt% and the lignites were the dominant constituents in the fuel blends. Burning tests of the lignites, biomasses, biochars, and blends were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer up to 900°C with a heating rate of 40°C/min under dry air atmosphere. Based on these burning tests, properties relevant to burning characteristics such as the burning reactivity and burnout yields etc. could be compared to justify the effects of torrefaction and blending. Besides, some characterization techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also conducted for the untreated biomass and torrefied biomass (biochar) samples, lignites and their blends to examine the co-combustion characteristics elaborately. Results of this study revealed the fact that blending of lignite with 10 wt% biochar created synergistic behaviors during co-combustion in comparison to the individual burning of the ingredient fuels in the blends. Burnout and ignition performances of each blend were compared by taking into account the lignite and biomass structures and characteristics. The blend that has the best co-combustion profile and ignition properties was selected. Even though final burnouts of the lignites were decreased due to the addition of biomass, co-combustion process acts as a reasonable and sustainable solution due to its environmentally friendly benefits such as reductions in net carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx and hazardous organic chemicals derived from volatiles.

Keywords: burnout performance, co-combustion, thermal analysis, torrefaction pretreatment

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3 Production and Characterization of Biochars from Torrefaction of Biomass

Authors: Serdar Yaman, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma


Biomass is a CO₂-neutral fuel that is renewable and sustainable along with having very huge global potential. Efficient use of biomass in power generation and production of biomass-based biofuels can mitigate the greenhouse gasses (GHG) and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are also other beneficial effects of biomass energy use such as employment creation and pollutant reduction. However, most of the biomass materials are not capable of competing with fossil fuels in terms of energy content. High moisture content and high volatile matter yields of biomass make it low calorific fuel, and it is very significant concern over fossil fuels. Besides, the density of biomass is generally low, and it brings difficulty in transportation and storage. These negative aspects of biomass can be overcome by thermal pretreatments that upgrade the fuel property of biomass. That is, torrefaction is such a thermal process in which biomass is heated up to 300ºC under non-oxidizing conditions to avoid burning of the material. The treated biomass is called as biochar that has considerably lower contents of moisture, volatile matter, and oxygen compared to the parent biomass. Accordingly, carbon content and the calorific value of biochar increase to the level which is comparable with that of coal. Moreover, hydrophilic nature of untreated biomass that leads decay in the structure is mostly eliminated, and the surface properties of biochar turn into hydrophobic character upon torrefaction. In order to investigate the effectiveness of torrefaction process on biomass properties, several biomass species such as olive milling residue (OMR), Rhododendron (small shrubby tree with bell-shaped flowers), and ash tree (timber tree) were chosen. The fuel properties of these biomasses were analyzed through proximate and ultimate analyses as well as higher heating value (HHV) determination. For this, samples were first chopped and ground to a particle size lower than 250 µm. Then, samples were subjected to torrefaction in a horizontal tube furnace by heating from ambient up to temperatures of 200, 250, and 300ºC at a heating rate of 10ºC/min. The biochars obtained from this process were also tested by the methods applied to the parent biomass species. Improvement in the fuel properties was interpreted. That is, increasing torrefaction temperature led to regular increases in the HHV in OMR, and the highest HHV (6065 kcal/kg) was gained at 300ºC. Whereas, torrefaction at 250ºC was seen optimum for Rhododendron and ash tree since torrefaction at 300ºC had a detrimental effect on HHV. On the other hand, the increase in carbon contents and reduction in oxygen contents were determined. Burning characteristics of the biochars were also studied using thermal analysis technique. For this purpose, TA Instruments SDT Q600 model thermal analyzer was used and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves were compared and interpreted. It was concluded that torrefaction is an efficient method to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass and the biochars from which have superior characteristics compared to the parent biomasses.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, fuel upgrade, torrefaction

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2 Thermoluminescence Investigations of Tl2Ga2Se3S Layered Single Crystals

Authors: Serdar Delice, Mehmet Isik, Nizami Hasanli, Kadir Goksen


Researchers have donated great interest to ternary and quaternary semiconductor compounds especially with the improvement of the optoelectronic technology. The quaternary compound Tl2Ga2Se3S which was grown by Bridgman method carries the properties of ternary thallium chalcogenides group of semiconductors with layered structure. This compound can be formed from TlGaSe2 crystals replacing the one quarter of selenium atom by sulfur atom. Although Tl2Ga2Se3S crystals are not intentionally doped, some unintended defect types such as point defects, dislocations and stacking faults can occur during growth processes of crystals. These defects can cause undesirable problems in semiconductor materials especially produced for optoelectronic technology. Defects of various types in the semiconductor devices like LEDs and field effect transistor may act as a non-radiative or scattering center in electron transport. Also, quick recombination of holes with electrons without any energy transfer between charge carriers can occur due to the existence of defects. Therefore, the characterization of defects may help the researchers working in this field to produce high quality devices. Thermoluminescence (TL) is an effective experimental method to determine the kinetic parameters of trap centers due to defects in crystals. In this method, the sample is illuminated at low temperature by a light whose energy is bigger than the band gap of studied sample. Thus, charge carriers in the valence band are excited to delocalized band. Then, the charge carriers excited into conduction band are trapped. The trapped charge carriers are released by heating the sample gradually and these carriers then recombine with the opposite carriers at the recombination center. By this way, some luminescence is emitted from the samples. The emitted luminescence is converted to pulses by using an experimental setup controlled by computer program and TL spectrum is obtained. Defect characterization of Tl2Ga2Se3S single crystals has been performed by TL measurements at low temperatures between 10 and 300 K with various heating rate ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 K/s. The TL signal due to the luminescence from trap centers revealed one glow peak having maximum temperature of 36 K. Curve fitting and various heating rate methods were used for the analysis of the glow curve. The activation energy of 13 meV was found by the application of curve fitting method. This practical method established also that the trap center exhibits the characteristics of mixed (general) kinetic order. In addition, various heating rate analysis gave a compatible result (13 meV) with curve fitting as the temperature lag effect was taken into consideration. Since the studied crystals were not intentionally doped, these centers are thought to originate from stacking faults, which are quite possible in Tl2Ga2Se3S due to the weakness of the van der Waals forces between the layers. Distribution of traps was also investigated using an experimental method. A quasi-continuous distribution was attributed to the determined trap centers.

Keywords: chalcogenides, defects, thermoluminescence, trap centers

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1 Understanding New Zealand’s 19th Century Timber Churches: Techniques in Extracting and Applying Underlying Procedural Rules

Authors: Samuel McLennan, Tane Moleta, Andre Brown, Marc Aurel Schnabel


The development of Ecclesiastical buildings within New Zealand has produced some unique design characteristics that take influence from both international styles and local building methods. What this research looks at is how procedural modelling can be used to define such common characteristics and understand how they are shared and developed within different examples of a similar architectural style. This will be achieved through the creation of procedural digital reconstructions of the various timber Gothic Churches built during the 19th century in the city of Wellington, New Zealand. ‘Procedural modelling’ is a digital modelling technique that has been growing in popularity, particularly within the game and film industry, as well as other fields such as industrial design and architecture. Such a design method entails the creation of a parametric ‘ruleset’ that can be easily adjusted to produce many variations of geometry, rather than a single geometry as is typically found in traditional CAD software. Key precedents within this area of digital heritage includes work by Haegler, Müller, and Gool, Nicholas Webb and Andre Brown, and most notably Mark Burry. What these precedents all share is how the forms of the reconstructed architecture have been generated using computational rules and an understanding of the architects’ geometric reasoning. This is also true within this research as Gothic architecture makes use of only a select range of forms (such as the pointed arch) that can be accurately replicated using the same standard geometric techniques originally used by the architect. The methodology of this research involves firstly establishing a sample group of similar buildings, documenting the existing samples, researching any lost samples to find evidence such as architectural plans, photos, and written descriptions, and then culminating all the findings into a single 3D procedural asset within the software ‘Houdini’. The end result will be an adjustable digital model that contains all the architectural components of the sample group, such as the various naves, buttresses, and windows. These components can then be selected and arranged to create visualisations of the sample group. Because timber gothic churches in New Zealand share many details between designs, the created collection of architectural components can also be used to approximate similar designs not included in the sample group, such as designs found beyond the Wellington Region. This creates an initial library of architectural components that can be further expanded on to encapsulate as wide of a sample size as desired. Such a methodology greatly improves upon the efficiency and adjustability of digital modelling compared to current practices found in digital heritage reconstruction. It also gives greater accuracy to speculative design, as a lack of evidence for lost structures can be approximated using components from still existing or better-documented examples. This research will also bring attention to the cultural significance these types of buildings have within the local area, addressing the public’s general unawareness of architectural history that is identified in the Wellington based research ‘Moving Images in Digital Heritage’ by Serdar Aydin et al.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital heritage, gothic architecture, Houdini, procedural modelling

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