Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2291

Search results for: blood sugar

2291 The Correlation between Education, Food Intake, Exercise, and Medication Obedience with the Average of Blood Sugar in Indonesia

Authors: Aisyah Rahmatul Laily

Abstract:

Indonesia Ministry of Health is increasing their awareness on non communicable diseases. From the top ten causes of death, two of them are non communicable diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the two non communicable diseases above that have the increasing number of patient from year to year. From that problem, this research is made to determine the correlation between education, food intake, exercise, and the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar. In this research, the researchers used observational and cross-sectional studies. The sample that used in this research were 50 patients in Puskesmas Gamping I Yogyakarta who have suffered from Diabetes Mellitus in long period. The researcher doing anamnesis by using questionnaire to collect the data, then analyzed it with Chi Square to determine the correlation between each variable. The dependent variable in this research is the average of blood sugar, whereas the independent variables are education, food intake, do exercise, and the obedience of medication. The result shows a relation between education and average blood sugar level (p=0.029), a relation between food intake and average blood sugar level (p=0.009), and a relation between exercise and average blood sugar level (p=0.023). There is also a relation between the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar (p=0,002). The conclusion is that the positive correlations exist between education and average blood sugar level, between food intake and average blood sugar level, and between medication obedience and average blood sugar level.

Keywords: average of blood sugar, education, exercise, food intake, medication obedience

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2290 Determination of Some Biochemical Values for the Liza klunzingeri in Coastal Water of Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

Serum biochemical can be used for monitoring any changes in the physiological condition of fish and quality of waters. The aim of this paper was to determine of plasma sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, iron, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels of Liza klunzingeri in Persian Gulf. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vessel with syringes coated with sodium heparin. Biochemical values were: sugar 110.37±28.46 mg/di, triglycerides 96.82±23.40 mg/di, cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di, iron 104.74± 19.08 mg/di, ALP 117.62±34.49 u/l, LDH 1613.00±345.34 u/l. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was found between triglycerides and sugar. Triglycerides had a significant and positive relationship with cholesterol (P<0.01). ALP also had a significant and positive relationship with sugar (P<0.01) and triglycerides (P<0.05). LDH correlated positively with sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides (P<0.01) and ALP (P<0.05). The results revealed reverse correlation between iron with cholesterol, sugar, triglycerides, ALP, and LDH (P<0.01). This study represents a contribution to the referential biochemical values of the L. klunzingeri. In further studies, the established reference ranges might be useful for the health assessment of this species.

Keywords: Liza klunzingeri, blood, ALP, LDH

Procedia PDF Downloads 544
2289 Study of the Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Common Fig in the Region of the El Amra (Ain Defla), Algeria

Authors: Meliani Samiha, Hassaine Sarah

Abstract:

Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.

Keywords: antidiabetic, figs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2288 Effect of Blood Sugar Levels on Short Term and Working Memory Status in Type 2 Diabetics

Authors: Mythri G., Manjunath ML, Girish Babu M., Shireen Swaliha Quadri

Abstract:

Background: The increase in diabetes among the elderly is of concern because in addition to the wide range of traditional diabetes complications, evidence has been growing that diabetes is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Aims and Objectives: To find out if there is any association between blood sugar levels and short-term and working memory status in patients of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 200 individuals aged between 40-65 years consisting of 100 diagnosed cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and 100 non-diabetics from OPD of Mc Gann Hospital, Shivamogga. Rye’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Visual Reproduction Test, Working Digit Span Test and Validation Span Test were used to assess short-term and working memory. Fasting and Post Prandial blood sugar levels were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21. Results: Memory test scores of type 2 diabetics were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) when compared to the memory scores of age and gender matched non-diabetics. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.837), VFT (r=-0.888), VRT(r=-0.787), WDST (r=-0.795) and VST (r=-0.943). Post- Prandial blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.922), VFT (r=-0.848), VRT(r=-0.707),WDST (r=-0.729) and VST (r=-0.880) Memory scores in all 5 tests were found to be negatively correlated with the FBS and PPBS levels in diabetic patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The decreased memory status in diabetic patients may be due to many factors like hyperglycemia, vascular disease, insulin resistance, amyloid deposition and also some of the factor combine to produce additive effects like, type of diabetes, co-morbidities, age of onset, duration of the disease and type of therapy. These observed effects of blood sugar levels of diabetics on memory status are of potential clinical importance because even mild cognitive impairment could interfere with todays’ activities.

Keywords: diabetes, cognition, diabetes, HRV, respiratory medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
2287 Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cedrus deodara Roxb. Heartwood in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendar Kumar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
2286 Antidiabetic Activity of Cedrus deodara Aqueous Extract and Its Relationship with Its Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendra Kumnar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract and its relationship in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2285 Influence of Shift Work on Fasting Blood Sugar in Hospital Workers

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, N. K. Subbalakshmi, C. Vidya

Abstract:

Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective studies suggests an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. Shift work by disrupting the circadian rhythm, could possibly cause metabolic disturbances. Objective: To investigate the influence of shift work on fasting blood glucose in hospital workers population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 90 night shift workers (study group) and 90 day workers (controls) drawn from paramedical personnel. Night shift work was on a forward rotation basis, with an average of one night shift every 4 weeks. Each night shift rotation was for a period of 7 days, with a total of 8 hours of shift work per night. In the entire subjects body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Statistical analysis included unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test and Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study and control groups were comparable with regard to age, sex distribution and duration of employment. FBS was higher in study group compared to controls (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BMI between control and study group. Conclusion: Shift work may adversely influence glucose metabolism.

Keywords: shift work, fasting blood sugar, sleep disturbances, diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2284 Cadmium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thasala Southern Thailand

Authors: Supabhorn Yimthiang, Wiyada Khanwian

Abstract:

Cadmium is a heavy metal that is important in the environment because it is highly toxic. The incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with cadmium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at diabetes mellitus clinic, Thasala hospital, Nakhon Si Thummarat, Thailand. The study population was composed of forty five subjects. Among them, twenty two were diabetic patients and twenty three were apparently healthy non-diabetic individual subjects. After an overnight fasting, blood and morning urine samples were collected from each subject to determine fasting blood sugar and cadmium levels in urine, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. Study approval was taken from the human subject ethics committee of Walailak University. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from all participants. In the study samples, there were 31.8% males and 68.2% females with mean age of 47+10.53 years. The geometric mean of urine cadmium was significantly higher in diabetic patients (1.015 + 0.79 µg/g creatinine) when compared with the healthy subjects (0.395 + 0.53 µg/g creatinine) (P<0.05). This result also showed that urine cadmium excretion in diabetic patients was higher than in healthy subjects by 2.6 times. Moreover, fasting blood sugar (153+47.86 μg/dl) and systolic blood pressure (183.26+17.15 mmHg) of diabetic patients was significantly different when compared with healthy subjects (79+5.38 μg/dl and 112.78+11.32 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of cadmium in urine showed positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.616) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.487). This preliminary study showed that cadmium might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in general population. However, these findings require confirmation through additional epidemiological and biological research.

Keywords: blood pressure, cadmium, fasting blood sugar, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
2283 The Assessment of the Diabetes Mellitus Complications on Oral Health: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Gresa Baboci, Edit Xhajanka, Vito Antonio Malagnino

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a very problematic chronic disease that has an effect on a considerable number of people around the world and it is straightforwardly associated with the oral health condition of the patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus on oral health. Materials and methods: In the present research were taken into consideration 300 patients with an age range of 11 to 80 years old. The study sample was composed of 191 males, respectively 63.7% of them and 109 females 36.3% of the participants. We divided them into seven age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and 71-80 years.This descriptive and analytical research was designed as a longitudinal study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 23.0 statistics. Results: The majority of patients participating in the study belonged to the age range from 41 to 50 years old, precisely 20.7% of them, while 27% of the patients were from 51 to 60 years old. Based on the present research, it resulted that 24.4% of the participant had high blood sugar values 250-300 mg/dl, whereas 19 % of the patients had very high blood sugar values 300-350 mg/dl. Based on the results of the current study, it was observed that 83.7% of patients were affected by gingivitis. In the current study, the significant finding is that 22% of patients had more than 7 teeth with dental caries and 21% of them had 5-7 teeth with dental caries, whereas 29% of the patients had 4-5 dental caries and the remaining 28% of them had 1-3 dental caries. The present study showed that most of the patients, 27% of them had lost more than 7 teeth and 22% of the participants had lost 5-7 teeth, whereas 31% of the patients had lost 4-5 teeth and only 20 % of them had lost 1-3 teeth. This study proved that high blood sugar values had a direct impact on the manifestation of gingivitis and there it was a strong correlation between them with P-value = .001. A strong correlation was found out between dental caries and high blood sugar values with P-value ˂.001. Males with diabetes mellitus were more affected by dental caries and this was proved by the P-value= .02, in comparison to females P-value=.03. The impact of high blood sugar values affects missing teeth and the correlation between them was statistically significant with P-value ˂ .001. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus is a possible risk factor in oral health for the reason that Albanian patients over 51 years old, respectively 43% of them have over 5 teeth with dental caries as compared with 49% of the patients who had over 5 missing teeth, whereas the majority 83.7% of them suffered from gingivitis. This study asserts that patients who do not have periodical check-ups of diabetes mellitus are at significant risk of oral diseases.

Keywords: dental caries, diabetes mellitus, gingivitis, missing teeth

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2282 The Importance of the Fluctuation in Blood Sugar and Blood Pressure of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Hitoshi Minakuchi, Izumi Takei, Shu Wakino, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh

Abstract:

Objectives: Among type 2 diabetics, patients with CKD(chronic kidney disease), insulin resistance, impaired glyconeogenesis in kidney and reduced degradation of insulin are recognized, and we observed different fluctuational patterns of blood sugar between CKD patients and non-CKD patients. On the other hand, non-dipper type blood pressure change is the risk of organ damage and mortality. We performed cross-sectional study to elucidate the characteristic of the fluctuation of blood glucose and blood pressure at insulin-treated diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: From March 2011 to April 2013, at the Ichikawa General Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, we recruited 20 outpatients. All participants are insulin-treated type 2 diabetes with CKD. We collected serum samples, urine samples for several hormone measurements, and performed CGMS(Continuous glucose measurement system), ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), brain computed tomography, carotid artery thickness, ankle brachial index, PWV, CVR-R, and analyzed these data statistically. Results: Among all 20 participants, hypoglycemia was decided blood glucose 70mg/dl by CGMS of 9 participants (45.0%). The event of hypoglycemia was recognized lower eGFR (29.8±6.2ml/min:41.3±8.5ml/min, P<0.05), lower HbA1c (6.44±0.57%:7.53±0.49%), higher PWV (1858±97.3cm/s:1665±109.2cm/s), higher serum glucagon (194.2±34.8pg/ml:117.0±37.1pg/ml), higher free cortisol of urine (53.8±12.8μg/day:34.8±7.1μg/day), and higher metanephrin of urine (0.162±0.031mg/day:0.076±0.029mg/day). Non-dipper type blood pressure change in ABPM was detected 8 among 9 participants with hypoglycemia (88.9%), 4 among 11 participants (36.4%) without hypoglycemia. Multiplex logistic-regression analysis revealed that the event of hypoglycemia is the independent factor of non-dipper type blood pressure change. Conclusions: Among insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with CKD, the events of hypoglycemia were frequently detected, and can associate with the organ derangements through the medium of non-dipper type blood pressure change.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hypoglycemia, non-dipper type blood pressure change, diabetic patients

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
2281 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
2280 EhfadHaya (SaveLife) / AateHayah (GiveLife) Blood Donor Website

Authors: Sameer Muhammad Aslam, Nura Said Mohsin Al-Saifi

Abstract:

This research shows the process of creating a blood donation website for Oman. Blood donation is a widespread, crucial, ongoing process, so it is important that this website is easy to use. Several automated blood management systems are available, but none provides an effective algorithm that takes into account variables such as frequency of donation, donation date, and gender. In Oman, the Ministry of Health maintains a blood bank and keeps donors informed about the need for blood through a website. They also inform donors and the wider public where and when is their next blood donation event. The website's main goals are to educate the community about the benefits of blood donation. It also manages donor and receiver documentation and encourages voluntary blood donation by providing easy access to information about blood types and blood distribution in various hospitals in Oman, based on hospital needs.

Keywords: Oman, blood bank, blood donors, donor website

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2279 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig

Abstract:

In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2278 Correlation between Body Mass Index and Blood Sugar/Serum Lipid Levels in Fourth-Grade Boys in Japan

Authors: Kotomi Yamashita, Hiromi Kawasaki, Satoko Yamasaki, Susumu Fukita, Risako Sakai

Abstract:

Lifestyle-related diseases develop from the long-term accumulation of health consequences from a poor lifestyle. Thus, schoolchildren, who have not accumulated long-term lifestyle habits, are believed to be at a lower risk for lifestyle-related diseases. However, schoolchildren rarely receive blood tests unless they are under treatment for a serious disease; without such data on their blood, the impacts of their young lifestyle could not be known. Blood data from physical measurements can help in the implementation of more effective health education. Therefore, we examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and blood sugar/serum lipid (BS/SL) levels. From 2014 to 2016, we measured the blood data of fourth-grade students living in a city in Japan. The present study reported on the results of 281 fourth-grade boys only (80.3% of total). We analyzed their BS/SL levels by comparing the blood data against the criteria of the National Center for Child Health and Development in Japan. Next, we examined the correlation between BMI and BS/SL levels. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25 was used for analysis. A total of 69 boys (24.6%) were within the normal range for BMI (18.5–24), whereas 193 (71.5%) and 8 boys (2.8%) had lower and higher BMI, respectively. Regarding BS levels, 280 boys were within the normal range (70–90 mg/dl); 1 boy reported a higher value. All the boys were within the normal range for glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) (4.6–6.2%). Regarding SL levels, 271 boys were within the normal range (125–230 mg/dl) for total cholesterol (TC), whereas 5 boys (1.8%) had lower and 5 boys (1.8%) had higher levels. A total of 243 boys (92.7%) were within the normal range (36-138mg/dL) for triglycerides (TG), whereas 19 boys (7.3%) had lower and 19 boys (7.3%) had higher levels. Regarding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 276 boys (98.2%) were within the normal range (40-mg/dl), whereas 5 boys (1.8%) reported lower values. All but one boy (280, 99.6%) were within the normal range (-170 mg/dl) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); the exception (0.4%) had a higher level. BMI and BS didn’t show a correlation. BMI and HbA1c were moderately positively correlated (r = 0.139, p=0.019). We also observed moderate positive correlations between BMI and TG (r = 0.328, p < 0.01), TC (r=0.239, p< 0.01), LDL-C (r = 0.324, p < 0.01), respectively. BMI and HDL-C were low correlated (r = -0.185, p = 0.002). Most of the boys were within the normal range for BS/SL levels. However, some boys exceeded the normal TG range. Fourth graders with a high TG may develop a lifestyle-related disease in the future. Given its relation to TG, food habits should be improved in this group. Our findings suggested a positive correlation between BMI and BS/SL levels. Fourth-grade schoolboys with a high BMI may be at high risk for developing lifestyle-related diseases. Lifestyle improvement may be recommended to lower the BS/SL levels in this group.

Keywords: blood sugar level, lifestyle-related diseases, school students, serum lipid level

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2277 The Impact of Restricting Product Availability on the Purchasing of Lower Sugar Biscuits in UK Convenience Stores

Authors: Hannah S. Waldron

Abstract:

Background: The government has proposed sugar reduction targets in an effort to tackle childhood obesity, focussing on those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Supermarkets are a key location for reducing the amount of sugar purchased, but success so far in this environment has been limited. Building on previous research, this study will assess the impact of restricting the availability of higher sugar biscuits as a strategy to encourage lower sugar biscuit purchasing, and whether the effects vary by customer SES. Method: 14 supermarket convenience stores were divided between control (n=7) and intervention (n=7) groups. In the intervention stores, biscuits with sugar above the government’s target (26.2g/100g) were removed from sale and replaced with lower sugar ( < 26.2g sugar/100g) alternatives. Sales and customer demographic information were collected using loyalty card data and point-of-sale transaction data for 8-weeks pre and post the intervention for lower sugar biscuits, total biscuits, alternative higher sugar products, and all products. Results were analysed using three-way and two-way mixed ANOVAs. Results: The intervention resulted in a significant increase in lower sugar biscuit purchasing (p < 0.001) and a significant decline in overall biscuit sales (p < 0.001) between the time periods compared to control stores. Sales of higher sugar products and all products increased significantly between the two time periods in both the intervention and control stores (p < 0.05). SES showed no significant effect on any of the reported outcomes (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Restricting the availability of higher sugar products may be a successful strategy for encouraging lower sugar purchasing across all SES groups. However, larger-scale interventions are required in additional categories to assess the long term implications for both consumers and retailers.

Keywords: biscuits, nudging, sugar, supermarket

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
2276 Biorefinery Annexed to South African Sugar Mill: Energy Sufficiency Analysis

Authors: S. Farzad, M. Ali Mandegari, J. F. Görgens

Abstract:

The South African Sugar Industry, which has a significant impact on the national economy, is currently facing problems due to increasing energy price and low global sugar price. The available bagasse is already combusted in low-efficiency boilers of the sugar mills while bagasse is generally recognized as a promising feedstock for second generation bioethanol production. Establishment of biorefinery annexed to the existing sugar mills, as an alternative for the revitalization of sugar industry producing biofuel and electricity has been proposed and considered in this study. Since the scale is an important issue in the feasibility of the technology, this study has taken into account a typical sugar mill with 300 ton/hr sugar cane capacity. The biorefinery simulation is carried out using Aspen PlusTM V8.6, in which the sugar mill’s power and steam demand has been considered. Hence, sugar mills in South Africa can be categorized as highly efficient, efficient, and not efficient with steam consumption of 33, 40, and 60 tons of steam per ton of cane and electric power demand of 10 MW; three different scenarios are studied. The sugar cane bagasse and tops/trash are supplied to the biorefinery process and the wastes/residues (mostly lignin) from the process are burnt in the CHP plant in order to produce steam and electricity for the biorefinery and sugar mill as well. Considering the efficient sugar mill, the CHP plant has generated 5 MW surplus electric powers, but the obtained energy is not enough for self-sufficiency of the plant (Biorefinery and Sugar mill) due to lack of 34 MW heat. One of the advantages of second generation biorefinery is its low impact on the environment and carbon footprint, thus the plant should be self-sufficient in energy without using fossil fuels. For this reason, a portion of fresh bagasse should be sent to the CHP plant to meet the energy requirements. An optimization procedure was carried out to find out the appropriate portion to be burnt in the combustor. As a result, 20% of the bagasse is re-routed to the combustor which leads to 5 tons of LP Steam and 8.6 MW electric power surpluses.

Keywords: biorefinery, sugarcane bagasse, sugar mill, energy analysis, bioethanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
2275 Simulation of Remove the Fouling on the in vivo By Using MHD

Authors: Farhad Aalizadeh, Ali Moosavi

Abstract:

When a blood vessel is injured, the cells of your blood bond together to form a blood clot. The blood clot helps you stop bleeding. Blood clots are made of a combination of blood cells, platelets(small sticky cells that speed up the clot-making process), and fibrin (protein that forms a thread-like mesh to trap cells). Doctors call this kind of blood clot a “thrombus.”We study the effects of different parameters on the deposition of Nanoparticles on the surface of a bump in the blood vessels by the magnetic field. The Maxwell and the flow equations are solved for this purpose. It is assumed that the blood is non-Newtonian and the number of particles has been considered enough to rely on the results statistically. Using MHD and its property it is possible to control the flow velocity, remove the fouling on the walls and return the system to its original form.

Keywords: MHD, fouling, in-vivo, blood clots, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2274 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
2273 A Study of the Effect of Early and Late Meal Time on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Smriti Rastogi, Narsingh Verma

Abstract:

Background: A vast body of research exists on the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin injections and the like in managing diabetes but no such research exists that has taken into consideration the parameter of time restricted meal intake and its positive effects in managing diabetes. The utility of this project is immense as it offers a solution to the woes of diabetics based on circadian rhythm and normal physiology of the human body. Method: 80 Diabetics, enrolled from the Out Patient Department of Endocrinology, KGMU (King George's Medical University) were randomly divided based on consent to early dinner TRM(time restricted meal) group or not (control group). Follow up was done at six months and 12 months for anthropometric measurement, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, neck size, fasting, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, serum urea, serum creatinine, and lipid profile. The patient was given a clear understanding of chronomedicine and how it affects their health. A single intervention was done - the timing of dinner was at or around 7 pm for TRM group. Result: 65% of TRM group and 40 %(non- TRM) had normal HbA1c after 12 months. HbA1c in TRM Group (first visit to second follow up) had a significant p value=0.017. A p value of <0.0001 was observed on comparing the values of blood sugar (fasting) in TRM Group from the first visit and second follow up. The values of blood sugar (postprandial) in TRM Group (first visit and second follow up) showed a p-value <0.0001 (highly significant). Values of the three parameters were non- significant in the control group. Hip size(First Visit to Second Follow Up) TRM Group showed a p-value = 0.0344 (Significant) (Difference between means=2.762 ± 1.261)Detailed results of the above parameters and a few newer ones will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Time restricted meal intake in diabetics shows promise and is worth exploring further. Time Restricted Meal intake in Type 2 diabetics has a significant effect in controlling and maintaining HbA1c as the reduction in HbA1c value was very significant in the TRM group vs. the control group. Similar highly significant results were obtained in the case of fasting and postprandial values of blood sugar in the TRM group when compared to the control group. The effects of time restricted meal intake in diabetics show promise and are worth exploring further. It is one of the first studies which have been undertaken in Indian diabetics, although the initial data obtained is encouraging yet further research and study are required to corroborate results.

Keywords: chronomedicine, diabetes, endocrinology, time restricted meal intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2272 A Review of Food Reformulation of Sweetened Baked Goods to Reduce Added Sugar Intake

Authors: Xiao Luo, Jayashree Arcot, Timothy P. Gill, Jimmy C. Louie, Anna M. Rangan

Abstract:

Excessive consumption of added sugar is negatively associated with many health outcomes such as lower diet quality, dental diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Sugar-sweetened baked goods are popular discretionary foods that contribute significant amounts of added sugar to people’s diets worldwide. Food reformulation is of the most effective methods to reduce consumption of added sugar without significantly altering individual's diet pattern. However, sucrose, as the major sugar in baked goods, plays several vital functional roles such as providing sweetness and bulking, and suitable substitutes must be able to address these. The review examines the literature on sugar-reduced baked goods to summarise the feasible reformulations of low/no added sugar baked goods, and indicates the future directions for healthier baked goods reformulation. Based on this review, polyols and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are suitable for alternative sweeteners to partially or fully replace sucrose in baked goods. Low-calorie carbohydrates such as oligofructose, polydextrose, maltodextrins are the mostly used bulking agents to compensate the loss of bulk due to the removal of sucrose. This review found that maltitol seems the most suitable sole sucrose substitution at present, while diverse mixtures of NNS( stevia, sucralose, acesulfame-K), other polyols and inulins can also deliver the functionalities of sucrose in baked products.

Keywords: alternative sweeteners, baked goods, reformulation, sugar reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2271 Efficiency Measurement of Indian Sugar Manufacturing Firms - a DEA Approach

Authors: Amit Kumar Dwivedi, Priyanko Ghosh

Abstract:

Data Envelopment analysis (DEA) has been used to calculate the technical and scale efficiency measures of the public and private sugar manufacturing firms of the Indian Sugar Industry (2006 to 2010). Within DEA framework, the input & Output oriented Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) & Constant Return to Scale (CRS) model is employed for the study of Decision making units (DMUs). A representative sample of 43 firms which account for major portion of the total market share is studied. The selection criterion for the inclusion of a firm in the analysis was the total sales of INR 5,000 million or more in the year 2010. After reviewing the literature it is found that no study has been conducted in the context of Indian sugar manufacturing firms in the Post-liberalization era which motivates us to initiate the study.

Keywords: technical efficiency, Indian sugar manufacturing units, DEA, input output oriented

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
2270 Trend Analysis of the Effectiveness of Diabetes Health Coaching in Taiwan

Authors: Ching-Ling Lin, Li-Chi Huang, Yao-Tsung Chang, Ruey-Yu Chen, Shwu-Huey Yang

Abstract:

Introduction & Purpose: Diabetes and its related complications always been a major part of medical cost in Taiwan. To patient with diabetes, self-management blood sugar, improving a healthy lifestyle are the most important thing to avoid getting worse. The aim of this study was to explore the trend of the changing in blood glucose within intervention and followed-up periods of patients who participated in the health coaching program between 2017 and 2020. Design & Methods: The data was combined from two diabetes health coaching program. The intervention group had health coaching and usual care for 6 months, whereas the control had usual care only. The main outcome variables were HbA1c level at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: In total, the data were available for 99 patients in the coaching intervention group and for 88 patients in the control group, the dropout rate during the follow-up period is about 18%. Of 187 participants, 54% were female, mean age was 61.5 years (SD=10.19), only 32.1% had a bachelor’s degree or higher, and the mean duration of diabetes treatment at Cathay General Hospital was 9.9 years. Within 12 months, the intervention group had a significant decrease of 0.65% (SD=1.05) in HbA1c level, and a non-significant decrease of 0.13%(SD=0.96) was observed in the control group. The figure showed the effect was the most significant in the first three months of the intervention and can be maintained for up to six months after the intervention was over. The HbA1c values of the two groups at each follow-up point are significantly different. In addition, there were non-significant correlation between HbA1c and gender, age, and educational level. Conclusion: Health coaching might be an effective way to enhance self-management for patients with diabetes and improving their blood sugar control in Taiwan.

Keywords: diabetes, health coaching, HbA1c, self-management

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2269 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C .D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi

Abstract:

The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals, sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
2268 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
2267 Identification of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency Sugar Cane Farming in East Java

Authors: Noor Rizkiyah, Djoko Koestiono, Budi Setiawan, Nuhfil Hanani

Abstract:

This research aims to identify the factors that affect the production of sugar cane, the level of technical efficiency of farming sugar cane ratooning and factors that affect technical inefficiency. Research carried out in Malang of East Java with sampling in a non random sampling stratified proportioned and obtained 172 household sugar cane farmers who are classified based on the level of ratooning i.e. ratooning I 3-4 times ratoning, ratooning II 5-10 times ratoning as well as ratooning III > 10 times ratoning. The method used is the Stochastic Production Frontier approach MLE (maximum likelihood estimation). From the results obtained by analysis of the factors affecting the production of sugar cane farming land, namely ratooning fertilizer use ZA petroganic, use of fertilizer and seeds of embroidery and labor. While the average level of sugar cane farmers ratooning efficiency of 0.78 and categorized yet efficient technically. For the factors that influence the technical inefficiency i.e. age, number of dependents and the frequency of family ratooning. Though not yet technically efficient but sugar cane farmers cultivate cultivation remains ratooning. But if it is done repeatedly ratooning will result in a decrease in the production of sugar cane. Whereas the results of the analysis of farming level of feasibility or RC ratooning sugar cane ratio of 1.15 so worth trying to accomplish. Thus with increased technology and combining the use of inputs is an attempt to let the technical efficiency can be achieved so that the more worthy to be organised.

Keywords: technical efficiency, production, sugarcane, frontier

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2266 Clinical Profile and Outcome of Type I Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care-Centre in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Gauri Shankar Shah

Abstract:

Objectives: The Type I diabetes mellitus in children is frequently a missed diagnosis and children presents in emergency with diabetic ketoacidosis having significant morbidity and mortality. The present study was done to find out the clinical presentation and outcome at a tertiary-care centre. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of data of Type I diabetes mellitus reporting to our centre during last one year (2012-2013). Results: There were 12 patients (8 males) and the age group was 4-14 years (mean ± 3.7). The presenting symptoms were fever, vomiting, altered sensorium and fast breathing in 8 (66.6%), 6 (50%), 4 (33.3%), and 4 (33.3%) cases, respectively. The classical triad of polyuria, polydypsia, and polyphagia were present only in two patients (33.2%). Seizures and epigastric pain were found in two cases each (33.2%). The four cases (33.3%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis due to discontinuation of insulin doses, while 2 had hyperglycemia alone. The hemogram revealed mean hemoglobin of 12.1± 1.6 g/dL and total leukocyte count was 22,883.3 ± 10,345.9 per mm3, with polymorphs percentage of 73.1 ± 9.0%. The mean blood sugar at presentation was 740 ± 277 mg/ dl (544–1240). HbA1c ranged between 7.1-8.8 with mean of 8.1±0.6 %. The mean sodium, potassium, blood ph, pCO2, pO2 and bicarbonate were 140.8 ± 6.9 mEq/L, 4.4 ± 1.8mEq/L, 7.0 ± 0.2, 20.2 ± 10.8 mmHg, 112.6 ± 46.5 mmHg and 9.2 ± 8.8 mEq/L, respectively. All the patients were managed in pediatric intensive care unit as per our protocol, recovered and discharged on intermediate insulin given twice daily. Conclusions: Thus, it shows that these patients have uncontrolled hyperglycemia and often presents in emergency with ketoacidosis and deranged biochemical profile. The regular administration of insulin, frequent monitoring of blood sugar and health education are required to have better metabolic control and good quality of life.

Keywords: type I diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, outcome, glycemic control

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2265 Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica) on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Normal and Alloxan-Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

Extracts of various plants material capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models, and their effects confirmed. Neem or Margose (AzadirachtaIndica) is an indigenous plant believed to have antiviral, antifungal, antidiabetic, and many other properties. In this paper deals with a comparative study of effect of aqueous Neem leaves extract alone or in combination with glibenclamide on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Administration of crude aqueous Neem extract (CANE) alone (1.5 ml/kg/day) as well as the combination of CANE (1.5 ml/kg/day) with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum lipids, blood glucose and lipoprotein VLDL and LDL but significantly increased (P<0.05) the concentration of HDL. The change was observed significantly greater when the treatment was given in combination of CANE and glibenclamid than with CANE alone.

Keywords: aqueos neem leaves extract, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cholesterol

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2264 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2263 Fermentable Bio-Ethanol Using Bakers and Palmwine Yeasts: Indices of Bioavailability of Carbohydrate and Sugar from Fungal Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen, Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel

Abstract:

Pure strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), aspergillus niger (AN), aspergillus oryzae (AO), trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), trichophyton rubrum (TR) and Trichophyton soudanense (TS) were isolated from decomposing rice husk. Freshly processed rice husk in Mandle’s medium were heat pre-treated using an autoclave at 121oC for 20 minutes. The isolated fungi as monoculture and di-culture combinations were inoculated into each of the pre-treated rice husk with the exception of two controls. Seven days hydrolysis was followed by estimation of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar. Fungal treated rice husks were left to ferment for 7 days with introduction of both baker’s and palm wine yeast. The result obtained in the work gave the highest carbohydrate (20.53 ± 2.73 %) from rice husks treated with TS + TR di-culture. The highest soluble reducing sugar (2.66 ± 0.14 %) was obtained from rice husk treated with TM. The highest soluble nonreducing sugar (18.08 ± 2.61 %) was from AF. The introduction of yeasts from palm wine gave the highest bio-ethanol (12.82 ± 0.39 %) from AO. The highest bio-ethanol (6.60 ± 0.10 %) from baker's yeast fermentation was in AO + TS treated rice husk. There was increased availability of sugar and moderate yield of bio-ethanol, especially from palm wine yeast.

Keywords: fungi, rice husk, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, ethanol, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2262 Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

Authors: M. M. Fercan, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun

Abstract:

Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this study, the amounts of Mg, Na, Fe, and B contents in Turkish coffee are determined and effect of sugar addition is investigated for conscious consumption. The analysis of the contents of coffees was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). From the results of the experiments the Mg, Na, Fe and B contents of Turkish coffee after sugar addition were found as 19.83, 1.04, 0.02, 0.21 ppm, while without using sugar these concentrations were found 21.46, 0.81, 0.008 and 0.16 ppm. In addition, element contents were calculated for 1, 3 and 5 cups of coffee in order to investigate the health effects.

Keywords: health effect, ICP-OES, sugar, Turkish coffee

Procedia PDF Downloads 411