Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8475

Search results for: cultural values

8475 Values That Should Be Taken into Account in the Arts: The Tension between Economic Influences and Cultural Values

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

Recently the two matters of how to evaluate art and what the influencing economic effects on cultural values are have attracted many researchers to investigate them. Therefore, in the present article the researcher made an attempt to answer the above questions. However, the fundamental distinction between this article and the other ones is in comparing the economic value (shown by monetary phrases) with cultural values (that reflects the aesthetic values and the importance of the artist). This article shows a different and trivial distinction that has a very clearly pivotal significance in the process of cultural policy making. The economic activities would be influenced when there are cultural values. The increase of commercial activities is measured by impact assessment. In other words, the value of culture is reflected in the satisfaction of the users of cultural activities. This kind of value is measured by “willingness to pay” researches. The researcher believes that these two values are dominant in the cultural policy but they include many aspects and are presented by different kinds of communities.

Keywords: economic influence, cultural values, monetary phrases, aesthetic values

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8474 A Comparative Study of Corporate Cultural Values in Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Renzhong Peng, Weiping Wu

Abstract:

Based on the framework of Hofstede’s cultural dimension, this study conducted a comparative study on the similarities and differences between national cultures and corporate cultural values, analyzed and interpreted the reasons why Chinese overseas Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) cultural integration results in the success or failure. The findings of this study indicate that in the process of M&A, the corporate cultural values from Chinese and western corporations are proved to be quite different as a result of their diversities of national cultures, and the strategies for the integration of cultural corporate values are of vital importance and can determine the effects of the M&A, which can be referential to managers who intend to have the idea of M&A and those who have cultural integration in the process of M&A.

Keywords: comparative study, cultural integration, corporate cultural values, Mergers and Acquisitions

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8473 Are Values Reflected in Online Skincare Advertisements from the Philippines and Taiwan the Same?

Authors: Chih-Ping Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, some scholars established the reflection of cultural values in advertisements. However, despite the Internet’s rapid development, few studies have focused on observing cross-cultural differences of values reflected in online advertisements. As mirrors of culture, advertisements are believed to reflect values relevant to consumers. Therefore, this research aims to examine the cultural values reflected on online skincare advertisements between countries with different cultural influences. We argue that culture affects the values presented in the slogans, endorsers, brand prominence, and product prominence of online advertisements; a concept that challenges the standardized manner of communication utilized by most multinational brands. Results highlight that the Philippines and Taiwan are neither located on extreme low-context nor extreme high-context cultures. Moreover, although advertisements reflect culture, it may be affected by potential value shifting caused by globalization, standardized communication, and the advertisers’ marketing priorities.

Keywords: cross-culture, cultural values, online advertising, prominence, beauty

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8472 Exploring the Impact of Cultural Values on the Performance of Women Bureaucrats in Pakistan

Authors: Fariya Tahreen

Abstract:

Women are an important part of the society comprising more than 50% population of the world. Participation of women in public services is increasing in the present era while cultural values embedded with gender differences still influencing the performance of working women. Many researches have been carried out on cultural impact on working women like managers, doctors, and lawyers and other public servants. But very rare efforts were made to study the impact of cultural values on the performance of women bureaucrats. The present study aimed to find out the relationship of cultural values (i.e., collective identity, gender segregation, and gender asymmetrical relations) with the performance of women bureaucrats. Sample of the present study comprised of 130 women bureaucrats from the Office Management Group, Inland Revenue, District Management Group, and Pakistan Police Services which is selected by convenient sampling technique. The locale of the study was Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore city. The current research study was conducted by using a quantitative approach in research method and data were collected through survey method. The measures used in the study included: personal information, three main cultural values, and performance of women bureaucrats. Uni-variate and bi-variate analyses were implied by using correlation and multiple linear regression test. The current study shows a negative significant relationship between cultural values and performance of women bureaucrats (R²= 0.790, p-value 0.000). It shows that cultural values (collective identity, gender segregation and gender asymmetrical relations) significantly influence the performance of women bureaucrats. Due to the influence and pressure of these cultural values, women bureaucrats give less time to the office and avail more leaves. They also avoid contacting with male colleagues, public dealings, field visits and playing leadership role. Further, they attend fewer meetings of policy formulation due to given less importance for it. In a nutshell, the study concluded that cultural values significantly influence the performance of women bureaucrats in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural values, performance, Pakistan, women bureaucrats

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8471 Migration and Identity Erosion: An Exploratory Study of First Generation Nigerian-Americans

Authors: Lolade Siyonbola

Abstract:

Nigerians are often celebrated as being the most educated cultural group in America. The cultural values and history that have led to this reality are particular to a generation that came of age post colonialism. Many of these cultural values have been passed down from post-colonial parent to millennial child, but most have not. This study, based on interviews and surveys of Nigerian millennials and their parents in the United States, explores the degree to which identity has been eroded in the millennial generation due to a lack of imparted cultural values and knowledge from the previous generation. Most of the subjects do not speak their native language or identify with their cultural heritage sufficiently to build ties with their native land. Most are experiencing some degree of identity crisis, and therefore limited self-actualization, with little to no support; as there are few successful tools available to this population. If governmental programs to reverse these trends are not implemented within this generation, the implications to the individual, family and home nation (Nigeria), will be felt for generations to come.

Keywords: identity, culture, self-actualization, social identity theory, migration, transnationalism, value systems

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8470 Economic Integration vs. Conflicts in Northeast Asia

Authors: Heeho Kim, Byeong-Hae Sohn

Abstract:

This study has examined the culture commonality of Northeast Asian countries based on Confucian values, and their relations to institutional economic integration. This study demonstrates that Confucian values inherent in the Northeast Asian countries have served as the cultural ethos for the rapid economic growth of this region since the 1960s and will be able to form the foundation of Northeast Asian values in the future. This paper re-appreciates these cultural values as a necessary condition for regional integration to catalyze the stagnated discussions about economic integration and extends its inter-weaving connection role for intra-regional transaction among China, Japan and Korea.

Keywords: Confucianism, Northeast Asia, economic integration, economic growth, regional conflicts

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8469 How Cultural Tourists Perceive Authenticity in World Heritage Historic Centers: An Empirical Research

Authors: Odete Paiva, Cláudia Seabra, José Luís Abrantes, Fernanda Cravidão

Abstract:

There is a clear ‘cult of authenticity’, at least in modern Western society. So, there is a need to analyze the tourist perception of authenticity, bearing in mind the destination, its attractions, motivations, cultural distance, and contact with other tourists. Our study seeks to investigate the relationship among cultural values, image, sense of place, perception of authenticity and behavior intentions at World Heritage Historic Centers. From a theoretical perspective, few researches focus on the impact of cultural values, image and sense of place on authenticity and intentions behavior in tourists. The intention of this study is to help close this gap. A survey was applied to collect data from tourists visiting two World Heritage Historic Centers – Guimarães in Portugal and Cordoba in Spain. Data was analyzed in order to establish a structural equation model (SEM). Discussion centers on the implications of model to theory and managerial development of tourism strategies. Recommendations for destinations managers and promoters and tourist organizations administrators are addressed.

Keywords: authenticity perception, behavior intentions, cultural tourism, cultural values, world heritage historic centers

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8468 National Culture, Personal Values, and Supervisors’ Ethical Behavior: Examining a Partial Mediation Model of Merton’s Anomie Theory

Authors: Kristine Tuliao

Abstract:

Although it is of primary concern to ensure that supervisors behave appropriately, research shows that unethical behaviors are prevalent and may cost organizations’ economic and reputational damages. Nevertheless, few studies have considered the roles of the different levels of values in shaping one’s ethicality, and the examination of the possible mediation in the process of their influence has been rarely done. To address this gap, this research employs Merton’s anomie theory in designing a mediation analysis to test the direct impacts of national cultural values on supervisors’ justification of unethical behaviors as well as their indirect impacts through personal values. According to Merton’s writings, individual behaviors are affected by the society’s culture given its role in defining the members’ goals as well as the acceptable methods of attaining those goals. Also, Merton’s framework suggests that individuals develop their personal values depending on the assimilation of their society’s culture. Using data of 9,813 supervisors across 30 countries, results of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) indicated that national cultural values, specifically assertiveness, performance orientation, in-group collectivism, and humane orientation, positively affect supervisors’ unethical inclination. Some cultural values may encourage unethical tendencies, especially if they urge and pressure individuals to attain purely monetary success. In addition, some of the influence of national cultural values went through personal monetary and non-monetary success values, indicating partial mediation. These findings substantiated the assertions of Merton’s anomie theory that national cultural values influence supervisors’ ethics through their integration with personal values. Given that some of the results contradict Merton’s anomie theory propositions, complementary arguments, such as incomplete assimilation of culture, and the probable impact of job position in perceptions, values, and behaviors, could be the plausible rationale for these outcomes. Consequently, this paper advances the understanding of differences in national and personal values and how these factors impact supervisors’ justification of unethical behaviors. Alongside these contributions, suggestions are presented for the public and organizations to craft policies and procedures that will minimize the tendency of supervisors to commit unethical acts.

Keywords: mediation model, national culture, personal values, supervisors' ethics

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8467 Participatory and Experience Design in Advertising: An Exploratory Study of Advertising Styles of Cultures

Authors: Irem Ela Yildizeli

Abstract:

Advertising today has become an indispensable phenomenon both for businesses and consumers. Due to the conditions of rapid changes in the market and growth of competitiveness, the success of many of firms that produce similar merchandise depends largely on how professionally and effective they use marketing communication elements which also must have some sense of shared values between the message provider and the receiver within cultural and global trend. This paper demonstrates how consumer behaviour and communication through cultural values evaluate advertising styles. Using samples of award-winning ads from both author's and other professional's creative works, the study reveals a significant correlation between the cultural elements and advertisement reception for language and cultural norms respectively. The findings of this study draw attention to the change of communication in the beginning of the 21st century which has shaped a new style of Participatory and Experience Design in advertising.

Keywords: advertising, advertising style, culture, experience design, participatory design

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8466 Advertising Appeals and Cultural Values in Social Media Commercials in Uk, Brasil and India: Cases Study of Nokia and Samsung

Authors: Han Nguyen

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of culture on advertising appeals in mobile phone industry via social media channel in UK, Brazil and India. Content analysis on Samsung and Nokia commercials in YouTube is conducted. The result indicates that the advertising appeals are both congruent and incongruent with cultural dimensions in UK, Brazil and India. The result suggests that Hofstede and value paradoxes might be the tools to predict the relationship between cultural values and advertising appeals.

Keywords: mobile phone advertising, international advertising, social media advertising.

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8465 Socio-Cultural Adaptation Approach to Enhance Intercultural Collaboration and Learning

Authors: Fadoua Ouamani, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud, Henda Hajjami Ben Ghézala

Abstract:

In the last few years and over the last decades, there was a growing interest in the development of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments. However, the existing systems ignore the variety of learners and their socio-cultural differences, especially in the case of distant and networked learning. In fact, within such collaborative learning environments, learners from different socio-cultural backgrounds may interact together. These learners evolve within various cultures and social contexts and acquire different socio-cultural values and behaviors. Thus, they should be assisted while communicating and collaborating especially in an intercultural group. Besides, the communication and collaboration tools provided to each learner must depend on and be adapted to her/his socio-cultural profile. The main goal of this paper is to present the proposed socio-cultural adaptation approach based on and guided by ontologies to adapt CSCL environments to the socio-cultural profiles of its users (learners or others).

Keywords: CSCL, socio-cultural profile, adaptation, ontology

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8464 Values in Higher Education: A Case Study of Higher Education Students

Authors: Bahadır Erişti

Abstract:

Values are the behavioral procedures of society based communication and interaction process that includes social and cultural backgrounds. The policy of learning and teaching in higher education is oriented towards constructing knowledge and skills, based on theorist framework of cognitive and psychomotor aspects. This approach makes people not to develop generosity, empathy, affection, solidarity, justice, equality and so on. But the sensorial gains of education system provide the integrity of society interaction. This situation carries out the necessity of values education’s in higher education. The current study aims to consider values education from the viewpoint of students in higher education. Within the framework of the current study, an open ended survey based scenario of higher education students was conducted with the students’ social, cognitive, affective and moral developments. In line with this purpose, the following situations of the higher education system were addressed based on the higher education students’ viewpoint: The views of higher education students’ regarding values that are tried to be gained at the higher education system; The higher education students’ suggestions regarding values education at the higher education system; The views of the higher education students’ regarding values that are imposed at the higher education system. In this study, descriptive qualitative research method was used. The study group of the research is composed of 20 higher education postgraduate students at Curriculum and Instruction Department of Educational Sciences at Anadolu University. An open-ended survey was applied for the purpose of collecting qualitative data. As a result of the study, value preferences, value judgments and value systems of the higher education students were constructed on prioritizes based on social, cultural and economic backgrounds and statues. Multi-dimensional process of value education in higher education need to be constructed on higher education-community-cultural background cooperation. Thus, the act of judgement upon values between higher education students based on the survey seems to be inherent in the system of education itself. The present study highlights the students’ value priorities and importance of values in higher education. If the purpose of the higher education system gains on values, it is possible to enable society to promote humanity.

Keywords: higher education, value, values education, values in higher education

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8463 The Traditional Roles and Place of Indigenous Musical Practices in Contemporary African Society

Authors: Benjamin Obeghare Izu

Abstract:

In Africa, indigenous musical practices are the focal point in which most cultural practices revolve, and they are the conduit mainly used in transmitting Indigenous knowledge and values. They serve as a means of documenting, preserving, transmitting indigenous knowledge, and re-enacting their historical, social, and cultural affinity. Indigenous musical practices also serve as a repository for indigenous knowledge and artistic traditions. However, these indigenous musical practices and the resulting cultural ideals are confronted with substantial challenges in the twenty-first century from contemporary cultural influence. Additionally, indigenous musical practices' educational and cultural purposes have been impacted by the broad monetisation of the arts in contemporary society. They are seen as objects of entertainment. Some young people are today unaware of their cultural roots and are losing their cultural identity due to these influences and challenges. In order to help policymakers raise awareness of and encourage the use of indigenous knowledge and musical practices among African youth and scholars, this study is in response to the need to explore the components and functions of the indigenous knowledge system, values, and musical tradition in Africa. The study employed qualitative research methods, utilising interviews, participant observation, and conducting related literature as data collection methods. It examines the indigenous musical practices in the Oba of Benin Royal Igue festival among the Benin people in Edo state, Nigeria, and the Ovwuwve festival observed by the Abraka people in Delta state, Nigeria. The extent to which the indigenous musical practices convey and protect indigenous knowledge and cultural values are reflected in the musical practices of the cultural festivals. The study looks at how indigenous musical arts are related to one another and how that affects how indigenous knowledge is transmitted and preserved. It makes recommendations for how to increase the use of indigenous knowledge and values and their fusion with contemporary culture. The study contributes significantly to ethnomusicology by showing how African traditional music traditions support other facets of culture and how indigenous knowledge might be helpful in contemporary society.

Keywords: African musical practices, African music and dance, African society, indigenous musical practices

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8462 Enabling Socio Cultural Sustainability of the "Thousand and One Churches" Archaeological Site

Authors: E. Erdogan, M. Ulusoy

Abstract:

In terms of tourism, the concept of sustainability can be defined as preserving and developing natural, historical, cultural, social, and aesthetic values and enabling their permanency. Sustainable tourism aims to preserve natural, historical, cultural, and social resources, also by supporting economic progress protecting economic development and environmental values that emerge as a consequence of tourism activities. Cultural tourism feeds on sustainable cultural treasures inherently and is the most effective touristic activity. Traditional configurations and structural characteristics play an important role in generating cultural tourism in a region. Sustainable cultural tourism is related to trips upon people who embark with the aim of visiting culturally rich regions, learning about and observing fast-disappearing lifestyles and collecting cultural values as memories. With its huge tourism potential, Karadağ is the most significant cultural asset of the Karaman province, possessing unique riches in terms of cultural world history. Host to one of the most important Byzantine cities in Anatolia, Karadağ is like an open-air museum with its unparalleled architectural structures. There is a village named Madenşehir in the plain at the outskirts of Karadağ, near to which are located the “Thousand and One Churches” ruins. The 80-household house is located near the ruins in an area that been declared a 1st degree historic preservation district. stones gathered from local churches were used in the construction of these households. A ministry has assigned a new residential site near the boundaries of the 2nd degree preservation district, and the decision has been made to move the occupants to this area. The most important issue here is to enable locals’ sociocultural and socioeconomic sustainability. It is also important to build these structures in a manner compatible with the historical visual look, ecological system and environmental awareness. Therefore this new site will be planned as touristic area in terms of sustainable cultural tourism and in these new plans, shall fulfill functions oriented toward both tourists and locals. It is very important that this change be sustainable and also support cultural tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, new village settlement, socio cultural sustainability, “thousand and one churches” site

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8461 An Attempt to Measure Afro-Polychronism Empirically

Authors: Aïda C. Terblanché-Greeff

Abstract:

Afro-polychronism is a unique amalgamated cultural value of social self-construal and time orientation. As such, the construct Afro-polychronism is conceptually analysed by focusing on the aspects of Ubuntu as collectivism and African time as polychronism. It is argued that these cultural values have a reciprocal and thus inseparable relationship. As it is general practice to measure cultural values empirically, the author conducted empirically engaged philosophy and aimed to develop a scale to measure Afro-polychronism based on its two dimensions of Ubuntu as social self-construal and African time as time orientation. From the scale’s psychometric properties, it was determined that the scale was, in fact, not reliable and valid. It was found that the correlation between the Ubuntu dimension and the African time is moderate (albeit statistically significant). In conclusion, the author abduced why this cultural value cannot be empirically measured based on its theoretical definition and indicated which different path would be more promising.

Keywords: African time, Afro-polychronism, empirically engaged African philosophy, Ubuntu

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8460 Investigating Conflict Between Traditional Cultural Practices for Women and South African Government Laws

Authors: Hebert Sihle Ntuli

Abstract:

Traditional cultural practices mirror or replicate the values and beliefs held by members of the community. Throughout the world, every social grouping has specific traditional practices, some of which are beneficial to all, while others have become harmful to specific group such as women. Like in some African states, these traditional cultural practices are performed in South Africa and are violating women’s rights. Women’s rights are human rights. The South African Constitution is one of the most progressive in the world, and notable includes the Bill of Rights which provides protection of socio-economic and cultural rights. Cultural rights are protected in Section 30 and 31 of the constitution, although such protection is not without limitation. This highly complex interplay and competition between human rights and cultural rights, which are manifested through cultural practices, is the golden thread that traces through this paper. The paper argues that there is conflict and the lack of balance between diverse cultural and legal or constitutional framework which promotes the value of human dignity and equality, especially for women. These practices are reviewed in connection with the South African government laws. This work adopted qualitative research method.

Keywords: cultural practices, conflict, South African constitution, laws

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8459 Architects Lens on Afrocentric Cultural Approach to Housing

Authors: Aisha Abdulkarim Aliyu, Alice Sabrina Ismail, Fadhlina Binti Ahmad

Abstract:

The study's main goal is to improve Afrocentric cultural approaches in Nigerian residential environments (Kano) in terms of physical, aesthetical, and socio-cultural factors. Kano's fast-changing residential settings and city image have been subjected to a significant neoliberal restructuring process in recent decades. Architects have evolved in lockstep with the society they serve, first as an art form, then as a science, and finally as a business that designs structures. Design values have always emphasized a certain building style throughout history. Architects and architectural critics have a different perspective on them than the general public. In fact, a popular style among the general public was taken into consideration. When it comes to the current design, this study examines the values and viewpoints of architects on the usage of an Afrocentric cultural approach to housing. The qualitative data analysis of surveys conducted with Kano housing and planning professionals is used to determine the criteria for using an Afrocentric cultural approach in housing development in order to preserve and restore our cultural heritage, as well as to rank these criteria according to their importance. The professional lens on this subject differs insignificantly across Nigeria, although they do vary to some amount based on the sector of the housing industry, according to the study.

Keywords: architects lens, Afrocentric culture, housing, northern Nigeria

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8458 The Fall of Cultural Consumption in Spain during the Economic Crisis of 2008: Lessons for the Upcoming Crisis

Authors: Pau Rausell-Koster, Jordi Sanjuan-Belda

Abstract:

The economic crisis of 2008 had a special impact on cultural consumption in Spain. It fell by almost 30% in a few years, and its share of total family spending decreased from 3.19% in 2007 to 2.38% in 2015. In 2017, unlike other indicators, cultural consumption levels were still far from recovering their pre-crisis values. In times of economic difficulties, the satisfaction of primary subsistence needs takes priority over that of social, cultural and experiential needs, among which cultural consumption would mostly be framed. However, its evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to macroeconomic trends. In parallel to these, technological advances mainly related to the Internet have been disseminated in recent years, which have a very marked impact on the consumption patterns of some cultural sectors. Thus, the aim of this study is to define the causes of the decline in cultural consumption in Spain in recent years, and analyse what type of products, territories and population profiles suffered it especially. From the data analysis of the Family Budget Survey, the study seeks to improve the understanding of the determinants of cultural consumption and their behaviour in the face of macroeconomic trends, as well as identify and extract some policy implications regarding to the upcoming crisis caused by COVID-19.

Keywords: consume patterns, cultural consumption, economic crisis, economic trends

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8457 Transmission of Values among Polish Young Adults and Their Parents: Pseudo Dyad Analysis and Gender Differences

Authors: Karolina Pietras, Joanna Fryt, Aleksandra Gronostaj, Tomasz Smolen

Abstract:

Young women and men differ from their parents in preferred values. Those differences enable their adaptability to a new socio-cultural context and help with fulfilling developmental tasks specific to young adulthood. At the same time core values, with special importance to family members, are transmitted within families. Intergenerational similarities in values may thus be both an effect of value transmission within a family and a consequence of sharing the same socio-cultural context. These processes are difficult to separate. In our study we assessed similarities and differences in values within four intergenerational family dyads (mothers-daughters, fathers-daughters, mothers-sons, fathers-sons). Sixty Polish young adults (30 women and 30 men aged 19-25) along with their parents (a total of 180 participants) completed the Schwartz’ Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-21). To determine which values may be transmitted within families, we used a correlation analysis and pseudo dyad analysis that allows for the estimation of a baseline likeness between all tested subjects and consequently makes it possible to determine if similarities between actual family members are greater than chance. We also assessed whether different strategies of measuring similarity between family members render different results, and checked whether resemblances in family dyads are influenced by child’s and parent’s gender. Reported similarities were interpreted in light of the evolutionary and the value salience perspective.

Keywords: intergenerational differences in values, gender differences, pseudo dyad analysis, transmission of values

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8456 What Defines Acceptable European Values for Georgia

Authors: Maia Kipiani, Tamari Beridze, Natalia Tchanturia, Bella Goderdzishvili, Sophio Beridze, Natia Kuparadze

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Europe has concrete examples how small nations can survive and maintain their identity in its area. Values are eternal guides of our life and source of its perfection. European values are universal and relevant for every epoch, society or state. Values, such as personal freedom, human dignity, sovereignty of law, national or cultural identity are universal and eternal. Even superficial review of history of Georgian culture clearly shows that western values, including fundamental human rights. This paper discusses the approach and findings of choice of values in Georgia. Georgia is still quite far away from perfectly established values. Georgia has walked the hardest road till XXI century. Country survived miraculously many times. The study shows that the only way to survive is to strengthen national, traditional values and should not forget global factors. It is clear that for achievement of goals is important European education, legislative and economic reforms, peacefully and democratically develop Georgia.

Keywords: democracy, economical reforms, European values, human dignity, science, society, sovereignty of law, well-being

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8455 Values Education in Military Schools and Işıklar Air Force High School Sample

Authors: Mehmet Eren Çelik

Abstract:

Values are notions that help people to decide what is good or not and to direct their attitude. Teaching values has always been very important throughout the history. Values should be thought in younger ages to get more efficiency. Therefore military schools are the last stop to learn values effectively. That’s why values education in military schools has vital importance. In this study the military side of values education is examined. The purpose of the study is to show how important values education is and why military students need values education. First of all what value is and what values education means is clearly explained and values education in schools and specifically in military schools is stated. Then values education in Işıklar Air Force High School exemplifies the given information.

Keywords: Işıklar Air Force High School, military school, values, values education

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8454 Consumer Values in the Perspective of Javanese Mataraman Society: Identification, Meaning, and Application

Authors: Anna Triwijayati, Etsa Astridya Setiyati, Titik Desi Harsoyo

Abstract:

Culture is the important determinant of human behavior and desire. Culture influences the consumer through the norms and values established by the society in which they live and reflect it. The cultural values of Javanese society certainly have united in the Javanese society behavior in consumption. This research is expected to give big enough theoretical benefits in the findings of cultural value in consumption in Javanese society. These can be an incentive in finding the local cultural value in many tribes in Indonesia, so one time, the local cultural value in Indonesia about consumption can be fundamental part in education and consumption practice in Indonesia. The approach used in this research is non positivist research or is known as qualitative approach. The method or type of research used in this research is ethnomethodology. The collection data is done in Central Java region. The research subject or informant is determined by the purposive technique by certain criteria determined by the researcher. The data is collected by deep interview and observation. Before the data analysis, the researcher does the storing method data stage and implements the data validity procedures. Then, the data is analyzed by the theme and interactive analysis technique. The Javanese Mataraman society has such consumption values such as has to be sufficient, be careful, economical, submit to the one who creates the life, the way life flow, and the present problem is thought in the present also. In the financial management for consumption, the consumer should have the simple life principles, has to be sufficient, has to be able to eat, has to be able to self-press, well-managed/diligent/accurate/careful, the open or transparent management, has the struggle effort, like to self-sacrifice and think about the future. The meaning of consumption value in family is centered to the submission and full-trust to God. These consumption values are applied in consumer behavior in self, family, investment and credit need in short term and long term perspective.

Keywords: values, consumer, consumption, Javanese Mataraman, ethnomethodology

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8453 The Names of the Traditional Motif of Batik Solo

Authors: Annisa D. Febryandini

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Batik is a unique cultural heritage that strongly linked with its community. As a product of current culture in Solo, Batik Solo not only has a specific design and color to represent the cultural identity, cultural values, and spirituality of the community, but also has some specific names given by its community which are not arbitrary. This qualitative research paper uses the primary data by interview method as well as the secondary data to support it. Based on the data, this paper concludes that the names consist of a word or words taken from a current name of things in Javanese language. They indicate the cultural meaning such as a specific event, a hope, and the social status of the people who use the motif. Different from the other research, this paper takes a look at the names of traditional motif of Batik Solo which analyzed linguistically to reveal the cultural meaning.

Keywords: traditional motif, Batik, solo, anthropological linguistics

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8452 China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Changing Mechanism in Pakistan

Authors: Komal Niazi, He Guoqiang

Abstract:

This paper is focused on ‘CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor) a changing mechanism in Pakistan’. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) activity under OBOR (One Belt One Road (OBOR) CPEC is a piece of the bigger umbrella and goes for giving another hallway of exchange for China and Pakistan and is relied upon to profit the entire of South Asian area. But this study reveals that significance of acculturation can never be overemphasized in the investigation of diverse impacts and the routes people groups of various ethnic personalities figure out how to adjust and acknowledge the social attributes of a larger part group in a multiethnic culture. This study also deals with the effects of acculturation which can be seen at multiple levels through CPEC for both Pakistani and Chinese people, who were working on this project. China and Pakistan exchanged the cultural and social patterns with each other. Probably the most perceptible gathering level impacts of cultural assimilation regularly incorporate changes in sustenance (food), clothing, and language. At the individual level, the procedure of cultural assimilation alludes to the socialization procedure by which the Pakistani local people and Chinese who were working in Pakistan adopted values, traditions, attitudes, states of mind, and practices. But China has imposed discourse through economic power and language. CPEC dominates Pakistan’s poor area’s and changes their living, social and cultural values. People also claimed this acculturation was a great threat to their cultural values and religious beliefs. Main findings of the study clearly ascertained that research was to find out the conceptual understanding of people about the acculturation process through CPEC. At the cultural level, aggregate activities and social organizations end up plainly adjusted, and at the behavioral level, there are changes in a person's day by day behavioral collection and some of the time in experienced anxiety. Anthropological data methods were used to collect data, like snowball and judgmental sampling, case studied methods.

Keywords: CPEC, acculturation process, language discourse, social norms, cultural values, religious beliefs

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8451 Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective

Authors: Ashok Chaskar

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The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.

Keywords: culture, cultural pluralism, cultural diversity, ethnic diversity, ethnic groups, egalitarianism, autonomy, socio-cultural harmony, tolerance, harmonious coexistence

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8450 Understanding of Heritage Values within University Education Systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mahmoud Tarek Mohamed Hammad

Abstract:

Despite the importance of the role and efforts made by the universities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in reviving and preserving heritage architecture as an important cultural heritage in the Kingdom, The idea revolves around restoration and conservation processes and neglects the architectural heritage values, whose content can be used in sustainable contemporary architectural works. Educational values based on heritage architecture and how to integrate with the contemporary requirements were investigated in this research. For this purpose, by understanding the heritage architectural values as well as educational, academic process, the researcher presented an educational model of questionnaire forms for architecture students and the staff at the Architecture Department at Al-Baha University as a case study that serves the aims of the research. The results of the research show that heritage values especially those interview results are considered as a positive indicator of the importance of these values. The students and the staff need both to gain an understanding of heritage values as well as an understanding of theories of incorporating those values into the design process of contemporary local architecture. The research concludes that a correct understanding of the heritage values, its performance, and its reintegration with modern architecture technology should be focused on architectural education.

Keywords: heritage architecture, academic work, heritage values, sustainable contemporary local architectural

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8449 The Psychology of Cross-Cultural Communication: A Socio-Linguistics Perspective

Authors: Tangyie Evani, Edmond Biloa, Emmanuel Nforbi, Lem Lilian Atanga, Kom Beatrice

Abstract:

The dynamics of languages in contact necessitates a close study of how its users negotiate meanings from shared values in the process of cross-cultural communication. A transverse analysis of the situation demonstrates the existence of complex efforts on connecting cultural knowledge to cross-linguistic competencies within a widening range of communicative exchanges. This paper sets to examine the psychology of cross-cultural communication in a multi-linguistic setting like Cameroon where many local and international languages are in close contact. The paper equally analyses the pertinence of existing macro sociological concepts as fundamental knowledge traits in literal and idiomatic cross semantic mapping. From this point, the article presents a path model of connecting sociolinguistics to the increasing adoption of a widening range of communicative genre piloted by the on-going globalisation trends with its high-speed information technology machinery. By applying a cross cultural analysis frame, the paper will be contributing to a better understanding of the fundamental changes in the nature and goals of cross-cultural knowledge in pragmatics of communication and cultural acceptability’s. It emphasises on the point that, in an era of increasing global interchange, a comprehensive inclusive global culture through bridging gaps in cross-cultural communication would have significant potentials to contribute to achieving global social development goals, if inadequacies in language constructs are adjusted to create avenues that intertwine with sociocultural beliefs, ensuring that meaningful and context bound sociolinguistic values are observed within the global arena of communication.

Keywords: cross-cultural communication, customary language, literalisms, primary meaning, subclasses, transubstantiation

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8448 Hermeneutical Understanding of 2 Cor. 7:1 in the Light of Igbo Cultural Concept of Purification

Authors: H. E. Amolo

Abstract:

The concepts of pollution or contamination and purification or ritual cleansing are very important concepts among traditional Africans. This is because in relation to human behaviors and attitudes, they constitute on the one hand what could be referred to as moral demands and on the other, what results in the default of such demands. The many taboos which a man has to observe are not to be regarded as things mechanical which do not touch the heart, but that the avoidance is a sacred law respected by the community. In breaking it, you offend the divine power’. Researches have shown that, Africans tenaciously hold the belief that, moral values are based upon the recognition of the divine will and that sin in the community must be expelled if perfect peace is to be enjoyed. Sadly enough, these moral values are gradually eroding in contemporary times. Thus, this study proposal calls for a survey of the passage from an African cultural context; how it can enhance the understanding of the text, as well as how it can complement its scholarly interpretation with the view of institutionalizing the concept of holiness as a means of bringing the people closer to God, and also instilling ethical purity and righteousness.

Keywords: cultural practices, Igbo ideology, purification, rituals

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8447 Psychosocial Support in Disaster Situations in the Philippines and Indonesia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: Fuad Hamsyah

Abstract:

Since last two decades, major disasters have happened in the Philippines and Indonesia as two countries that are located in the pacific ring of fire territory. While in Southeast Asian countries, the process of psychosocial support provision is facing various constraints such as limited number of mental health professionals and the limited knowledge about the provision of psychosocial support for disaster survivors. Yet after the tsunami disaster in 2004, many Asian countries begin to develop policies about the provision of psychosocial interventions as an effort for future disasters preparedness. In addition, mental health professionals have to consider the local cultural values and beliefs in order to provide people with effective psychosocial support since cultural values and beliefs play a significant role in the diversity of psychological distress that forms symptoms formation, and people’s way to seek for psychological assistance. This study is a critical literature review on 130 relevant selected documents and literatures. IASC MHPSS guideline is used as the research framework in doing critical analysis. The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis on the mental health and psychosocial support provision in the Philippines and Indonesia with three main objectives: 1) To describe strengths, weaknesses, and challenges in the process of psychosocial supports given by public and private organizations in emergency settings of disaster in the Philippines and Indonesia, 2) To compare psychosocial support practices between the Philippines and Indonesia, and to identify the good practices among these countries, 3) To learn how cultural values influence the implementation of psychosocial supports in emergency settings of disaster. This research indicated that almost every function from IASC MHPSS guidelines has been implemented effectively in the Philippines and Indonesia, yet not in every detail of IASC MHPSS guidelines. Several similarities and differences are indicated in this study also based on the IASC MHPSS guidelines as the analysis framework. Further, both countries have some good practices that can be useful as an example of a comprehensive psychosocial support implementation. Apart from the IASC MHPSS guideline, cultural values and beliefs in the Philippines such as kanya-kanya syndrome, pakikipakapwa, utang na loob, bahala na, pagkaya are indicated as several cultural values that have strong influences towards people’s attitude and behavior in disaster situations. While in Indonesia, several cultural values such as sabar and nrimo become two important attitudes to cope disaster situations.

Keywords: disaster, Indonesia, psychosocial support, Philippines

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8446 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed

Abstract:

All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: cultural change, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity, ethnocentrism, religion, resistance

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