Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: fecundity

49 The Labor Participation-Fertility Trade-Off: Exploring Fecundity and Its Consequences to Women's Employment in the Philippines

Authors: Ariane C. Lim, Daphne Ashley L. Sze, Kenneth S. Santos

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child-rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

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48 Mackerel (Scomber Australasicus) Reproduction in Northeastern Taiwan

Authors: Sunarti Sinaga, Hsueh-Jung Lu, Jia-Rong Lin

Abstract:

Blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) is a crucial target species for Taiwan coastal fisheries and has maintained its status as the highest-produced species. Timely measurement of spawning status is crucial for determining the correct management strategy for this species. The objective of this study was to determine size at maturity, fecundity, batch fecundity, and spawning frequency on the basis of samples collected from Nan-Fang-Ao fishing port in Yilan during the spawning season from 2017 to 2019. Histological sections indicated that the blue mackerel are multiple spawners. A higher percentage of female fish spawned at the peak of the gonadosomatic index. The 50% sizes at maturity were 32.02, 32.13, and 29.64 cm. Mean total fecundity (batch fecundity) was 165 (103), 229 (96), and 210 (68) oocytes per ovary-free weight (g) for 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively; fecundity was determined through observation of postovulatory follicles (POFs). The spawning frequencies (spawning fraction) in 2017, 2018, and 2019 were 3–10 days (0.13), 4–14 days (0.08), and 4–12 days (0.08), respectively. The spawning frequencies determined through the 3 estimated methods, namely the sums of (a) hydrated and Day 0 POFs; (b) Day 1+ POFs, and (c) all data combined, were 1 spawning event per 8, 10, and 9 days, respectively. The reproduction of the blue mackerel was greater in 2017 than it was in 2018 or 2019, as indicated by the higher batch fecundity and shorter spawning seasons. Environmental factors should also be considered as a major factor influencing successful reproduction and the spawning season.

Keywords: scomber australasicus, spawning frequency, batch fecundity, fecundity

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47 Fecundity and Egg Laying in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Model Development and Field Validation

Authors: Muhammad Noor Ul Ane, Dong-Soon Kim, Myron P. Zalucki

Abstract:

Models can be useful to help understand population dynamics of insects under diverse environmental conditions and in developing strategies to manage pest species better. Adult longevity and fecundity of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were evaluated against a wide range of constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 37.5ᵒC). The modified Sharpe and DeMichele model described adult aging rate and was used to estimate adult physiological age. Maximum fecundity of H. armigera was 973 egg/female at 25ᵒC decreasing to 72 eggs/female at 37.5ᵒC. The relationship between adult fecundity and temperature was well described by an extreme value function. Age-specific cumulative oviposition rate and age-specific survival rate were well described by a two-parameter Weibull function and sigmoid function, respectively. An oviposition model was developed using three temperature-dependent components: total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate, and age-specific survival rate. The oviposition model was validated against independent field data and described the field occurrence pattern of egg population of H. armigera very well. Our model should be a useful component for population modeling of H. armigera and can be independently used for the timing of sprays in management programs of this key pest species.

Keywords: cotton bollworm, life table, temperature-dependent adult development, temperature-dependent fecundity

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46 The Labor Participation–Fertility Trade-off: The Case of the Philippines

Authors: Daphne Ashley Sze, Kenneth Santos, Ariane Gabrielle Lim

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
45 Fecundity of Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775)' in Yumurtalık Cove, Iskenderun Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean, Adana, Turkey

Authors: Canan Türeli̇, İrem Nur Yeşi̇lyurt

Abstract:

Blue swimming crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) entered to the Mediterranean with Suez Canal. It is economically important species and consumed as food in Turkey. At this study, fecundity of P. segnis was investigated in Yumurtalık Cove, Turkey. Samples were collected monthly from July 2014 to June 2015 (except February), using bottom trawl into three different depth strata; 0-10 m, 10-20 m and 20-50 m. Sand crab samples were caught all studied months. 110 Males, 70 juvenile and 140 female; 44 of them ovigerous, totally 320 samples were collected during the study period. The size of all samples varied from 38.1 to 163.17 mm carapace width and from 3.46 to 324.36 g weight. All the ovigerous crabs were caught at 0-10 m depth between July to November and in April and May, the highest number of them was observed in August and September. Mean carapace width and weight of ovigerous crabs were calculated respectively, 130.36 ± 12.82 mm (101.39-154.03), 191.02 ± 59.00 g (88.26-324.36). Mean fecundity determined 1.186.185 ± 819.510 (1.393.79-4.513.034) eggs. More fecundity and reproduction biology studies are necessary for monitoring the P. segnis population structure in Northeastern Mediterranean of Turkey.

Keywords: blue swimming crab, fecundity, portunus segnis, Turkey

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44 Breeding Biology and Induced Breeding Status of Freshwater Mud Eel, Monopterus cuchia

Authors: Faruque Miah, Hafij Ali, Enaya Jannat, Tanmoy Modok Shuvra, M. Niamul Naser

Abstract:

In this study, breeding biology and induced breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was observed during the experimental period from February to June, 2013. Breeding biology of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was considered in terms of gonadosomatic index, length-weight relationship of gonad, ova diameter and fecundity. The ova diameter was recorded from 0.3 mm to 4.30 mm and the individual fecundity was recorded from 155 to 1495 while relative fecundity was found from 2.64 to 12.45. The fecundity related to body weight and length of fish was also discussed. A peak of GSI was observed 2.14±0.2 in male and 5.1 ±1.09 in female. Induced breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was also practiced with different doses of different inducing agents like pituitary gland (PG), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and Ovuline-a synthetic hormone in different environmental conditions. However, it was observed that the artificial breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was not yet succeeded through inducing agents in captive conditions, rather the inducing agent showed negative impacts on fecundity and ovarian tissues. It was seen that mature eggs in the oviduct were reduced, absorbed and some eggs were found in spoiled condition.

Keywords: breeding biology, induced breeding, Monopterus cuchia, human chorionic gonadotropin

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43 Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Brook Trout Neolissochilus stracheyi (Day, 1871) in Northern, Thailand

Authors: Thapanee Pholdee, Apinun Suvarnaraksha

Abstract:

Reproductive biology of Brook trout, Neolissochilus stracheyi (Day, 1871), were sampled in the Northern of Thailand during October 2010 - September 2011 from the fisherman, using gillnet of various mesh sizes. For the study of relationships between total length and body weight, spawning seasons, sex ratio and fecundity. At least 66 fish samples were used every month. The result showed that the total 821 Brook trout had 7.4-61(23.32±5.91 cm). There were 353 males that had fish samples there were 8.5-45.1 cm of TL (22.36±5.91cm) and 468 females that had 7.4±61 cm of TL (24.04±7.09 cm). The relationships equation between total length and weight was W = 0.008TL³.⁰⁶⁴ (r² = 0.940) for total fish, W=0.007TL³.¹⁰⁷ (r² = 0.946) for females and W=0.010TL³.⁰⁰³ (r² = 0.930) for males. The relative condition factor (K) of male and female was 1.090±0.067 and 1.116±0.102 respectively. The max of GSI was in June for male and female. The spawning season was found all year round with three peaks: January, June, and August. Estimated fecundity of mature ovaries ranged from 220 to 3,500 eggs. The estimated average fecundity was 1404.55 ±651.51 eggs. The relationships between fecundity and total length revealed F= 121.1TL-2100 and relationships between fecundity and weight revealed F= 4.535 + 128.78. The results from studies can be further applied to the economic culture, conservation, and management of the Brook trout in Northern, Thailand.

Keywords: reproductive biology, Neolissochilus stracheyi, Northern Thailand, Brook trout

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42 Impact of Bacillus subtilis Exotoxins on Fecundity, Sex Hormones and Release of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae in Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails

Authors: Alaa A. Youssef, Mohamed A. El-Emam, Momeana B. Mahmoud, Mona Ragheb

Abstract:

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by a parasitic trematode worm called Schistosoma. Biological control of the snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma is one of the promising methods for eliminating this disease in Egypt. The molluscicidal activity of exotoxins secreted from Bacillus subtilis bacteria was studied. The effect of these exotoxins was studied on the fecundity of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni; the fecundity includes the reproductive rate (R0) of B. alexandrina snails and levels of sex hormones (progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol). Moreover, the cercarial production of S. mansoni was determined. The results showed a significant reduction in the egg-laying capacity of the treated snails after exposure to sublethal concentrations ( LC10 and LC25) of B. Subtilis exotoxins; this reduction reached 70% at LC25. Moreover, B. Subtilis exotoxins' significantly suppressed the cercarial production of B. alexandrina snails. It is concluded that the exotoxins of Bacillus subtilis bacteria play an important role in the interference of the Schistosomiasis transmission, hence should be applied in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

Keywords: schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, Bacillus subtilis bacteria, fecundity, sex hormones

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41 Genetic Divergence of Life History Traits in Indian Populations of Drosophila bipectinata

Authors: Manvender Singh

Abstract:

Temperature is one of the most important climatic parameter for explaining the geographic distribution of ectothermic species. Empirical investigations on norms of the reaction according to developmental temperatures are helpful in analyzing the adapture capacity of a species which may be related to its ecological niche. In the present investigation, we have compared the effects of developmental temperatures on fecundity, hatchability, viability, and duration of development in five natural populations of Drosophila bipectinata along the latitudinal range. The clinal patterns for fecundity, as well as ovariole number, were observed which showed significant positive correlation (r=0.97). Similarly, hatchability and duration of development also revealed a positive correlation with latitude. Hence, suggesting the role of natural selection in maintaining the genetic divergence for life history traits along the north-south transect of the Indian Subcontinent.

Keywords: growth temperature, fecundity, hatchability, viability, duration of development, Drosophila

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40 Diapause Incidence in Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

Authors: Fazil Hasan, M. Shafiq Ansari, Mohammad Muslim

Abstract:

Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an exotic insect and effective biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). Our study aimed to determine the induction and termination of diapause, in response to abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) and the effect of diapause on adult longevity and female fecundity. The adults burrowed into the soil about 1–6 cm below the surface for diapause at any time from July to December with a peak of 70% in the 2nd week of December at Aligarh region, India. The termination of diapause took place in May and June with the commencement of monsoon rains. Non-diapausing adults were also capable of breeding during winter under laboratory conditions. There was a significantly increased in the percentage of diapaused adults in subsequent generation i.e. 4% in F1 generation and 90% in F7 generation. The percentage of diapause was also significantly increased with age of adults. It has a positive effect on female fecundity as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapaused duration. Experiments proved that soil moisture played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. The adults which undergone diapause in January and February were continuously exposed to 35º, 40º and 45º C for one week and a daily dose of 10 and 8 hours for 6 and 5 days, respectively resulting in termination of diapause. This method may be used to initiate mass multiplication for carrying out releases early in the season. Exposure of adults to extremely low temperatures i.e. 5º and 10º C induced 94.3% and 92.5% diapause, respectively with no adult mortality. Therefore, low temperatures can also be used as a medium for the storage of mass reared beetles for a long time without having negative effect on their longevity and fecundity. Thus, our findings are of great utility in the biological suppression of P. hysterophorus as it will enhance the effectiveness of this beetle through manipulation of diapause.

Keywords: Zygogramma bicolorata, environmental factors, age, sex, diapause, Parthenium hysterophorus, biocontrol

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39 Evaluation of Different Inoculation Methods of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Their Endophytism and Pathogenicity against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)

Authors: Mubashar Iqbal, Iqra Anjum, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif

Abstract:

The present study was carried to screen out the effective entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) inoculation method in maize and to evaluate pathogenicity and oviposition-choice in C. partellus. Three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) formulations Pacer® (Metarhizium anisopliae), Racer® (Beauveria bassiana) and Meailkil® (Verticillium lecanii) were evaluated at three concentrations (5000, 10000 and 20000 ppm) for their endophytism in maize and pathogenicity in C. partellus. The stock solution of the highest concentration (20,000 ppm) was prepared and next lower from stock solution. In the first experiment, three EPF was inoculated in maize plant by four methods, i.e., leaf-inoculation (LI), whorl-inoculation (WI), shoot-inoculation (SI) and root-inoculation (RI). Leaf-discs and stem-cutting were sampled in all four inoculation methods and placed on fungus growth media in Petri dishes. In the second experiment, pathogenicity, pupal formation, adult emergence, sex ratio, oviposition-choice, and growth index of C. partellus were calculated. The leaves and stem of the inoculated plants were given to the counted number of larvae of C. Partellus. The mortality of larvae was recorded on daily basis till the pupation. The result shows that maximum percent mortality (86.67%) was recorded at high concentration (20000ppm) of Beauveria bassiana by leaf inoculation method. For oviposition choice bioassay, the newly emerged adults were fed on diet (water, honey and yeast in 9:1:1) for 48 hours. One pair of C. Partellus were aspirated from the rearing cages and were detained in large test tube plugged with diet soaked cotton. A set of four plants for each treatment were prepared and randomized inside the large oviposition chamber. The test tubes were opened and fitted in the hole made in the wall of oviposition chamber in front of each treatment. The oviposition chamber was placed in a completely dark laboratory to eliminate the effect of light on moth’s behavior. The plants were removed from the oviposition chamber after the death of adults. The number of eggs deposited on the plant was counted. The results of 2nd experiment revealed that in all EPF and inoculation methods, the fecundity, egg fertility and growth index of C. partellus decreased with the increase in concentration being significantly higher at low concentration (5000ppm) and lower at higher concentration (20000ppm). Application of B. bassiana demonstrated that minimum fecundity (126.83), egg fertility (119.52) and growth index (15%) in C. partellus followed by M. anisopliae with fecundity (135.93), egg fertility (132.29) and growth index (17.50%) while V. lecanii show higher values of fecundity (137.37), egg fertility (1135.42) and growth index (20%). Overall leaf inoculation method showed least fecundity (123.89) with egg fertility (115.36) and growth index (14%) followed by whorl, shoot inoculation method and root inoculation method show higher values of fecundity, egg fertility and growth index.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Chilo partellus, entomopathoganic, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
38 The Current Status and Abundance of the Genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole

Abstract:

The current status and abundance of the genus Citharinus was carried out in Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria from January to December, 2011. The aim was to determine the extent of exploitation of the genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake so as to advice the government of Nigeria on how to overcome difficulties in terms of the sustainability of the said fish in the Lake. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. A total of 2,389 of the genus Citharinus were caught during the sampling period. Only two species of the genus Citharinus were caught with 1,220 in number and 430.68kg total weight of Citharinus citharus and 1,169 in number and 418.56kg total weight of Citharinus latus). The current total yield estimated for the genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake in the six (6) sampling sites was calculated and pooled together to be 849.24kg. A day’s catch was calculated to be 35.38kg. The monthly and annual yields of the genus Citharinus were calculated to 1061.55 equivalents to 1 ton and 12 metric tonnes respectively. For the fecundity, June, July and August were discovered as the spawning period for the genus Citharinus and out of total experimental gillnet catch of 2, 389, only 244 (10.21%)of Citharinus citharus and 231 (9.67%) of Citharinus latus were in sexually mature stage. Out of these numbers, 113 (46.31%) were males and 121 (53.69%) were females of Citharinus citharus and 112 (48.48) were males and 119 (51.52) were females of Citharinus latus. The youngest mature males in either of the two had a standard length of 31.5 with a weight of 800.5gWhilethe youngest spawning females were having the standard length of 29.5 cm with a weight of 1,3oo.5g.It was also discovered that females started maturing earlier than the males at the standard length for females and males to be 18.0cm and 19.5cm respectively. Their fecundity ranged from 15,000 to 16, 500 eggs. The sex ratio of 1172 that were males and 1217 that were females was 1 male to 1.0383 females which was equivalent to 1:1 sex ratio of male to female. It was concluded that Jebba Lake had suffered seriously over exploitation of the genus Citharinus and proper management have to be enforced on the lake otherwise the threat of fish being extent may arise.

Keywords: Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria, Citharinus citharus, Citharinus latus, fecundity, sex ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
37 Reproductive Behavior of the Red Sea Immigrant Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from the Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud M. S. Farrag, Alaa A. K. Elhaweet, El-Sayed Kh. A. Akel, Mohsen A. Moustafa

Abstract:

The present work aimed to study the reproductive strategy of the common lessepsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1879) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. It is a famous migratory species plays an important role in the field of fisheries and ecology of aquatic ecosystem. The specimens were collected monthly from the landing centers along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast during 2012. Six maturity stages were recorded: (I) Thread like stage, (II) Immature stage (Virgin stage), (III) Maturing stage (Developing Virgin and recovering spent), (IV) Nearly ripe stage, (V) Fully ripe, (VI) Spawning stage, (VII) Spent stage. According to sex ratio, males exhibited higher number than females representing 52.44 % of the total fishes with sex ratio 1: 0.91. Fish length corresponding to 50% maturation was 38.5 cm for males and 41 cm for females. The corresponding ages (age at first maturity) are equal to 2.14 and 2.27 years for male and female respectively. The ova diameter ranged from 0.02mm to 0.85mm, the mature ova ranged from 0.16mm to 0.85mm and showed progressive increase from April towards September. Also, the presences of ova diameter in one peak of mature and ripe eggs in the ovaries were observed during spawning period. The relationship between gutted weight and absolute fecundity indicated that that fecundity increased as the fish grew in weight. The absolute fecundity ranged from 260288 to 2372931 for fish weight ranged from 698 to 3285 cm with an average of 1449522±720975. The relative fecundity ranged from 373 to 722 for fish weight ranged from 698 to 3285 cm with an average of 776±231. The spawning season of L. sceleratus was investigated from the data of gonado-somatic index and monthly distribution of maturity stages along the year as well as sequence of ova diameter for mature stages and exhibited a relatively prolong spawning season extending from April for both sexes and ends in August for male while ends in September for female. Fish releases its ripe ova in one batch during the spawning season. Histologically, the ovarian cycle of L. sceleratus was classified into six stages and the testicular cycle into five stages. Histological characters of gonads of L. sceleratus during the year of study had confirmed the previous results of distribution of maturity stages, gonado-somatic index and ova diameter, indicating this fish species has prolonged spawning season from April to September. This species is considered totally or uni spawner with synchronous group as it contained one to two developmental stages at the same gonad.

Keywords: Lagocephalus sceleratus, reproductive biology, oogenesis, histology

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36 The Influence of Addition of Asparagus Bean Powder (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on Gonad Maturity of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) at the Floating Net Cage of Cirata Reservoir

Authors: Rita Rostika, Junianto, Zulfiqar W. Ibrahim, Iskandar, Lantun P. Dewanti

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of asparagus bean powder and its most effective administration dose to improve the gonad maturity of nilem carp (Osteochilus hasselti). The research is conducted in October-July 2017 located at Cirata Reservoir and Aquaculture Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research employs an experimental method using a Complete Random Design (RAL) with six treatments and three repetitions. The treatments include the addition of asparagus bean powder by 0% (Control), 4% per kg of feed, 5% per kg of feed, 6% per kg of feed, 7% per kg of feed, as well as the addition of vitamin E essential as the control. The results show that the addition of asparagus bean powder to the feed may influence the gonad maturity of nilem carp shown by its Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) parameter, fecundity, egg diameter and egg reaching its maturity phase or GVBD (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown). The best administration dose influencing nilem carp is the addition of asparagus bean powder by 7% per kg of feed with the average GSI of 15.02%, relative fecundity of 137 eggs/g of fish parent weight, egg diameter of 1,263 mm, and egg reaching its maturity phase (GVBD) of 78.15%.

Keywords: asparagus bean powder, nilem carp, gonad maturity, Cirata reservoir

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35 Heat and Humidity Induced Plastic Changes in Body Lipids and Starvation Resistance in the Tropical Zaprionus indianus of Wet-Dry Seasons

Authors: T. N. Girish, B. E. Pradeep, Ravi Parkash

Abstract:

Insects from tropical wet or dry seasons are likely to cope starvation stress through seasonal phenotypic plasticity in energy metabolites. Accordingly, we analyzed such plastic changes in Zaprionus indianus flies reared under wet or dry season-specific conditions; and also after adult acclimation at 32℃ for 1 to 6 days; and to low (40% RH) or high (70% RH) humidity. Both thermal or humidity acclimation revealed significant accumulation of body lipids for wet season flies but low humidity acclimation did not change the level of body lipids in dry season flies. Developmental and adult acclimation showed sex specific differences i.e., starvation resistance and body lipids were higher in the males of dry season but in females of wet season. We found seasonal and sex specific differences in the relative level for body lipids at death; and in the rates of accumulation or utilization of energy metabolites (body lipids, carbohydrates and proteins). Body lipids constitute the preferred energy source under starvation for flies of both the seasons. However, utilization of carbohydrates (~20% to 30%) and proteins (~20% to 25%) was evident only in dry season flies. Higher starvation resistance after thermal or humidity acclimation is achieved by increased accumulation of lipids. Adult acclimation of wet or dry season flies revealed plastic changes in mean daily fecundity despite reduction in fecundity under starvation. Thus, thermal or humidity induced plastic responses in body lipids support starvation resistance under wet or dry seasons.

Keywords: heat or humidity acclimation, plastic changes in body lipids and starvation resistance, tropical drosophilid, Wet- or Dry seasons, Zaprionus indianus

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34 Reproductive Biology and Lipid Content of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in the Western Indian Ocean

Authors: Zahirah Dhurmeea, Iker Zudaire, Heidi Pethybridge, Emmanuel Chassot, Maria Cedras, Natacha Nikolic, Jerome Bourjea, Wendy West, Chandani Appadoo, Nathalie Bodin

Abstract:

Scientific advice on the status of fish stocks relies on indicators that are based on strong assumptions on biological parameters such as condition, maturity and fecundity. Currently, information on the biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the Indian Ocean is scarce. Consequently, many parameters used in stock assessment models for Indian Ocean albacore originate largely from other studied stocks or species of tuna. Inclusion of incorrect biological data in stock assessment models would lead to inappropriate estimates of stock status used by fisheries manager’s to establish future catch allowances. The reproductive biology of albacore tuna in the western Indian Ocean was examined through analysis of the sex ratio, spawning season, length-at-maturity (L50), spawning frequency, fecundity and fish condition. In addition, the total lipid content (TL) and lipid class composition in the gonads, liver and muscle tissues of female albacore during the reproductive cycle was investigated. A total of 923 female and 867 male albacore were sampled from 2013 to 2015. A bias in sex-ratio was found in favour of females with fork length (LF) <100 cm. Using histological analyses and gonadosomatic index, spawning was found to occur between 10°S and 30°S, mainly to the east of Madagascar from October to January. Large females contributed more to reproduction through their longer spawning period compared to small individuals. The L50 (mean ± standard error) of female albacore was estimated at 85.3 ± 0.7 cm LF at the vitellogenic 3 oocyte stage maturity threshold. Albacore spawn on average every 2.2 days within the spawning region and spawning months from November to January. Batch fecundity varied between 0.26 and 2.09 million eggs and the relative batch fecundity (mean  standard deviation) was estimated at 53.4 ± 23.2 oocytes g-1 of somatic-gutted weight. Depending on the maturity stage, TL in ovaries ranged from 7.5 to 577.8 mg g-1 of wet weight (ww) with different proportions of phospholipids (PL), wax esters (WE), triacylglycerol (TAG) and sterol (ST). The highest TL were observed in immature (mostly TAG and PL) and spawning capable ovaries (mostly PL, WE and TAG). Liver TL varied from 21.1 to 294.8 mg g-1 (ww) and acted as an energy (mainly TAG and PL) storage prior to reproduction when the lowest TL was observed. Muscle TL varied from 2.0 to 71.7 g-1 (ww) in mature females without a clear pattern between maturity stages, although higher values of up to 117.3 g-1 (ww) was found in immature females. TL results suggest that albacore could be viewed predominantly as a capital breeder relying mostly on lipids stored before the onset of reproduction and with little additional energy derived from feeding. This study is the first one to provide new information on the reproductive development and classification of albacore in the western Indian Ocean. The reproductive parameters will reduce uncertainty in current stock assessment models which will eventually promote sustainability of the fishery.

Keywords: condition, size-at-maturity, spawning behaviour, temperate tuna, total lipid content

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33 Comparative Vector Susceptibility for Dengue Virus and Their Co-Infection in A. aegypti and A. albopictus

Authors: Monika Soni, Chandra Bhattacharya, Siraj Ahmed Ahmed, Prafulla Dutta

Abstract:

Dengue is now a globally important arboviral disease. Extensive vector surveillance has already established A.aegypti as a primary vector, but A.albopictus is now accelerating the situation through gradual adaptation to human surroundings. Global destabilization and gradual climatic shift with rising in temperature have significantly expanded the geographic range of these species These versatile vectors also host Chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever virus. Biggest challenge faced by endemic countries now is upsurge in co-infection reported with multiple serotypes and virus co-circulation. To foster vector control interventions and mitigate disease burden, there is surge for knowledge on vector susceptibility and viral tolerance in response to multiple infections. To address our understanding on transmission dynamics and reproductive fitness, both the vectors were exposed to single and dual combinations of all four dengue serotypes by artificial feeding and followed up to third generation. Artificial feeding observed significant difference in feeding rate for both the species where A.albopictus was poor artificial feeder (35-50%) compared to A.aegypti (95-97%) Robust sequential screening of viral antigen in mosquitoes was followed by Dengue NS1 ELISA, RT-PCR and Quantitative PCR. To observe viral dissemination in different mosquito tissues Indirect immunofluorescence assay was performed. Result showed that both the vectors were infected initially with all dengue(1-4)serotypes and its co-infection (D1 and D2, D1 and D3, D1 and D4, D2 and D4) combinations. In case of DENV-2 there was significant difference in the peak titer observed at 16th day post infection. But when exposed to dual infections A.aegypti supported all combinations of virus where A.albopictus only continued single infections in successive days. There was a significant negative effect on the fecundity and fertility of both the vectors compared to control (PANOVA < 0.001). In case of dengue 2 infected mosquito, fecundity in parent generation was significantly higher (PBonferroni < 0.001) for A.albopicus compare to A.aegypti but there was a complete loss of fecundity from second to third generation for A.albopictus. It was observed that A.aegypti becomes infected with multiple serotypes frequently even at low viral titres compared to A.albopictus. Possible reason for this could be the presence of wolbachia infection in A.albopictus or mosquito innate immune response, small RNA interference etc. Based on the observations it could be anticipated that transovarial transmission may not be an important phenomenon for clinical disease outcome, due to the absence of viral positivity by third generation. Also, Dengue NS1 ELISA can be used for preliminary viral detection in mosquitoes as more than 90% of the samples were found positive compared to RT-PCR and viral load estimation.

Keywords: co-infection, dengue, reproductive fitness, viral quantification

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32 An Alternative Semi-Defined Larval Diet for Rearing of Sand Fly Species Phlebotomus argentipes in Laboratory

Authors: Faizan Hassan, Seema Kumari, V. P. Singh, Pradeep Das, Diwakar Singh Dinesh

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Phlebotomus argentipes is an established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian subcontinent. Laboratory colonization of Sand flies is imperative in research on vectors, which requires a proper diet for their larvae and adult growth that ultimately affects their survival and fecundity. In most of the laboratories, adult Sand flies are reared on rabbit blood feeding/artificial blood feeding and their larvae on fine grinded rabbit faeces as a sole source of food. Rabbit faeces are unhygienic, difficult to handle, high mites infestation as well as owing to bad odour which creates menacing to human users ranging from respiratory problems to eye infection and most importantly it does not full fill all the nutrients required for proper growth and development. It is generally observed that the adult emergence is very low in comparison to egg hatched, which may be due to insufficient food nutrients provided to growing larvae. To check the role of food nutrients on larvae survival and adult emergence, a high protein rich artificial diet for sand fly larvae were used in this study. The composition of artificial diet to be tested includes fine grinded (9 gm each) Rice, Pea nuts & Soyabean balls. These three food ingredients are rich source of all essential amino acids along with carbohydrate and minerals which is essential for proper metabolism and growth. In this study artificial food was found significantly more effective for larval development and adult emergence than rabbit faeces alone (P value >0.05). The weight of individual larvae was also found higher in test pots than the control. This study suggest that protein plays an important role in insect larvae development and adding carbohydrate will also enhances the fecundity of insects larvae.

Keywords: artificial food, nutrients, Phlebotomus argentipes, sand fly

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31 Ecofriendly Approach for the Management of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus koenigii by Botanicals

Authors: S: Kayesth, K. K. Gupta

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The indiscriminate use of insecticides causes environmental contamination, adversely affects non-target organisms and develops resistance among insects and pests. There has always been felt a need for methods of control which can overcome these environmental and other ecological issues. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of different plants volatiles on survival, longevity, growth, development and reproduction of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract of three different plants (Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara) was used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.13% and 0.06% while adults were treated with 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and ten pairs of adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24 hour exposure to the plant volatiles. The effect of these plant extract was observed and readings were recorded for 23 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. The extracts did not influence growth of fifth instars significantly but impaired their development significantly at higher concentrations. The treated nymphs at higher concentrations either could not moult or died and those which could moult moulted into supranumery instars, adultoids or adults with wing deformities. The supranumery insects retained the nymphal characters except increased body size and wing pads. The adultoids had wing deformities and non-functional reproductive organs. Adultoids exhibited courtship and mounting attempts but were not able to mate. At lower concentrations from 0.1 to 0.06% the fifth instars developed into adults with fewer deformities. At these concentrations, the fecundity and fertility of these adults were drastically reduced. On the contrary, the treated adults also had reduced fecundity and fertility compared to control. Among three plant extracts Ocimcum was most toxic for both fifth instars and adults in terms of survival and longevity. Catharanthus, Ocimum and Lantana appeared to have potential molecules which possessed insect juvenile hormone like activity. Potential application of these plant extracts in IPM was discussed.

Keywords: Catharanthus, Ocimum, Lantana, Dysdercus koenigii

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30 Effect of Heavy Metals on the Life History Trait of Heterocephalobellus sp. and Cephalobus sp. (Nematode: Cephalobidae) Collected from a Small-Scale Mining Site, Davao de Oro, Philippines

Authors: Alissa Jane S. Mondejar, Florifern C. Paglinawan, Nanette Hope N. Sumaya, Joey Genevieve T. Martinez, Mylah Villacorte-Tabelin

Abstract:

Mining is associated with increased heavy metals in the environment, and heavy metal contamination disrupts the activities of soil fauna, such as nematodes, causing changes in the function of the soil ecosystem. Previous studies found that nematode community composition and diversity indices were strongly affected by heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Cu, and Zn). In this study, the influence of heavy metals on nematode survivability and reproduction were investigated. Life history analysis of the free-living nematodes, Heterocephalobellus sp. and Cephalobus sp. (Rhabditida: Cephalobidae) were assessed using the hanging drop technique, a technique often used in life history trait experiments. The nematodes were exposed to different temperatures, i.e.,20°C, 25°C, and 30°C, in different groups (control and heavy metal exposed) and fed with the same bacterial density of 1×109 Escherichia coli cells ml-1 for 30 days. Results showed that increasing temperature and exposure to heavy metals had a significant influence on the survivability and egg production of both species. Heterocephalobellus sp. and Cephalobus sp., when exposed to 20°C survived longer and produced few numbers of eggs but without subsequent hatching. Life history parameters of Heterocephalobellus sp. showed that the value of parameters was higher in the control group under net production rate (R0), fecundity (mx) which is also the same value for the total fertility rate (TFR), generation times (G0, G₁, and Gh) and Population doubling time (PDT). However, a lower rate of natural increase (rm) was observed since generation times were higher. Meanwhile, the life history parameters of Cephalobus sp. showed that the value of net production rate (R0) was higher in the exposed group. Fecundity (mx) which is also the same value for the TFR, G0, G1, Gh, and PDT, were higher in the control group. However, a lower rate of natural increase (rm) was observed since generation times were higher. In conclusion, temperature and exposure to heavy metals had a negative influence on the life history of the nematodes, however, further experiments should be considered.

Keywords: artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), hanging drop method, heavy metals, life history trait.

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29 Impact of Different Rearing Diets on the Performance of Adult Mealworms Tenebrio molitor

Authors: Caroline Provost, Francois Dumont

Abstract:

Production of insects for human and animal consumption is an increasingly important activity in Canada. Protein production is more efficient and less harmful to the environment using insect rearing compared to the impact of traditional livestock, poultry and fish farms. Insects are rich in essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and trace elements. Thus, insect-based products could be used as a food supplement for livestock and domestic animals and may even find their way into the diets of high performing athletes or fine dining. Nevertheless, several parameters remain to be determined to ensure efficient and profitable production that meet the potential of these sectors. This project proposes to improve the production processes, rearing diets and processing methods for three species with valuable gastronomic and nutritional potential: the common mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), the small mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus), and the giant mealworm (Zophobas morio). The general objective of the project is to acquire specific knowledge for mass rearing of insects dedicated to animal and human consumption in order to respond to current market opportunities and meet a growing demand for these products. Mass rearing of the three species of mealworm was produced to provide the individuals needed for the experiments. Mealworms eat flour from different cereals (e.g. wheat, barley, buckwheat). These cereals vary in their composition (protein, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, antioxidant, etc.), but also in their purchase cost. Seven different diets were compared to optimize the yield of the rearing. Diets were composed of cereal flour (e.g. wheat, barley) and were either mixed or left alone. Female fecundity, larvae mortality and growing curves were observed. Some flour diets have positive effects on female fecundity and larvae performance while each mealworm was found to have specific diet requirements. Trade-offs between mealworm performance and costs need to be considered. Experiments on the effect of flour composition on several parameters related to performance and nutritional and gastronomic value led to the identification of a more appropriate diet for each mealworm.

Keywords: mass rearing, mealworm, human consumption, diet

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28 Winter – Not Spring - Climate Drives Annual Adult Survival in Common Passerines: A Country-Wide, Multi-Species Modeling Exercise

Authors: Manon Ghislain, Timothée Bonnet, Olivier Gimenez, Olivier Dehorter, Pierre-Yves Henry

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Climatic fluctuations affect the demography of animal populations, generating changes in population size, phenology, distribution and community assemblages. However, very few studies have identified the underlying demographic processes. For short-lived species, like common passerine birds, are these changes generated by changes in adult survival or in fecundity and recruitment? This study tests for an effect of annual climatic conditions (spring and winter) on annual, local adult survival at very large spatial (a country, 252 sites), temporal (25 years) and biological (25 species) scales. The Constant Effort Site ringing has allowed the collection of capture - mark - recapture data for 100 000 adult individuals since 1989, over metropolitan France, thus documenting annual, local survival rates of the most common passerine birds. We specifically developed a set of multi-year, multi-species, multi-site Bayesian models describing variations in local survival and recapture probabilities. This method allows for a statistically powerful hierarchical assessment (global versus species-specific) of the effects of climate variables on survival. A major part of between-year variations in survival rate was common to all species (74% of between-year variance), whereas only 26% of temporal variation was species-specific. Although changing spring climate is commonly invoked as a cause of population size fluctuations, spring climatic anomalies (mean precipitation or temperature for March-August) do not impact adult survival: only 1% of between-year variation of species survival is explained by spring climatic anomalies. However, for sedentary birds, winter climatic anomalies (North Atlantic Oscillation) had a significant, quadratic effect on adult survival, birds surviving less during intermediate years than during more extreme years. For migratory birds, we do not detect an effect of winter climatic anomalies (Sahel Rainfall). We will analyze the life history traits (migration, habitat, thermal range) that could explain a different sensitivity of species to winter climate anomalies. Overall, we conclude that changes in population sizes for passerine birds are unlikely to be the consequences of climate-driven mortality (or emigration) in spring but could be induced by other demographic parameters, like fecundity.

Keywords: Bayesian approach, capture-recapture, climate anomaly, constant effort sites scheme, passerine, seasons, survival

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27 Bioefficacy of Ocimum sanctum on Reproductive Performance of Red Cotton Bug, Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoriedae)

Authors: Kamal Kumar Gupta, Sunil Kayesth

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Dysdercus koenigii is serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous crop. Present research work aimed at ecofriendly approach for management of pest by plant extracts. The impact of Ocimum sanctum was studied on reproductive performance of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract of Ocimum leaves was prepared by ‘cold extraction method’. The newly emerged fifth instar nymphs were exposed to the extract of concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 0.00625% by ‘thin film residual method’ for a period of 24h. Reproductive fitness of the adults emerged from the treated nymphs was evaluated by assessing their courtship behaviour, oviposition behaviour, and fertility. The studies indicated that treatment of Dysdercus with the hexane extract of Ocimum altered their courtship behaviour. Consequently, the treated males exhibited less sexual activity, performed fewer mounting attempts, increased time to mate and showed decreased percent successful mating. The females often rejected courting treated male by shaking the abdomen. Similarly, the treated females in many cases remained non-receptive to the courting male. Premature termination of mating in the mating pairs prior to insemination further decreased the mating success of the treated adults. Maximum abbreviation of courtship behaviour was observed in the experimental set up where both the males and the females were treated. Only females which mate successfully were observed for study of oviposition behaviour. The treated females laid lesser number of egg batches and eggs in their life span. The eggs laid by these females were fertile indicating insemination of the female. However, percent hatchability was lesser than control. The effects of hexane extract were dose dependent. Treatment with 0.1% and 0.05% extract altered courtship behaviour. Doses of concentrations less than 0.05% did not affect courtship behaviour but altered the oviposition behaviour and fertility. Significant reduction in the fecundity and fertility was observed in the treatments at concentration as low as 0.00625%. The GCMS analysis of the extract revealed a plethora of phytochemicals including juvenile hormone mimics, and the intermediates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, some of these compounds individually or synergistically impair reproductive behaviour of Dysdercus. Alteration of courtship behaviour and suppression of fecundity and fertility with the help of plant extracts has wide potentials in suppression of pest population and ‘integrated pest management’.

Keywords: courtship behaviour, Dysdercus koenigii, Ocimum sanctum, oviposition behaviour

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26 Reproductive Behaviour of the Red Sea Immigrant Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from the Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud Farrag, Alaa Elhaweet, El-Sayed Akel, Mohsen Moustafa

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The present work aimed to study the reproductive strategy of the common lesspsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmeln, 1879) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. It is a famous migratory species plays an important role in the field of fisheries and ecology of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results illustrated seven maturity stages of gonads as; I- Thread like stage: II- Immature stage (Virgin stage), III- Maturing stage (Developing Virgin and recovering spent), IV - Nearly ripe stage, V- Fully ripe; VI-Spawning stage, VII- Spent stage. Sex ratio, exhibited males had higher number than females representing 52.44 % of the total fishes with sex ratio 1: 0.91. Fish length corresponding to 50% maturation was 38.5 cm for males and 41 cm for females. The corresponding ages (age at first maturity) are equal to 2.14 and 2.27 years for male and female respectively. The gonado somatic index (GSI) increased from April for both sexes with peak in June (8.567±4.729) for males and May (6.769±4.662) for females, then the sharp decrease was observed in October showing prolong spawning season from April to September for both sexes. The hepato somatic indices (HSI) for males were lower values than those of females, it were high from December to early spawning (April & May), with the peak in April (5.217 ± 2.167) for males, and in March (5.453± 1.792) for females, then these values started to decrease towards the end of spawning period. The ova diameter ranged from 0.02 to 0.85mm, the mature ova ranged from 0.16 to 0.85mm and showed progressive increase from April towards September during spawning period introducing one peak of mature and ripe eggs. The absolute fecundity increased as the fish grew in weight and length; it was ranged from 260288 to 2372931 for fish weight and ranged from 698 to 3285 cm for length with an average of 1449522±720975. The relative fecundity ranged from 373 to 722 for fish weight with an average of 776±231, while it range from 5784 to 32957 for fish length groups ranged from 43-45 to 70-72 cm with an average of 24478 ±10011 eggs. Histological characters of gonads during the year of study indicating this fish species has prolonged spawning season from April to September where ripe oocytes were observed during this period. This species is considered totally or uni spawner with synchronous group as it contained one to two developmental stages at the same gonad and releases its ripe ova in one batch during the spawning season. These results illustrated more adaptation of this species in new habitat.

Keywords: reproductive biology, histology, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

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25 Host Plant Range of Aphidophagus Hoverflies in Relation to Their Pray Aphids in Thatta Pakistan

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada

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Hoverflies are commonly known as flower flies, sun flies or garden flies. Hoverflies are very important group of insects because their ecosystem services are diverse. They are an attractive group of insects with their striped abdomens. They are day-flying insects from small to large size, have worldwide distribution, but mostly prefer to live in relatively cold weather areas. In the world, about 6,000 species of 200 genera of two sub-families have been described. Their larvae exhibit a variety of feeding modes i.e. aphidophagous, saprophagous, zoophagous and Phytophagus, where adults are floral visitors of hundreds of different plants species. These floral resources enhance the longevity and fecundity of adult dipterous flies. Many syrphid species also have been documented as efficient crop pollinators. Aphids are commonly called plant louse, greenflies and blackflies. They are major pest of crops; about 4000 species of aphids have been described, feeding on 250 species of plants.

Keywords: host plant range, aphidophagous hoverflies, their prey aphids, Thatta Pakistan

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24 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Akın Kuyulu, Hanife Genç

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In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta

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23 Effect of Temperatures on Growth and Development Time of Aphis fabae Scopoli (Homoptera: Aphididae): On Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: Rochelyn Dona, Serdar Satar

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of A. fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Developmental, survival, and reproductive data were collected for Aphis fabae reared on detached bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ‘pinto beans’ at five temperature regimes (12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 °C), 65% relative humidity (RH), relative and a photoperiod of 16:8 (LD) h. The developmental times of immature stages ranged from 16, 65 days at 12°C to 5.70 days at 24°C, but a slight increase again at 28°C (6.62 days). At 24°C from this study presented the developmental threshold for A. fabae slightly to 24°C. The average longevity of mature females significantly decreased from 42.32 days at 12°C to 16.12 days at 28°C. The reproduction rate per female was 62.27 at 16°C and 12.72 at 28°C. The mean generation period of the population ranged from 29.24 at 12°C to 11.50 at 28°C. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm = 0.41) were recorded at 24°C, the lowest at 12°C (rm = 0.15). It was evident that temperatures over 28°C augmented the development time, accelerated the death ratio of the nymphal stages, Shrunk Adult longevity, and reduced fecundity. The optimal range of temperature for the population growth of A. fabae on the bean was 16°C-24°C, according to this study.

Keywords: developmental time, intrinsic rate, reproduction period, temperature dependence

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22 The Effect of Different Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Varieties on Growth and Development Time of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Authors: Rochelyn Dona, Mohamed F. Nur, Serdar Satar

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The biological response of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom. Aphididae) was investigated on the effects of seven cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) such as Kitir, Muhika, Ayda, Beit, 14-F1, Ruzgar, and Ptk in the laboratory condition at 24±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity (RH) and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) hour. The results were related that the developmental time of A. gossypii at the nymphal stages was presented a significant difference only on the first instar stage. From the lowest to the highest respectively, 0.98 days on ruzgar to 1.18 days on Kitir, the second nymphal stage 0.98 days to Beit alfa, 1.08 days on Muhika, the third from 0.94 days to Kitir, from 1.16 days to 14-F1, and the last instar 1.22 days on Ptk, 1.48 days on Kitir were investigated. The total development time was evaluated at 4.46 days Beit on alfa 4.72 days on Kitir. The offspring number was 60.42 aphids on ayda and 83.72 aphids on muhika, the significant differences between varieties were based on one-way ANOVA (Tukey test). The lifetime of A. gossypii was recorded 19.10 days on Kitir, 27.64 days on Ptk. The results showed that cucumber cultivars were affected by the biological life of A. gossypii. The combination of this study with the other methods of the IPM tactics can serve as the best strategy for controlling this pest on cucumber varieties into the greenhouse.

Keywords: cucumber cultivars, fecundity, intrinsic rate, mortality, resistance

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21 Eco-Survivalism and Nomadic Pastoralism: An Exploratory Study on the Dialectics of Herder-Farmer Conflict in Nigeria

Authors: Francis N. Okpaleke

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The threat of Fulani herder militancy in Nigeria has led to a volatile security situation characterized by communal strife, arms proliferation, rural banditry, and insurgency. The exigency of this situation resonates in the eco-survivalist theory of farmer-herder conflict which holds that the herder deems the farmers’ unwarranted incursions into his grazing terrain as an effrontery that must reprised and a call to war. In spite of the rising incidence of Fulani militancy in Nigeria, only little is known concerning the phenomenon. The bulk of prevailing ideas on the subject has been largely and unnecessarily journalistic and anecdotal, lacking in intellectual depth, fecundity and rigour. The issue has remained scarcely documented by way of organized research. There is therefore a need for a systematic investigation that would leverage scholarly and policy insights on the subject which is the purpose of this study. The study will therefore, seek to examine the nexus between nomadic pastoralism and the incidence of herder-farmer conflicts in Nigeria with particular reference to the central region of the country. By means of qualitative descriptive analysis predicated on the theory of eco-violence, the paper explores the contemporary historical and structural drivers of this conflict, its relationship with the dynamics of climate change in Nigeria and its implication of human security in Nigeria. The paper also proffers theoretical and policy recommendations to mitigate the onto ward conflict.

Keywords: eco-survivalism, conflict, pastoralism, nomads

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20 Contribution to the Study of Phenotypic, Reproduction and Growth Parameters of Sheep in Eastern Algeria

Authors: Mohammed Titaouine, Toufik Meziane, Kahramen Deghnouche, Hanane Mohamdi, Nabil Mohamdi

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In order to better understand the morphological characters and the zootechniques measures of sheeps races in the in South-East Algeria, a study that was conducted on 1344 heads, taken from 8 farms in different parts of the region, namely T’kout 1, T’kout 2, Tafrent, Barika, Sidi-Okba, Biskra, Ouled-Djellal and Msila. The results from the present study showed significant differences in the group of 14 morphological studied variables, the body length is the most important variable. Reproduction performance of 160 ewes and growth performances of 56 lambs were analysed. The analyses of the data showed that the ewes have a fertility level of 69%, a prolificacy level of 114% and a fecundity level of 79%. Lambs weigh 3.5kg at birth, 9.38kg at 30d, 13.45kg at 60d, 16.91kg at 90d and 21.51 kg at 120d. The speed of the growth level 0.20kg/d from birth to 30d, 0.14 kg/d between 30d and 60d, 0.12kg/d between 60d and 90d and 0.15kg/d between 90d and 120d. The simple born lambs were more heavy than the double born lambs. By contrast, sex was not significant for all the variables except the weight at 60d, the birth month has a significant effect on the weight at birth, at 30d, at 60d and it was no significant for the weight at 90d and at 120d.The flocks born on September, October, November, and December were more heavy than the flocks born on January, February, and March.

Keywords: morphological characterization, reproduction performance, growth performances, algeria

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