Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 549

Search results for: sexual harassment

549 The Salespeople's Reactions to Customer Sexual Harassment: A Case Study of Taiwan's Life Insurance Industry

Authors: Yi-Ling Lin, Lu-Ming Tseng

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Customer sexual harassment is recognized as a serious problem in the personal selling industry. At a personal level, customer sexual harassment could have very negative impacts on the salespeople's physical and mental health. At the organizational level, customer sexual harassment is destructive in terms of organizational reputation. Therefore, this research takes Taiwan's life insurance salesperson as the research sample and explores the impacts of customer power and perceived behavioral control on the life insurance salespeople's whistleblowing intentions to report quid pro quo and hostile work environment types of customer sexual harassment. This study then investigates how personal factors (such as gender difference) may relate to the intentions. Questionnaires are often used as a data collection instrument in studies on workplace sexual harassment. This study collects data through questionnaire surveys, and the research sample of this research is the full-time life insurance salespeople in Taiwan. The hypotheses are examined by using PLS regression approach. The main results show that the types of customer sexual harassment, customer power, and gender are related to the whistleblowing intentions. To our best knowledge, this is the first empirical study to test the relationships among customer reward power, customer coercive power, perceived behavioral control, and the salespeople's whistleblowing intentions toward customer sexual harassment. The findings may provide some implications for the researchers and official authorities.

Keywords: customer sexual harassment, life insurance salespeople, perceived behavioral control, PLS regression

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548 My Dress, My Body and My Choice Politics in Kenya

Authors: Emmy Kipsoi

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Kenya legalized the Sexual offence bill (2001), after vigorous campaigning and lobbying by feminist both in and out of parliament to ensure that the bill passed with minimal amendments. The sexual offense act provides for a good description on what constitutes sexual offences and the penalties that follow. It is from this context that the paper explores and interrogated the lived experiences of women living and working in Kenyan urban towns, who had experienced some form of sexual harassment. The study employed phenomenology to interpret the experiences of twenty (20) women in an urban town between the ages of 20 to 65 years women who had received at least some formal education and where engaged in some formal form of employment. The findings indicated that various forms of sexual harassment were experienced in the Kenyan town. Secondly, the knowledge about the contents of the bill wanting most of the women interviews were not aware of the protection accorded by law. The number of reported cases of sexual harassment shed light on the isolation, frustration and fear that women live despite a progressive law in print

Keywords: Kenya, phenomenology, sexual harassment, women

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547 Sexual Harassment at University: Male Students' Perspectives

Authors: Shakila Singh

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Sexual harassment continues to be a problem both in educational institutions and workplaces with the main victims being women and the main perpetrators being men. The achievement of quality education demands to create safe learning spaces for all students and requires extensive and integrated interventions. This article draws on the data from a broader study that aims to create safer learning environments at university by addressing gender violence. It attempts to understand male students’ perspectives about their role in sexual harassment on the campus. It is a move away from interventions that place the responsibility of prevention of sexual harassment, on women. The study adopts an interpretive paradigm within a qualitative approach. The sample comprises twenty male university students who were purposively selected because they live in the campus residences. The main data generation methods included focus group discussions and individual interviews. Findings show that while many male students agree that victims of sexual harassment are mainly women, they also suggest that men are victims of sexual harassment by women. Male students have varying understandings of what constitutes sexual harassment. They position themselves as victims who feel harassed by women’s dress and behaviour. Male students also felt under pressure by sexual advances made by women that forced them to comply in order to protect their masculinity. This article argues that social norms of masculinity are powerful drivers of behaviour that play a key role in the perpetuation of sexual harassment. Male students who feel strongly against sexual harassment of female students are constrained by their masculinities in their ability to act against it. Effective interventions need to actively engage students in reflecting on and challenging social and cultural norms that contribute to violent expressions and to develop alternatives with them.

Keywords: gender violence, male students, sexual harassment, university students

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546 Sexual Harassment at Workplace in Cuttack District

Authors: Anasuya P. Pradhan, Netajee Abhinandan

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Today's workplace is diverse and keeps changing continuously. Sexual harassment in the work place has emerged as a growing obstacle in women’s progress and being a sex discrimination issue has made the society vulnerable.Such issues indicate that, today women are comparatively more insecure in our society irrespective of their social status, position, and educational qualification. Hence, it needs to be addressed in the academic pedagogy.The study aimed to learn how far people are gender-sensitized, how far they are aware about the laws related to the issue, and how far women employees raise their voice against it. The findings revealed that even being educated and working in the organized sectors, people are unaware and are not sensitized. The study therefore recommends both the Government and managers of institutions how to critically identify the root causes of sexual harassment, its implications on our society and how best to address it.

Keywords: workplace power, gender discrimination, gender sensitization, sexual harassment

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545 Prevention of Ragging and Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) in Higher Education Institutions in Sri Lanka

Authors: Anusha Edirisinghe

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Sexual Gender based violence is a most common social phenomenon in higher education institutions. It has become a hidden crime of the Universities. Masculinities norms and attitudes are more influential and serve as key drivers and risk for ragging and SGBV. This research will reveal that in Sri Lankan universities, SGBV takes from the violence and murder of women students, assault and battery coerced sex, sexual harassment including harassment via information technology. This study focus is to prevention of ragging and SGBV in University system. Main objective of this paper describes and critically analyses of plight of ragging and SGBV in higher education institutions and legal and national level policy implementation to prevent these crimes in society. This paper is with special reference to ragging case from University of Kelaniya 2016. University Grant commission introduced an Act for the prevention of Ragging and gender standing committee established in Sri Lanka in 2016. And each university has been involved in the prevention of SGBV and ragging in higher education institutions. Case study from first year female student, reported sexual harassment was reported to the police station in May in 2016. After this case, the university has been implementing emergency action plan, short term and long term action plan. Ragging and SGBV task force was established and online complaint center opened to all students and academic and non- academics. Under these circumstances student complained to SGBV and other harassment to the university. University security system was strong support with police and marshals, and vigilant committees including lecturers. After this case all universities start to several programmes to stop violence in university

Keywords: higher Education, ragging, sexual gender-based violence, Sri Lanka

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544 Erotica in Ghana: Gendered Negotiations of Erotic Sexual Pleasure in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Michael P.K. Okyerefo, Clara K. Fayorsey

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Although sexual pleasure is an important aspect of human sexuality, there is little knowledge on how women and men negotiate pleasure in Ghana. The paper explores women and men’s agency in negotiating sexual pleasure in an urban community in Ghana based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men. Specifically, we explore meanings of sexual pleasure, the erotic factors that stimulate sexual pleasure, and how women and men negotiate for these factors. Women are active negotiators of stimulants of sexual pleasure based on symbolic meanings.

Keywords: eroticism, sexual pleasure, sexual negotiation, Ghana

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543 Sex Positions Decisions and Negotiations of Sexual Pleasure and Gender in Ghana

Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Chimaraoke O. Izugbara

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Based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men, the paper explores how knowing more about the factors that trigger sex positions decisions advance knowledge of male and female sexuality, and how these translate into higher levels of female sexual negotiations in Ghana. Findings demonstrated that the willingness to perform sex positions or not were gendered and derive, at least in part, from differences in demographic profiles (such as age, gender, and marriage), beliefs associated with sexual practices (such as anal sex), the desire to maximize sexual pleasure, and sexual myths and misconceptions e.g. fear of infecundity. The women were not passive to sex positions decisions and engaged in a dialogical sexual encounter with men including threats of sexual refusal in negotiating sex.

Keywords: sexual positions, sexual pleasure, masculinity, femininity, Ghana

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542 The Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students from Only-Child Families: A National Survey in China

Authors: Jiashu Shen

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This study aims at exploring the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Chinese college students from the 'one-child' families compared with those with siblings. This study utilized the data from the 'National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019'. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the 'only-child' and their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors (RSB) stratified by sex and home regions, respectively. Compared with students with siblings, the 'only-child' students scored higher in sex-related knowledge (only-child students: 4.49 ± 2.28, students with siblings: 3.60 ± 2.27). Stronger associations between only-child and more liberal sexual attitudes were found in urban areas, including the approval of premarital sexual intercourse (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.50-1.65) and multiple sexual partners (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.72-1.99). For risky sexual behaviors, being only-child is more likely to use condoms in first sexual intercourse, especially among male students (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). Only-child students are more likely to have more sexual knowledge, more liberal sexual attitude, and less risky sexual behavior. Further health policy and sex education should focus more on students with siblings.

Keywords: attitudes and behaviors, only-child students, sexual knowledge, students with siblings

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541 Responding to and Preventing Sexual and Gender Based Violence Related to Ragging, in University of Kelaniya: A Case Study

Authors: Anuruddhi Edirisinghe, Anusha Edirisinghe, Maithree Wicramasinghe, Sagarika Kannangara, Annista Wijayanayake

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SGBV which refer to acts of inflicting physical, mental or sexual harm or sufferings that deprive a person’s liberty based on one’s gender or sexuality is known to occur in various forms. Ragging in educational institutions can often be one such form of SGBV. Ragging related SGBV is a growing problem despite various legal, policy and programme initiatives introduced over the years. While the punishment of perpetrators through the criminal justice system is expected to bring a deterrent effect, other strategies such as awareness-raising, attitudinal changes, and the empowerment of students to say no to ragging and SGBV will lead to enlightened attitudes about the practice in universities. Thus, effective regular prevention programmes are the need of the hour. The objectives of the paper are to engage with the case of a female fresher subjected to verbal abuse, physical assault and sexual harassment due to events which started as a result of wearing a trouser to the university during the ragging season. The case came to the limelight since a complaint was made to the police and 10 students were arrested under the anti-ragging act. This led to dividend opinions among the student population and a backlash from the student union. Simultaneously, this resulted in the society demanding the stricter implementation of laws and the punishment of perpetrators. The university authority appointed a task force comprising of academics, non-academics, parents, community leaders, stakeholders and students to draw up an action plan to respond to the immediate situation as well as future prevention. The paper will also discuss the implementation of task force plan. The paper is based on interviews with those involved with the issue and the experiences of the task force members and is expected to provide an in-depth understanding of the intricacies and complications associated with dealing with a contentious problem such as ragging. Given the political and ethical issues involved with insider research as well as the sensationalism of the topic, maximum care will be taken to safeguard the interests of those concerned.

Keywords: fresher, sexual and gender based violence (SGBV), sexual harassment, ragging

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540 The Evaluation of Sexual Literacy Teacher Training Program in Thai Teachers

Authors: Chitraporn Boonthanom, Pailin Sisookho

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The Sexual Literacy Training Teachers Program (SLTTP) based on sexual health problems in Thai students includes sexual development, sexual hygiene, high-risk behaviors, Sexual Transmitter Infections and HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual abuse that increase among Thai students. The training aimed at providing teachers with the sexuality knowledge, sexuality information access skills, communication skill to effectively teach in their class. 28 teachers were participated from schools in Bangkok metropolitan and Nakorn Patom province. The result show the mean score of the pre-test was 8.46 (SD=1.77) and the post-test was 10.13 (SD=2.34). The post-training results were found to be higher than pre–training results but not significant. As teachers are increasing the sexual literacy is very important for Thai students.

Keywords: sexual literacy, teachers, training, sexuality education

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539 The Study of the Awareness of Sexual Risk Bahaviors and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Students

Authors: Sumitta Sawangtook, Parichart Thano

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The purposes of research were to study the relationship between the awareness of sexual risk behaviors and sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students, and to compare the sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students by gender, education level, sweetheart’s number, achievement, sexual value, and the influence of the friendship group. The research sample of 344 sevenths through twelfth grade students in secondary school for the academic year 2014, Dindang district Bangkok was selected by simple random sampling. The research instruments are: 1) demographic questionnaire 2) evaluation form of the awareness of sexual risk behaviors 3) questionnaire about sexual value 4) questionnaire about the influence of the friendship group and 5) evaluation form of sexual risk behaviors. They were used for data collections which are subsequently analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variances. The results of this study were presented as follow: 1) The awareness of sexual risk behaviors was negatively correlated with sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students (r=-.27, p=.000). 2) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had gender difference (t=5.90, p=.000). 3) There was no significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of education (t=1.41, p=.16). 4) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of sweetheart’s number (F=13.03, p=.000). 5) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of achievement (F=4.77, p=.009). 6) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of sexual value (F=50.91, p=.000) 7) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of the influence of the friendship group (F=98.41, p=.000).

Keywords: the awareness of sexual risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, adolescent students

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538 Proposed Intervention to the Attention of Harassment at a Public University

Authors: R. Echeverría Echeverría, C. Carrillo Trujillo, N. Evia Alamilla

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Today, bullying is an expression of violence. It is a present problem in different contexts. Bullying and harassment have become subject matter of professional psychology , anthropology and other social sciences and related areas. However, most research on bullying have focused on peer violence and basic education. There is little attention to harassment in higher education. It also has little generation of research and interventions in universities, undergraduate and postgraduate level. The aim of this paper is to present a proposal for intervention to the attention of college students who have had an experience of harassment and / or bullying in a Public University of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. The methodology was qualitative phenomenological. Semiestructura interview techniques and focus groups were used. 6 students participated who have lived harassment or bullying. Also they are participating teachers and university leaders who play an important role in the presence of such cases. The purpose is to analyze the presence of policies for the prevention, treatment and punishment of those problems. The qualitative data analysis will be based on the general proposal of Rodriguez Gomez Gil Flores and García Jiménez (1999). The results show the need to create a body entrusted to provide timely attention to cases of bullying or harassment that are reported. It is important to take legal and psychological support of the University authorities. It is proposed to create a mechanism to ensure timely care and not victimized who has had the experience; in addition to the punishment of those who exercised to ensure that violence. In discussing the successes and failures of the proposal are highlighted. And the processes that have been facilitated or hampered progress for the project.

Keywords: bullying, harassment, intervention, public university

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537 The Effectiveness of Spouses' Communication Skills Training on Reducing Emotional Harassment and Adjusting Marital Expectations: Married Iranian Women

Authors: Seyed Ali Kimiaei, Reza Pishghadam, Fatemeh Hajizadeh, Marjan Entezari

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Minnesota Spouses Communication Skills Program on reducing emotional harassment and adjusting the marital expectations of married women. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with waiting list group and follow-up period. The statistical population of the study consisted of married women referring to counseling and psychology centers in Mashhad, from which 30 people were selected as a sample by examining the entry criteria and questionnaire scores, and randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 people) and the waiting list group (15 people) were replaced. The experimental group was given 8 sessions of communication skills program of spouses. The emotional harassment and marital expectations questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental group and the waiting list group, so that the communication skills training of the spouses reduced emotional harassment and adjusted marital expectations, and these effects continued in the follow-up period. Therefore, we can conclude that teaching the husband's communication skills program in the Minnesota method reduces emotional harassment and modifies women's marital expectations.

Keywords: spouses communication skills program, emotional harassment, marital expectations, women

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536 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

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Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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535 Selection of Qualitative Research Strategy for Bullying and Harassment in Sport

Authors: J. Vveinhardt, V. B. Fominiene, L. Jeseviciute-Ufartiene

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Relevance of Research: Qualitative research is still regarded as highly subjective and not sufficiently scientific in order to achieve objective research results. However, it is agreed that a qualitative study allows revealing the hidden motives of the research participants, creating new theories, and highlighting the field of problem. There is enough research done to reveal these qualitative research aspects. However, each research area has its own specificity, and sport is unique due to the image of its participants, who are understood as strong and invincible. Therefore, a sport participant might have personal issues to recognize himself as a victim in the context of bullying and harassment. Accordingly, researcher has a dilemma in general making to speak a victim in sport. Thus, ethical aspects of qualitative research become relevant. The plenty fields of sport make a problem determining the sample size of research. Thus, the corresponding problem of this research is which and why qualitative research strategies are the most suitable revealing the phenomenon of bullying and harassment in sport. Object of research is qualitative research strategy for bullying and harassment in sport. Purpose of the research is to analyze strategies of qualitative research selecting suitable one for bullying and harassment in sport. Methods of research were scientific research analyses of qualitative research application for bullying and harassment research. Research Results: Four mane strategies are applied in the qualitative research; inductive, deductive, retroductive, and abductive. Inductive and deductive strategies are commonly used researching bullying and harassment in sport. The inductive strategy is applied as quantitative research in order to reveal and describe the prevalence of bullying and harassment in sport. The deductive strategy is used through qualitative methods in order to explain the causes of bullying and harassment and to predict the actions of the participants of bullying and harassment in sport and the possible consequences of these actions. The most commonly used qualitative method for the research of bullying and harassment in sports is semi-structured interviews in speech and in written. However, these methods may restrict the openness of the participants in the study when recording on the dictator or collecting incomplete answers when the participant in the survey responds in writing because it is not possible to refine the answers. Qualitative researches are more prevalent in terms of technology-defined research data. For example, focus group research in a closed forum allows participants freely interact with each other because of the confidentiality of the selected participants in the study. The moderator can purposefully formulate and submit problem-solving questions to the participants. Hence, the application of intelligent technology through in-depth qualitative research can help discover new and specific information on bullying and harassment in sport. Acknowledgement: This research is funded by the European Social Fund according to the activity ‘Improvement of researchers’ qualification by implementing world-class R&D projects of Measure No. 09.3.3-LMT-K-712.

Keywords: bullying, focus group, harassment, narrative, sport, qualitative research

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534 Sexual Health and Sexual Risk Behavior of the Youth with HIV Positive in Northeastern Part, Thailand

Authors: Orathai Srithongtham, Ubonsri Thabuddha

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The youth with HIV positive is not difference from the general youth in term of sexual needs. Sexual health is crucial the most to support the youth with HIV positive to be sexual well-being. This study aims to elucidate the sexual health on protection from STDs (Sexual Transmitted Diseases) and HIV transmission and to explain sexual risk behavior of the youth with HIV positive. The target group was the youth with HIV positive about 23 cases from two provinces in northeastern part of Thailand. Qualitative method was applied for collecting data by in-depth interview. Content analysis was use for data analysis. The youth with HIV positive was protection from STDs and HIV transmission by using the condom during sexual activity. The reason to deny the condom use were ashamed, condom is not a part of life, no have fit size, and the youth fear to stigmatized as a mental disorder and fear to stigmatized as going to fuck someone. The youth who trust with nurse in clinic was dare to request the condom by face. Sexual activity without condom use is sexual risk behavior. The major causes were couple trust and the sexual enjoyment first and sexual active competition with friend without condom use. The concern on HIV was the boyfriend or girlfriend not accepts the HIV positive people, worry about the HIV transmutation, and finally not compliance to ARV drug. The youth with HIV positive was lacking of the knowledge on sexual health on the issues of access to condom and the concern to keep on relationship with the boyfriend or girlfriend. This concern issues was led to the non-adherence of ARV drug and HIV distribution. To provide the sexual health service is more essential to the youth with HIV positive.

Keywords: sexual health, sexual risk behavior, youth, HIV

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533 Attitudes toward Sexual Assault: The Role of Religious Affiliation, Alcohol, and Gender

Authors: Ignacio Luis Ramirez, Brittney Holcomb

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This study examines attitudes toward sexual assault based on religious affiliation, religiosity, religious beliefs, attitude about sexual assault education, alcohol, and drug use. This study found respondents who identified themselves as Catholics had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than Baptists or Protestants. Respondents who indicated a greater problem with alcohol had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements. In reference to gender, males had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than females. The respondent’s religiosity and religious beliefs did not affect their attitudes toward sexual assault. Additionally, attitudes about sexual assault education and drug use did not affect attitudes toward sexual assault.

Keywords: sexual assault, religion, education, alcohol, drugs

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532 The Sociological and Legal Study of Sexual Assault in Nigeria

Authors: Adeshina Francis Akindutre, Adebolarin Adekanle

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Sexual assault is often considered as the most extreme form of violence that degrades and humiliates women in society. It is a widespread public health and psychological problem in Nigeria. Criminologically, sexual assaults have been considered as one of the several violent crimes targeted specifically at women and perpetrated by men. This paper attempts to examine the types of sexual assaults in Nigeria, the strategies used by the offenders, the causes, the psychological effects on the victims and the possible solutions of sexual assaults. This work also, examines the law prohibiting sexual assault in Nigeria. The authors made use of three theories: the victim precipitation approach, the feminist approach, and the psychological approach which explain why sexual assault takes place in society. Finally, it takes the Stockholm Syndrome into consideration (the treatment of victims).

Keywords: feminist, victims, offenders, psychological, sexual assault, Stockholm Syndrome

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531 Iranian Sexual Health Needs in Viewpoint of Policy Makers: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Mahnaz Motamedi, Mohammad Shahbazi, Shahrzad Rahimi-Naghani, Mehrdad Salehi

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Introduction: Identifying sexual health needs, developing appropriate plans, and delivering services to meet those needs is an essential component of health programs for women, men, and children all over the world, especially in poor countries. Main Subject: The aim of this study was to describe the needs of sexual health from the viewpoint of health policymakers in Iran. Methods: A qualitative study using thematic content analysis was designed and conducted. Data gathering was conducted through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 25 key informants within the healthcare system. Key informants were selected through both purposive and snowball sampling. MAXQUDA software (version 10) was used to facilitate transcription, classification of codes, and conversion of data into meaningful units, by the process of reduction and compression. Results: The analysis of narratives and information categorized sexual health needs into five categories: culturalization of sexual health discourse, sexual health care services, sexual health educational needs, sexual health research needs, and organizational needs. Conclusion: Identifying and explaining sexual health needs is an important factor in determining the priority of sexual health programs and identification of barriers to meet these needs. This can help other policymakers and health planners to develop appropriate programs to promote sexual and reproductive health.

Keywords: sexual health, sexual health needs, policy makers, health system, qualitative study

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530 Male Versatile Sexual Offenders in Taiwan

Authors: Huang Yueh Chen, Sheng Ang Shen

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Purpose: Sexual assault has always been a highly anticipated crime in Taiwan. People assume that the career of sexual offenders tends to be highly specialized. This study hopes to analyze the crime career and risk factors of offenders by means of another classification. Methods: A total of 145 sexual offenders were sentenced on the parole or expiration date from 2009 to 2011, through analysis of official existing documents such as ‘Re-infringement risk assessment report’ and ‘case assessment report’. Results: The section ‘Various Types of Crimes ‘ of criminal career is analyzed. The highest number of ‘ versatile sexual offender’ followed by ‘adult sexual offender’ is about 2.5, representing more than 1.5 kinds of non-sex crimes besides sexual crimes. Different specialized sexual offenders have had extensive experience in the ‘Sexual Assault Experiences in Children and School’, ‘Static 99 Levels’, ‘Pre-Commuted Substance Use’, ‘Excited Deviant Sexual Behavior’, ‘Various Types of Crimes,’ and ‘Sexual Crime in Forerunner’ , ‘Type of Index Crime’ and other projects to achieve significant differences. Conclusions: Resources continue to be devoted to specialized offenders, the character of first-time sexual offender depends on further research and makes the public aware of the different assumptions of diversified offenders from traditional professional offenses that reduce unnecessary panic in society.

Keywords: versatile sexual offender, specialized sexual offender, criminal career, risk factor

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529 Sexual Violence against Men in Conflicts: A Neglected Serious Issue

Authors: Olalekan Olaluwoye, Joanne Williams, Elizabeth Hoban, Sonia Brockington

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Cases of sexual violence against men have been reported in at least twenty-five conflict situations in history. However, there is a paucity of academic literature and minimal media, policy and legal discussions on sexual violence against men. Most studies and discussions remain locked in the ‘male perpetrators, female victims’ paradigm. Male victims continue to suffer the consequences of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings in silence. A rigorous narrative systematic review of the literature revealed few studies on the subject and those that exist have a narrow focus on rape as the only form of sexual violence despite the existence of other forms of sexual violence that have equally devastating effects. This paper argues that while research and discussions on sexual violence against women should continue, it is time to conduct rigorous mixed methods research to understand the experiences of men and boys survivors of sexual violence. There is a need to study sexual violence more broadly, without limiting it to rape, and to understand the determinants and health implications of sexual violence perpetrated on men. The paper concludes by proposing a research approach that gives voice to the experiences of male survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings.

Keywords: conflict, male survivors, post-conflict settings, sexual violence

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528 Sexual Behaviors and Its Predictors among Iranian Women in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zahra Karimian, Effat Merghati Khoei, Raziyeh Maasoumi

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Background: Women's sexual well-being is center of focus in the field of sexology. Study of sexual behavior and investigating its predictors is important in women's health promotion. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the components of sexual behaviors and their possible associations with the women's demographic. Methods: A National Sexual Behavior Assessment Questionnaire was administered to 500 women ages 15 to 45 who referred to the public health centers seeking for health care services. The associations with demographic were examined. Results: From all participant, 31.8% of women obtain high score in the sexual capacity 21.2% in sexual motivation and 0.2% in sexual function. In sexual script component, 86.2% of women were holding traditional beliefs toward sexual behaviors; the majority (91.5%) of women believed in mutual and relational sexuality, 83.4% believed in androcentricity (male-dominated sexuality). Pearson correlation test showed significant positive correlations between sexual capacity, motivation, function and sexual script (p < 0.05). Regression model showed that sexual capacity is associated with women's education, age of her spouse. Sexual function and sexual motivation were significantly associated with the age of subjects' spouses. Conclusion: In this study, lower score was found in sexual performance while women were scored higher in the sexual capacity and motivation. We argue that these lower score in sexual performance more likely is due to the level of participants' religiosity and formation of their sexuality through an androcentric culture. Women's level of education and the spouse age appear to be predicting factors in the scores the subjects gained. We suggest that gender-specific and culturally sensitive sexuality education should be focus of women's health programs in Iran.

Keywords: sexual behaviors, women, health, Iran

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527 Women's Sexual Experience in Pakistan: Associations of Patriarchy and Psychological Distress

Authors: Sana Tahir, Haya Fatimah

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Sexuality is a social construct which is considered as the most confidential affair among individuals where women tend to refrain themselves more from sexually explicit behavior than men. Patriarchy has an elevated influence on the expression of female sexuality. While women’s sexual experiences are suppressed men are entitled to pleasure themselves according to their desire. The purpose of this study is to explore how the internalization of patriarchy affects women’s sexuality. Similarly, it was investigated how women sexuality is associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 100(age 20-40) married women. Participants were selected through a combination of convenient and snowball sampling. Women were asked to provide data regarding patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and DAS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyze was conducted to examine the nature of the relationship between patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and psychological distress in married women. There is a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and patriarchal beliefs (r=-.391, p<.001). There also lies a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and depression, anxiety, stress (r=-.359, p<.001) (r=.301, p=.002) (r=-.221, p=.027). The results reveal that women with strong patriarchal beliefs have less sexual awareness in terms of sexual consciousness, sexual monitoring, sexual assertiveness and sexual appeal consciousness. Similarly, women with strong patriarchal beliefs and less sexual awareness have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: female sexuality, patriarchy, psychological distress, sexual awareness

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526 The Role of Personality Characteristics and Psychological Harassment Behaviors Which Employees Are Exposed on Work Alienation

Authors: Hasan Serdar Öge, Esra Çiftçi, Kazım Karaboğa

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The main purpose of the research is to address the role of psychological harassment behaviors (mobbing) to which employees are exposed and personality characteristics over work alienation. Research population was composed of the employees of Provincial Special Administration. A survey with four sections was created to measure variables and reach out the basic goals of the research. Correlation and step-wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the separate and overall effects of sub-dimensions of psychological harassment behaviors and personality characteristic on work alienation of employees. Correlation analysis revealed significant but weak relationships between work alienation and psychological harassment and personality characteristics. Step-wise regression analysis revealed also significant relationships between work alienation variable and assault to personality, direct negative behaviors (sub dimensions of mobbing) and openness (sub-dimension of personality characteristics). Each variable was introduced into the model step by step to investigate the effects of significant variables in explaining the variations in work alienation. While the explanation ratio of the first model was 13%, the last model including three variables had an explanation ratio of 24%.

Keywords: alienation, five-factor personality characteristics, mobbing, psychological harassment, work alienation

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525 An Understanding of Child Sexual Abuse in South Africa: Case Study of Eastern Cape Province

Authors: Mandlenkosi Richard Mphatheni

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The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996 section 28(1) (d)) states, ‘Every child has the right to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse, and degradation’. Qualitative research studied perceptions of the selected sample. Objectives of the research were to determine factors that influence perpetrators of sexual violence to target children, the risk factors of child sexual abuse, the effects of child sexual abuse on the development of the child, and the community prevention measures to minimize the risks of child sexual abuse. The research aimed to understand perspective and experiences of the Ngangelizwe community members on the problem of sexual violence against children and the perpetrator’s perceived motive for sexually abusing children. Convenience non-probability sampling technique was adopted to select 20 participants within the Ngangelizwe Township at Mthatha. Thematic analyses were used to analyse data. It was found that sexual abuse of children affects severely child and parents, while the community reported to be trivially affected by the sexual abuse of a child. The research revealed ignorance of some forms of sexual violence, as the commonly known form of sexual violence was rape. Therefore, ignorance of community members regarding various forms of sexual abuse means that such acts are either ignored, tolerated, or even regarded as acceptable. It thus means that community members cannot reject any actions or behaviour if they themselves are ignorant of what constitutes sexual violence. This study recommends that communities should be educated about different sexual offenses.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, community, childhood attachment, adult attachment

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524 A Critique of Contemporary Sexual Liberation: A Third Way Analysis

Authors: Sydelle Barreto

Abstract:

Sexual liberation has been thought of as a movement, an idea, and an antithesis of material oppression. Within feminism it has consistently resisted definition - different feminist schools of thought had entirely different constructions of what liberated feminine sexuality could look like and how we might get there. This paper will critique the current definition of sexual liberation as being limited and carceral in its perspectives of sexual assault and extremely reductive in its imaginings of sexual liberation. The ultimate goal of this assessment is to potentially outline what true sexual liberation might look like in a way that is inclusive but not ignorant of the realities of the patriarchy. The first critique of sexual liberation included in the paper centers around the limits of consent, carceral feminism and sexual subjectivity. The argument will build off the traditionally sex-negative critiques of consent as being limited in scope by explaining how a lack of nuance is even more dangerous to victims of sexual violations. The discussion will also expand an interrogant of consent to an interrogation of wantedness and desire. If we understand that critiquing the conditions of consent is important, we must also critique the way patriarchy and compulsory sexuality have affected desire. Using the aforementioned concept of compulsory sexuality, the paper will argue that while sexual liberation has begun to include queer and transgender individuals, it is still overwhelmingly allonormative. Sex positivity and its opponents both fail to include asexuality. This ultimately leads to a conflation of sexual liberation with genuine material liberation. Just as we cannot divorce our constructions of sexual liberation from the realities of the patriarchy and rape culture, we should consider compulsory sexuality as its own system of social regulation. The conclusion will begin to construct an alternative vision of sexual liberation, leveraging concepts of sexual subjectivity, including a rejection of carceral feminism as a response to sexual violence, and finally, leading to the beginnings of a deconstruction of compulsory sexuality. The paper concludes with a vision of sexual liberation that does not confuse itself with material liberation or mere sexual oppression, but rather a key way stops on the road to constructing our most authentic sexual selves.

Keywords: feminism, sexual assault, sexual liberation, consent

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
523 The Inhibition of Sexual Pleasure and Its Associations with Cultural Messages

Authors: Fabiola Trejo Perez, Rolando Diaz Loving

Abstract:

Sexual pleasure consists of the positively valued feelings induced by sexual stimuli, but it is also weighed down by pop-psychological baggage, and subjected to cross-cultural and cross-historical variation. Social and individual interpretations of what can or can’t be considered as pleasurable are intertwined with culture’s predominant values, norms and beliefs. For each culture, sexual norms work as a guide to be followed in order to model socially accepted behaviors. Therefore, cultural messages regarding sexuality are usually directed to restrict men and women from enjoyment, sexual satisfaction and specifically orgasm. Given that sexual pleasure hasn’t been recognized as an accepted topic of open discussion, particularly for women, people have to eventually complement their knowledge using their own experience filling in the blanks from what little has been said. Thus, this research aims to identify which are the particular social messages associated with the easing or inhibition of sexual pleasure. Three hundred Mexican men and women ages 25 to 35 years old answered a self-report survey composed by the Inventory of facilitators and inhibitors of sexual pleasure and the Sexual premises questionnaire via pencil-paper and online. Results show a high endorsement to double standard messages associated with higher levels of sexual pleasure inhibitors like feeling pressured to have sexual activity, guilt and inability to reach orgasm, in contrast with people who endorse more permissive norms and beliefs, feeling connected to their sexual partners and confident with themselves. These results illustrate that the shaping of sexuality, from experience to society, is comprised of an important relationship between culture and sexual pleasure.

Keywords: culture, sexual double standard, sexual norms and beliefs, sexual pleasure

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522 A Literature Review on Sexual Abuse Prevention for People with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Hanh Thi My Nguyen, Phuong Thu Dinh

Abstract:

People with intellectual disability are at high risk for sexual abuse. The reasons may originate from their communication skills deficits, lack of skills and knowledge to protect themselves from sexual abuse, or limited access to sexual abuse prevention programs. This article aims to present a systematic review about strategies for preventing sexual abuse for young people with intellectual disability. A range of articles in 10 years from 2009 to 2018 are searched by using online database. 5 papers are included for the final review. The results of this comprehensive literature review showed that there are two main strategies used: programs designed for people with intellectual, including evaluation on sex education programs; and sexual education program for parents of children with intellectual disability. However, none of the papers were conducted in low-and middle-income countries. Therefore, cautions should be taken when it comes to interpret these findings. The findings of studies showed that participants increased their awareness and skills for protecting themselves from sexual abuse after participating in the programs. It is also recommended that more effective evidence-based programs should be developed.

Keywords: intellectual disability, prevention, sexual abuse, sexual education program

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521 Sexual Violence and Persecution That Occurred at the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic Boarding School

Authors: Siamrotul Ayu Masruroh

Abstract:

Cases of sexual violence among Islamic boarding schools have now reached a point of equal concern with other cases of sexual violence that have occurred in universities, schools, offices, mass halls, and even churches. Worse yet, several cases of sexual violence that occurred in Islamic boarding schools were actually carried out by religious authorities such as kyai, caregivers, and ndalem families. This article discusses the phenomenon of cases of sexual violence and mistreatment of victims with cases that occurred in the Shiddiqiyyah Islamic boarding school, the importance of creating a safe space, preventing and dealing with sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools. The author uses the theory of masculinity from Raewyn W. Connell to see sexual violence in Islamic boarding schools and its relation to masculinity and femininity. In addition, the author also uses the spiral theory of violence from Dom Helder Camara to analyze the persecution case. The author conducted a literature study, observation, questionnaire, and interviews in the process of this research.

Keywords: sexual violence, islamic boarding school, safe space, women

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520 An Exploratory Research on Childhood Sexual Victimization and Its Psychological Impacts

Authors: Urwah Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to carry out a meta-analysis in order to establish an overall international figure and to summarize the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child sexual abuse and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the HEC Digital Library, Pub Med, PsycINFO and SAHIL databases published after 2010 containing empirical data pertaining to CSA. Out of 124 articles assessed for eligibility, 32 studies provided evidence of a relationship between sexual child maltreatment and various health outcomes for use in subsequent meta-analyses. Statistical significance associations were observed between childhood sexual victimization and psychological problems in their adulthood [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95%Cl 3.07–4.43]. For most studies included for meta-analysis, the odds ratio falls above 1.00, indicating that patients having history of childhood sexual victimization were more likely to develop psychological disorders.

Keywords: abuse, sexual abuse, childhood sexual abuse, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 276