Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1149

Search results for: vegetable substrate

1149 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi


Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate, sewage sludge

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1148 Characterization of Vegetable Wastes and Its Potential Use for Hydrogen and Methane Production via Dark Anaerobic Fermentation

Authors: Ajay Dwivedi, M. Suresh Kumar, A. N. Vaidya


The problem of fruit and vegetable waste management is a grave one and with ever increasing need to feed the exponentially growing population, more and more solid waste in the form of fruit and vegetables waste are generated and its management has become one of the key issues in protection of environment. Energy generation from fruit and vegetables waste by dark anaerobic fermentation is a recent an interesting avenue effective management of solid waste as well as for generating free and cheap energy. In the present study 17 vegetables were characterized for their physical as well as chemical properties, these characteristics were used to determine the hydrogen and methane potentials of vegetable from various models, and also lab scale batch experiments were performed to determine their actual hydrogen and methane production capacity. Lab scale batch experiments proved that vegetable waste can be used as effective substrate for bio hydrogen and methane production, however the expected yield of bio hydrogen and methane was much lower than predicted by models, this was due to the fact that other vital experimental parameters such as pH, total solids content, food to microorganism ratio was not optimized.

Keywords: vegetable waste, physico-chemical characteristics, hydrogen, methane

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1147 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov


The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: biocomposite, composite, diffusion, polyethylene, vegetable filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1146 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.


Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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1145 Perceptions of Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Regarding Use of Biological Control Practices: A Case Study in Jiroft County, Iran

Authors: Hossein Shabanali Fami, Omid Sharifi, Javad Ghasemi, Mahtab Pouratashi, Mona Sadat Moghadasian


The main purpose of this study was to investigate perception of greenhouse vegetable growers regarding use of biological control practices during the growing season. The statistical population of the study included greenhouse vegetable growers in Jiroft county (N=1862). A sample of 137 vegetable growers was selected, using random sampling method. Data were collected via a questionnaire. The validity of the instrument was obtained by the faculty members of the Department of Agricultural Development and Management in the University of Tehran. Cronbach’s alpha was applied to estimate the reliability which showed a high reliability for the instrument. Data was analyzed using SPSS/Windows 13.5. The results revealed that greenhouse vegetable growers had moderate level of perception regarding biological control practices. Levels of vegetable growers’ perceptions regarding biological control practices were different on the basis of their academic qualifications as well as educational level and job. In addition, the results indicated that about 54.1% of variations in vegetable growers’ perceptions could be explained by variables such as awareness of biological control practices, knowledge on pests, annual production and age.

Keywords: greenhouse, biological control, biological agents, perception, vegetable grower

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1144 Estimation of Cholesterol Level in Different Brands of Vegetable Oils in Iraq

Authors: Mohammed Idaan Hassan Al-Majidi


An analysis of twenty one assorted brands of vegetable oils in Babylon Iraq, reveals varying levels of cholesterol content. Cholesterol was found to be present in most of the oil brands sampled using three standard methods. Cholesterol was detected in seventeen of the vegetable oil brands with concentration of less than 1 mg/ml while seven of the oil brands had cholesterol concentrations ranging between 1-4 mg/ml. Low iodine values were obtained in four of the vegetable oil brands and three of them had high acid values. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of cholesterol at varying concentrations in all the oil brands and gave the lowest detectable cholesterol values in all the oil brands. The Laser brand made from rapeseed had the highest cholesterol concentration of 3.2 mg/ml while Grand brand made from groundnuts had the least concentration (0.12 mg/ml) of cholesterol using HPLC analysis. Leibermann-Burchard method showed that Gino brand from palm kernel had the least concentration of cholesterol (3.86 mg/ml ±0.032) and the highest concentration of 3.996 mg/ml ±0.0404 was obtained in Sesame seed oil brand. This report is important in view of health implications of cholesterol in our diets. Consequently, we have been able to show that there is no cholesterol free oil in the market as shown on the vegetable oil brand labels. Therefore, companies producing and marketing vegetable oils are enjoined to desist from misleading the public by labeling their products as “cholesterol free”. They should indicate the amount of cholesterol present in the vegetable oil, no matter how small the quantity may be.

Keywords: vegetable oils, heart diseases, leibermann-burchard, cholesterol

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1143 Study of Compatibility and Oxidation Stability of Vegetable Insulating Oils

Authors: Helena M. Wilhelm, Paulo O. Fernandes, Laís P. Dill, Kethlyn G. Moscon


The use of vegetable oil (or natural ester) as an insulating fluid in electrical transformers is a trend that aims to contribute to environmental preservation since it is biodegradable and non-toxic. Besides, vegetable oil has high flash and combustion points, being considered a fire safety fluid. However, vegetable oil is usually less stable towards oxidation than mineral oil. Both insulating fluids, mineral and vegetable oils, need to be tested periodically according to specific standards. Oxidation stability can be determined by the induction period measured by conductivity method (Rancimat) by monitoring the effectivity of oil’s antioxidant additives, a methodology already developed for food application and biodiesel but still not standardized for insulating fluids. Besides adequate oxidation stability, fluids must be compatible with transformer's construction materials under normal operating conditions to ensure that damage to the oil and parts of the transformer does not occur. ASTM standard and Brazilian normative differ in parameters evaluated, which reveals the need to regulate tests for each oil type. The aim of this study was to assess oxidation stability and compatibility of vegetable oils to suggest the best way to assure a viable performance of vegetable oil as transformer insulating fluid. The determination of the induction period for several vegetable insulating oils from the local market by using Rancimat was carried out according to BS EN 14112 standard, at different temperatures (110, 120, and 130 °C). Also, the compatibility of vegetable oil was assessed according to ASTM and ABNT NBR standards. The main results showed that the best temperature for use in the Rancimat test is 130 °C, which allows a better observation of conductivity change. The compatibility test results presented differences between vegetable and mineral oil standards that should be taken into account in oil testing since materials compatibility and oxidation stability are essential for equipment reliability.

Keywords: compatibility, Rancimat, natural ester, vegetable oil

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1142 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong


Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: conductivity, perovskite, mobility, TCO film

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1141 1H-NMR Spectra of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends to Evaluate the Quality and Determine the Adulteration of Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil

Authors: Luis F. Bianchessi, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


The use of biodiesel has been diffused in Brazil and all over the world by the trading of biodiesel (B100). In Brazil, the diesel oil currently being sold is a blend, containing 7% biodiesel (B7). In this context, it is necessary to develop methods capable of identifying this blend composition, especially regarding the biodiesel quality used for making these blends. In this study, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR) are proposed as a form of identifying and confirming the quality of type B10 blends (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel). Furthermore, the presence of vegetable oils, which may be from fuel adulteration or as an evidence of low degree of transesterification conversion during the synthesis of B100, may also be identified. Mixtures of diesel, vegetable oils and their respective biodiesel were prepared. Soybean oil and macauba kernel oil were used as raw material. The diesel proportion remained fixed at 90%. The other proportion (10%) was varied in terms of vegetable oil and biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectra were obtained for each one of the mixtures, in order to find a correlation between the spectra and the amount of biodiesel, as well as the amount of residual vegetable oil. The ratio of the integral of the methylenic hydrogen H-2 of glycerol (exclusive of vegetable oil) with respect to the integral of the olefinic hydrogens (present in vegetable oil and biodiesel) was obtained. These ratios were correlated with the percentage of vegetable oil in each mixture, from 0% to 10%. The obtained correlation could be described by linear relationships with R2 of 0.9929 for soybean biodiesel and 0.9982 for macauba kernel biodiesel. Preliminary results show that the technique can be used to monitor the biodiesel quality in commercial diesel-biodiesel blends, besides indicating possible adulteration.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel, biodiesel quality, adulteration

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1140 The Potential Use of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Vegetable Plants

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Application of crude palm oil waste combined to suitable concentration of benzyl-adenine give the significant effect to mean relative growth rate of vegetable plants and the same pattern in net assimilation rate crude palm oil waste has also significantly increased during 28 days old plants. Combination of treatment of suitable concentration of crude palm oil and benzyl adenine increased the growth and production of vegetable plants. The relative growth rate of vegetable plants was rapid 3 weeks after planting and gradually decreased at the end of the harvest time period. Combination of 400 mg.l-1 CPO with 1.0 mgl-1 till 10mgl-1 BA increased the Mean Relative Growth Rate (MRGR), Net assimilation rate (NAR), Leaf area and dry weight of Brassica juncea, Brassica oleraceae and Lactuca sativa.

Keywords: benzyladenine, crude-palm-oil, nutrient, vegetable, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1139 Heavy Metal Contents in Vegetable Oils of Kazakhstan Origin and Life Risk Assessment

Authors: A. E. Mukhametov, M. T. Yerbulekova, D. R. Dautkanova, G. A. Tuyakova, G. Aitkhozhayeva


The accumulation of heavy metals in food is a constant problem in many parts of the world. Vegetable oils are widely used, both for cooking and for processing in the food industry, meeting the main dietary requirements. One of the main chemical pollutants, heavy metals, is usually found in vegetable oils. These chemical pollutants are carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunotoxic, harmful to consumption and have a negative effect on human health even in trace amounts. Residues of these substances can easily accumulate in vegetable oil during cultivation, processing and storage. In this article, the content of the concentration of heavy metal ions in vegetable oils of Kazakhstan production is studied: sunflower, rapeseed, safflower and linseed oil. Heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel, were determined in three repetitions by the method of flame atomic absorption. Analysis of vegetable oil samples revealed that the largest lead contamination (Pb) was determined to be 0.065 mg/kg in linseed oil. The content of cadmium (Cd) in the largest amount of 0.009 mg/kg was found in safflower oil. Arsenic (As) content was determined in rapeseed and safflower oils at 0.003 mg/kg, and arsenic (As) was not detected in linseed and sunflower oil. The nickel (Ni) content in the largest amount of 0.433 mg/kg was in linseed oil. The heavy metal contents in the test samples complied with the requirements of regulatory documents for vegetable oils. An assessment of the health risk of vegetable oils with a daily consumption of 36 g per day shows that all samples of vegetable oils produced in Kazakhstan are safe for consumption. But further monitoring is needed, since all these metals are toxic and their harmful effects become apparent only after several years of exposure.

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil, safflower oil, toxic metals, food safety, rape oil

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1138 Production of Rhamnolipids from Different Resources and Estimating the Kinetic Parameters for Bioreactor Design

Authors: Olfat A. Mohamed


Rhamnolipids biosurfactants have distinct properties given them importance in many industrial applications, especially their great new future applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These applications have encouraged the search for diverse and renewable resources to control the cost of production. The experimental results were then applied to find a suitable mathematical model for obtaining the design criteria of the batch bioreactor. This research aims to produce Rhamnolipids from different oily wastewater sources such as petroleum crude oil (PO) and vegetable oil (VO) by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Different concentrations of the PO and the VO are added to the media broth separately are in arrangement (0.5 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 % v/v) and (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%v/v). The effect of the initial concentration of oil residues and the addition of glycerol and palmitic acid was investigated as an inducer in the production of rhamnolipid and the surface tension of the broth. It was found that 2% of the waste (PO) and 6% of the waste (VO) was the best initial substrate concentration for the production of rhamnolipids (2.71, 5.01 g rhamnolipid/l) as arrangement. Addition of glycerol (10-20% v glycerol/v PO) to the 2% PO fermentation broth led to increase the rhamnolipid production (about 1.8-2 times fold). However, the addition of palmitic acid (5 and 10 g/l) to fermentation broth contained 6% VO rarely enhanced the production rate. The experimental data for 2% initially (PO) was used to estimate the various kinetic parameters. The following results were obtained, maximum rate or velocity of reaction (Vmax) = 0.06417 g/, yield of cell weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Yx/s = 0.324 g Cx/g Cs) maximum specific growth rate (μmax = 0.05791 hr⁻¹), yield of rhamnolipid weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Yp/s)=0.2571gCp/g Cs), maintenance coefficient (Ms =0.002419), Michaelis-Menten constant, (Km=6.1237 gmol/l), endogenous decay coefficient (Kd=0.002375 hr⁻¹). Predictive parameters and advanced mathematical models were applied to evaluate the time of the batch bioreactor. The results were as follows: 123.37, 129 and 139.3 hours in respect of microbial biomass, substrate and product concentration, respectively compared with experimental batch time of 120 hours in all cases. The expected mathematical models are compatible with the laboratory results and can, therefore, be considered as tools for expressing the actual system.

Keywords: batch bioreactor design, glycerol, kinetic parameters, petroleum crude oil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rhamnolipids biosurfactants, vegetable oil

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1137 Econometric Analysis of Organic Vegetable Production in Turkey

Authors: Ersin Karakaya, Halit Tutar


Reliable foods must be consumed in terms of healthy nutrition. The production and dissemination of diatom products in Turkey is rapidly evolving on the basis of preserving ecological balance, ensuring sustainability in agriculture and offering quality, reliable products to consumers. In this study, year in Turkey as (2002- 2015) to determine values of such as cultivated land of organic vegetable production, production levels, production quantity, number of products, number of farmers. It is intended to make the econometric analysis of the factors affecting the production of organic vegetable production (Number of products, Number of farmers and cultivated land). The main material of the study has created secondary data in relation to the 2002-2015 period as organic vegetable production in Turkey and regression analysis of the factors affecting the value of production of organic vegetable is determined by the Least Squares Method with EViews statistical software package.

Keywords: number of farmers, cultivated land, Eviews, Turkey

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1136 An Assessment of Vegetable Farmers’ Perceptions about Post-harvest Loss Sources in Ghana

Authors: Kofi Kyei, Kenchi Matsui


Loss of vegetable products has been a major constraint in the post-harvest chain. Sources of post-harvest loss in the vegetable industry start from the time of harvesting to its handling and at the various market centers. Identifying vegetable farmers’ perceptions about post-harvest loss sources is one way of addressing this issue. In this paper, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about sources of post-harvest losses in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We also identified the factors that influence their perceptions. To clearly understand farmers’ perceptions, we selected Sekyere-Kumawu District in the Ashanti Region. Sekyere-Kumawu District is one of the major producers of vegetables in the Region. Based on a questionnaire survey, 100 vegetable farmers growing tomato, pepper, okra, cabbage, and garden egg were purposely selected from five communities in Sekyere-Kumawu District. For farmers’ perceptions, the five points Likert scale was employed. On a scale from 1 (no loss) to 5 (extremely high loss), we processed the scores for each vegetable harvest. To clarify factors influencing farmers’ perceptions, the Pearson Correlation analysis was used. Our findings revealed that farmers perceive post-harvest loss by pest infestation as the most extreme loss. However, vegetable farmers did not perceive loss during transportation as a serious source of post-harvest loss. The Pearson Correlation analysis results further revealed that farmers’ age, gender, level of education, and years of experience had an influence on their perceptions. This paper then discusses some recommendations to minimize the post-harvest loss in the region.

Keywords: Ashanti Region, pest infestation, post-harvest loss, vegetable farmers

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1135 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi


In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

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1134 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran


The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

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1133 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün


Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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1132 An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid

Authors: Celal Kocatepe, Eyup Taslak, Celal Fadil Kumru, Oktay Arikan


While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, dielectric dissipation factor, mineral oil, vegetable oils

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1131 Continuous Production of Prebiotic Pectic Oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pulp in a Continuous Cross Flow Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Neha Babbar, S. Van Roy, W. Dejonghe, S. Sforza, K. Elst


Pectic oligosaccharides (a class of prebiotics) are non-digestible carbohydrates which benefits the host by stimulating the growth of healthy gut micro flora. Production of prebiotic pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from pectin rich agricultural residues involves a cutting of long chain polymer of pectin to oligomers of pectin while avoiding the formation of monosaccharides. The objective of the present study is to develop a two-step continuous biocatalytic membrane reactor (MER) for the continuous production of POS (from sugar beet pulp) in which conversion is combined with separation. Optimization of the ratio of POS/monosaccharides, stability and productivities of the process was done by testing various residence times (RT) in the reactor vessel with diluted (10 RT, 20 RT, and 30 RT) and undiluted (30 RT, 40 RT and 60 RT) substrate. The results show that the most stable processes (steady state) were 20 RT and 30 RT for diluted substrate and 40 RT and 60 RT for undiluted substrate. The highest volumetric and specific productivities of 20 g/L/h and 11 g/gE/h; 17 g/l/h and 9 g/gE/h were respectively obtained with 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate). Under these conditions, the permeates of the reactor test with 20 RT (diluted substrate) consisted of 80 % POS fractions while that of 40 RT (undiluted substrate) resulted in 70% POS fractions. A two-step continuous biocatalytic MER for the continuous POS production looks very promising for the continuous production of tailor made POS. Although both the processes i.e 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate) gave the best results, but for an Industrial application it is preferable to use an undiluted substrate.

Keywords: pectic oligosaccharides, membrane reactor, residence time, specific productivity, volumetric productivity

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1130 Effects of Ultraviolet Treatment on Microbiological Load and Phenolic Content of Vegetable Juice

Authors: Kubra Dogan, Fatih Tornuk


Due to increasing consumer demand for the high-quality food products and awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food minimal processing becomes more popular in modern food preservation. To date, heat treatment is often used for inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in foods. However, it may cause significant changes in the quality and nutritional properties of food. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of heat treatment, several alternatives of non-thermal microbial inactivation processes have been investigated. Ultraviolet (UV) inactivation is a promising and feasible method for better quality and longer shelf life as an alternative to heat treatment, which aims to inhibit spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and to inactivate the enzymes in vegetable juice production. UV-C is a sub-class of UV treatment which shows the highest microcidal effect between 250-270 nm. The wavelength of 254 nm is used for the surface disinfection of certain liquid food products such as vegetable juice. Effects of UV-C treatment on microbiological load and quality parameter of vegetable juice which is a mix of celery, carrot, lemon and orange was investigated. Our results showed that storing of UV-C applied vegetable juice for three months, reduced the count of TMAB by 3.5 log cfu/g and yeast-mold by 2 log cfu/g compared to control sample. Total phenolic content was found to be 514.3 ± 0.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/L, and there wasn’t a significant difference compared to control. The present work suggests that UV-C treatment is an alternative method for disinfection of vegetable juice since it enables adequate microbial inactivation, longer shelf life and has minimal effect on degradation of quality parameters of vegetable juice.

Keywords: heat treatment, phenolic content, shelf life, ultraviolet (UV-C), vegetable juice

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1129 Critical Success Factor of Exporting Thailand’s Ginger to Japan

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam, Manop Tirastittam


Thailand is the agriculture country which mainly exports the agriculture product to the other countries in so many ways which are fresh vegetable, chilled vegetable or frozen vegetable. The gross export for Thailand’s vegetable is 30-40 billion baht per year, and the growth rate is about 15-20 percent per year. Ginger is one of the main vegetable product that Thailand export to Japan because Thailand’s Ginger has a good quality and be able to supply Japan’s demand with a reasonable price. This research paper is aimed to study the factors which affect the efficiency of the supply chain process of Thailand’s ginger to Japan. There are 5 factors which related to the exporting Thailand’s ginger to Japan which are quality, price, equipment and supply standard, custom process and distribution pattern. The result of the research showed that the factor which reached the 'very good' significant level is quality of Thailand’s ginger with the score of 4.86. The other 5 factors are in the 'good' significant level. So the most important factor for Thai ginger farmer to concern is the quality of the product.

Keywords: critical success factor, export, ginger, supply chain

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1128 Mathematical Modeling of Bi-Substrate Enzymatic Reactions in the Presence of Different Types of Inhibitors

Authors: Rafayel Azizyan, Valeri Arakelyan, Aram Gevorgyan, Varduhi Balayan, Emil Gevorgyan


Currently, mathematical and computer modeling are widely used in different biological studies to predict or assess behavior of such complex systems as biological ones. This study deals with mathematical and computer modeling of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, which play an important role in different biochemical pathways. The main objective of this study is to represent the results from in silico investigation of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions in the presence of uncompetitive inhibitors, as well as to describe in details the inhibition effects. Four models of uncompetitive inhibition were designed using different software packages. Particularly, uncompetitive inhibitor to the first [ES1] and the second ([ES1S2]; [FS2]) enzyme-substrate complexes have been studied. The simulation, using the same kinetic parameters for all models allowed investigating the behavior of reactions as well as determined some interesting aspects concerning influence of different cases of uncompetitive inhibition. Besides that shown, that uncompetitive inhibitors exhibit specific selectivity depending on mechanism of bi-substrate enzymatic reaction.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, reversible inhibition

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1127 In2S3 Buffer Layer Properties for Thin Film Solar Cells Based on CIGS Absorber

Authors: A. Bouloufa, K. Djessas


In this paper, we reported the effect of substrate temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of In2S3 thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by physical vapor deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The In2Se3 material used for deposition was synthesized from its constituent elements. It was found that all samples exhibit one phase which corresponds to β-In2S3 phase. Values of band gap energy of the films obtained at different substrate temperatures vary in the range of 2.38-2.80 eV and decrease with increasing substrate temperature.

Keywords: buffer layer, In2S3, optical properties, PVD, structural properties

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1126 Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Varieties of Vegetable oils Consumed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Health Risk Assessment of Local Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf


Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 µg/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population.

Keywords: vegetable oils, heavy metals, contamination, health risk assessment

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1125 Surface Integration Effect on Mechanical and Piezoelectric Properties of ZnO

Authors: A. Khan, M. Hussain, S. Afgun


In the present work, the effect of the surface integration on the piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown by using aqueous chemical growth method on two samples of graphene coated pet plastic substrate. First substrate’s surface was integrated with ZnO nanoparticles while the other substrate was used without ZnO nanoparticles. Various important parameters were analyzed, the growth density and morphological analysis were taken into account through surface scanning electron microscopy; it was observed that the growth density of nanorods on the integrated surface was much higher than the nonintegrated substrate. The crystal quality of growth orientation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods on an integrated substrate was more appropriate than the nonintegrated substrate. The generated amount of piezoelectric potential from the integrated substrate was two times higher than the nonintegrated substrate. This shows that the layer of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in the enhancement of piezoelectric potential. Besides this, it also improves the performance of fabricated devices like its mechanical stability and piezoelectric properties. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the other two samples used for the growth of ZnO nanorods on silver coated glass substrates for similar measurement. The consistency of the results verified the importance of surface integration effect. This study will help us to fabricate improved performance devices by using surface integrated substrates.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, surface integration, mechanical properties, harvesting piezoelectricity

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1124 Device for Thermal Depolymerisation of Organic Substrates Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński


This publication presents a device designed to depolymerise and structurally change organic substrate, for use in agricultural biogas plants or sewage treatment plants. The presented device consists of a heated tank equipped with an inlet valve for the crude substrate and an outlet valve for the treated substrate. The system also includes a gas conduit, which is at its tip equipped with a high-pressure solenoid valve and a vacuum relief solenoid valve. A conduit behind the high-pressure solenoid valve connects to the vacuum tank equipped with the outlet valve. The substrate introduced into the device is exposed to agents such as high temperature and cavitation produced by abrupt, short-term reduction of pressure within the heated tank. The combined effect of these processes is substrate destruction rate increase of about 20% when compared to using high temperature alone, and about 30% when compared to utilizing only cavitation. Energy consumption is greatly reduced, as the pressure increase is generated by heating the substrate. Thus, there is a 18% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a device designed to destroy substrate through high temperature alone, and a 35% reduction if compared to using cavitation as the only means of destruction.

Keywords: thermal depolymerisation, organic substrate, biogas, pre-treatment

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1123 Assessment of the Quality of a Mixture of Vegetable Oils from Kazakhstan Origin

Authors: Almas Mukhametov, Dina Dautkanova, Moldir Yerbulekova, Gulim Tuyakova, Raziya Zhakudaeva, Makpal Seisenaly, Asemay Kazhymurat


The composition of samples of mixtures of vegetable oils of Kazakhstan origin, consisting of sunflower, safflower and linseed oils, has been experimentally substantiated. With an approximate optimal ratio of w-6:w-3 fatty acids in 80:15:05 triacylglycerols, providing its therapeutic and prophylactic properties. The resulting mixture can be used in the development of functional products. The result was also identified and evaluated by physical and chemical quality indicators, the content of vitamin E, and the concentration of ions of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), as well as mercury (Hg).

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower, safflower, linseed, mixture, fatty acid composition, heavy metals

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1122 Heater and Substrate Profile Optimization for Low Power Portable Breathalyzer to Diagnose Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ramji Kalidoss, Snekhalatha Umapathy, V. Dhinakaran, J. M. Mathana


Chemi-resistive sensors used in breathalyzers have become a hotspot between the international breath research communities. These sensors exhibit a significant change in its resistance depending on the temperature it gets heated thus demanding high power leading to non-portable instrumentation. In this work, numerical simulation to identify the suitable combination of substrate and heater profile using COMSOL multiphysics was studied. Ni-Cr and Pt-100 joule resistive heater with various profiles were studied beneath the square and circular alumina substrates. The temperature distribution was uniform throughout the square substrate with the meander shaped pt100 heater with 48 mW power consumption for 200 oC. Moreover, this heater profile induced minimal stress on the substrate with 0.5 mm thick. A novel Graphene based ternary metal oxide nanocomposite (GO/SnO2/TiO2) was coated on the optimized substrate and heater to elucidate the response of diabetes biomarker (acetone). The sensor exhibited superior gas sensing performance towards acetone in the exhaled breath concentration range for diabetes (0.25 – 3 ppm). These results indicated the importance of substrate and heater properties along with sensing material for low power portable breathalyzers.

Keywords: Breath Analysis, Chemical Sensors, Diabetes Mellitus, Graphene Nanocomposites, Heater, Substrate

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1121 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga


Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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1120 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles in the Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians comfort and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20 V generated by a thread of 2,5 mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamics, vehicle drag, vegetable oil, wind tunnel

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