Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: ellipsometry

15 Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry

Authors: Aïssa Manallah, Mohamed Bouafia


Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.

Keywords: ellipsometry, optical constants, semiconductors, thin films

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14 Optical Characterization of Anisotropic Thiophene-Phenylene Co-Oligomer Micro Crystals by Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry

Authors: Christian Röling, Elena Y. Poimanova, Vladimir V. Bruevich


Here we demonstrate a non-destructive optical technique to localize and characterize single crystals of semiconductive organic materials – Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry. With a combination of microscopy and ellipsometry, it is possible to characterize even micro-sized thin film crystals on plane surface regarding anisotropy, optical properties, crystalline domains and thickness. The semiconducting thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer 1,4-bis(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzene (dHex-TTPTT) crystals were grown by solvent based self-assembly technique on silicon substrate with 300 nm thermally silicon dioxide. The ellipsometric measurements were performed with an Ep4-SE (Accurion). In an ellipsometric high-contrast image of the complete sample, we have localized high-quality single crystals. After demonstrating the uniaxial anisotropy of the crystal by using Müller-Matrix imaging ellipsometry, we determined the optical axes by rotating the sample and performed spectroscopic measurements (λ = 400-700 nm) in 5 nm intervals. The optical properties were described by using a Lorentz term in the Ep4-Model. After determining the dispersion of the crystals, we converted a recorded Delta and Psi-map into a 2D thickness image. Based on a quantitative analysis of the resulting thickness map, we have calculated the height of a molecular layer (3.49 nm).

Keywords: anisotropy, ellipsometry, SCFET, thin film

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13 Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry

Authors: K. Kefif, Y. Bouizem, A. Belfedal, D. J. Sib, K. Zellama, l. Chahed


Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.

Keywords: Silicon, Thin films, Structural properties, Raman spectroscopy, Ellipsometry

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12 Effective Medium Approximations for Modeling Ellipsometric Responses from Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) Tribofilms Formed on Sliding Surfaces

Authors: Maria Miranda-Medina, Sara Salopek, Andras Vernes, Martin Jech


Sliding lubricated surfaces induce the formation of tribofilms that reduce friction, wear and prevent large-scale damage of contact parts. Engine oils and lubricants use antiwear and antioxidant additives such as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) from where protective tribofilms are formed by degradation. The ZDDP tribofilms are described as a two-layer structure composed of inorganic polymer material. On the top surface, the long chain polyphosphate is a zinc phosphate and in the bulk, the short chain polyphosphate is a mixed Fe/Zn phosphate with a gradient concentration. The polyphosphate chains are partially adherent to steel surface through a sulfide and work as anti-wear pads. In this contribution, ZDDP tribofilms formed on gray cast iron surfaces are studied. The tribofilms were generated in a reciprocating sliding tribometer with a piston ring-cylinder liner configuration. Fully formulated oil of SAE grade 5W-30 was used as lubricant during two tests at 40Hz and 50Hz. For the estimation of the tribofilm thicknesses, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used due to its high accuracy and non-destructive nature. Ellipsometry works under an optical principle where the change in polarisation of light reflected by the surface, is associated with the refractive index of the surface material or to the thickness of the layer deposited on top. Ellipsometrical responses derived from tribofilms are modelled by effective medium approximation (EMA), which includes the refractive index of involved materials, homogeneity of the film and thickness. The materials composition was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies, where the presence of ZDDP, O and C was confirmed. From EMA models it was concluded that tribofilms formed at 40 Hz are thicker and more homogeneous than the ones formed at 50 Hz. In addition, the refractive index of each material is mixed to derive an effective refractive index that describes the optical composition of the tribofilm and exhibits a maximum response in the UV range, being a characteristic of glassy semitransparent films.

Keywords: effective medium approximation, reciprocating sliding tribometer, spectroscopic ellipsometry, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate

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11 The Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical of Nano-Crystalline Tin Doped-Cadmium Telluride Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Eman A. Alghamdi, A. M. Aldhafiri


It was found that the induce an isolated dopant close to the middle of the bandgap by occupying the Cd position in the CdTe lattice structure is an efficient factor in reducing the nonradiative recombination rate and increasing the solar efficiency. According to our laboratory results, this work has been carried out to obtain the effect of substrate temperature on the CdTe0.6Sn0.4 prepared by thermal evaporation technique for photovoltaic application. Various substrate temperature (25°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C) was applied. Sn-doped CdTe thin films on a glass substrate at a different substrate temperature were made using CdTe and SnTe powders by the thermal evaporation technique. The structural properties of the prepared samples were determined using Raman, x-Ray Diffraction. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometric measurements were conducted to extract the optical constants as a function of substrate temperature. The structural properties of the grown films show hexagonal and cubic mixed structures and phase change has been reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reviled that a homogenous with a bigger grain size was obtained at 250°C substrate temperature. The conductivity measurements were recorded as a function of substrate temperatures. The open-circuit voltage was improved by controlling the substrate temperature due to the improvement of the fundamental material issues such as recombination and low carrier concentration. All the result was explained and discussed on the biases of the influences of the Sn dopant and the substrate temperature on the structural, optical and photovoltaic characteristics.

Keywords: CdTe, conductivity, photovoltaic, ellipsometry

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10 Mechanical and Optical Properties of Doped Aluminum Nitride Thin Films

Authors: Padmalochan Panda, R. Ramaseshan


Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a potential candidate for semiconductor industry due to its wide band gap (6.2 eV), high thermal conductivity and low thermal coefficient of expansion. A-plane oriented AlN film finds an important role in deep UV-LED with higher isotropic light extraction efficiency. Also, Cr-doped AlN films exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor property with high Curie temperature (300 K), and thus compatible with modern day microelectronics. In this work, highly a-axis oriented wurtzite AlN and Al1-xMxN (M = Cr, Ti) films have synthesized by reactive co-sputtering technique at different concentration. Crystal structure of these films is studied by Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Identification of binding energy and concentration (x) in these films is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Local crystal structure around the Cr and Ti atom of these films are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is found that Cr and Ti replace the Al atom in AlN lattice and the bond lengths in first and second coordination sphere with N and Al, respectively, decrease concerning doping concentration due to strong p-d hybridization. The nano-indentation hardness of Cr and Ti-doped AlN films seems to increase from 17.5 GPa (AlN) to around 23 and 27.5 GPa, respectively. An-isotropic optical properties of these films are studied by the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry technique. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of these films are enhanced in normal dispersion region as compared to the parent AlN film. The optical band gap energies also seem to vary between deep UV to UV regions with the addition of Cr, thus by bringing out the usefulness of these films in the area of optoelectronic device applications.

Keywords: ellipsometry, GIXRD, hardness, XAS

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9 New Neuroplasmonic Sensor Based on Soft Nanolithography

Authors: Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi, Nasrin Asgari, Foozieh Sohrabi, Mohammad Ali Ansari


New neuro plasmonic sensor based on one dimensional plasmonic nano-grating has been prepared. To record neural activity, the sample has been exposed under different infrared laser and then has been calculated by ellipsometry parameters. Our results show that we have efficient sensitivity to different laser excitation.

Keywords: neural activity, Plasmonic sensor, Nanograting, Gold thin film

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8 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman


Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

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7 Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

Authors: Janella Salamania, Marcedon Fernandez, Matthew Villanueva Henry Ramos


Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.

Keywords: coatings, nitrides, coatings, reactive magnetron sputtering, thin films

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6 The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, K. Komatsu, S. Ohshio, H. Saitoh


Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.

Keywords: negative bias voltage, a-C:H film, oxygen contamination, optical properties

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5 Understanding the Impact of Li- bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide Doping on Spiro-OMeTAD Properties and Perovskite Solar Cell Performance

Authors: Martin C. Eze, Gao Min


Lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI) dopant is beneficial in improving the properties of 2,2′,7,7′-Tetrakis (N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spiro-bifluorene (Spiro-OMETAD) transport layer used in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Properties such as electrical conductivity, band energy mismatch, and refractive index of Spiro-OMETAD layers are believed to play key roles in PSCs performance but only the dependence of electrical conductivity on Li-TFSI doping has been extensively studied. In this work, the effect of Li-TFSI doping level on highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, electrical conductivity, and refractive index of Spiro-OMETAD film and PSC performance was demonstrated. The Spiro-OMETAD films were spin-coated at 4000 rpm for 30 seconds from solutions containing 73.4 mM of Spiro-OMeTAD, 23.6 mM of 4-tert-butylpyridine, 7.6 mM of tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert-butylpyridine) cobalt(III) tri[bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide] (FK209) dopant and Li-TFSI dopant varying from 37 to 62 mM in 1 ml of chlorobenzene. From ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), ellipsometry, and 4-probe studies, the results show that films deposition from Spiro-OMETAD solution doped with 40 mM of Li-TFSI shows the highest electrical conductivity of 6.35×10-6 S/cm, the refractive index of 1.87 at 632.32 nm, HOMO energy of -5.22 eV and the lowest HOMO energy mismatch of 0.21 eV compared to HOMO energy of perovskite layer. The PSCs fabricated show the best power conversion efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor of 17.10 %, 1.1 V, and 70.12%, respectively, for devices based on Spiro-OMETAD solution doped with 40 mM of Li-TFSI. This study demonstrates that the optimum Spiro-OMETAD/ Li-TFSI doping ratio of 1.84 is the optimum doping level for Spiro-OMETAD layer preparation.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, homo energy mismatch, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, power conversion efficiency, refractive index

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4 Determination of Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Nanosensors

Authors: Y. Saylan, F. Yılmaz, A. Denizli


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is the most common autoimmune disorder of the body's own immune system attacking healthy cells. RA has both articular and systemic effects.Until now romatiod factor (RF) assay is used the most commonly diagnosed RA but it is not specific. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are IgG autoantibodies which recognize citrullinated peptides and offer improved specificity in early diagnosis of RA compared to RF. Anti-CCP antibodies have specificity for the diagnosis of RA from 91 to 98% and the sensitivity rate of 41-68%. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are materials that are easy to prepare, less expensive, stable have a talent for molecular recognition and also can be manufactured in large quantities with good reproducibility. Molecular recognition-based adsorption techniques have received much attention in several fields because of their high selectivity for target molecules. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is an effective, simple, inexpensive approach mass changes that can be converted into an electrical signal. The applications for specific determination of chemical substances or biomolecules, crystal electrodes, cover by the thin films for bind or adsorption of molecules. In this study, we have focused our attention on combining of molecular imprinting into nanofilms and QCM nanosensor approaches and producing QCM nanosensor for anti-CCP, chosen as a model protein, using anti-CCP imprinted nanofilms. For this aim, anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry. The non-imprinted nanosensor was also prepared to evaluate the selectivity of the imprinted nanosensor. Anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of anti-CCP from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using anti-CCP solutions with different concentrations. The responses related with mass shifts (Δm) and frequency shifts (Δf) were used to evaluate adsorption properties and to calculate binding (Ka) and dissociation (Kd) constants. To show the selectivity of the anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor, competitive adsorption of anti-CCP and IgM was investigated.The results indicate that anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor has a higher adsorption capabilities for anti-CCP than for IgM, due to selective cavities in the polymer structure.

Keywords: anti-CCP, molecular imprinting, nanosensor, rheumatoid arthritis, QCM

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3 Compositional Influence in the Photovoltaic Properties of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Films

Authors: Brajendra S. Sengar, Vivek Garg, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee


The optimal band gap (~ 1 to 1.5 eV) and high absorption coefficient ~104 cm⁻¹ has made Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ (CZTSSe) films as one of the most promising absorber materials in thin-film photovoltaics. Additionally, CZTSSe consists of elements that are abundant and non-toxic, makes it even more favourable. The CZTSSe thin films are grown at 100 to 500ᵒC substrate temperature (Tsub) on Soda lime glass (SLG) substrate by Elettrorava dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) system by utilizing a target at 2.43x10⁻⁴ mbar working pressure with RF power of 45 W in argon ambient. The chemical composition, depth profiling, structural properties and optical properties of these CZTSSe thin films prepared on SLG were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Oxford Instruments), Hiden secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) workstation with oxygen ion gun of energy up to 5 keV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) (Rigaku Cu Kα radiation, λ=.154nm) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE, M-2000D from J. A. Woollam Co., Inc). It is observed that from that, the thin films deposited at Tsub=200 and 300°C show Cu-poor and Zn-rich states (i.e., Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 1 and Zn/Sn > 1), which is not the case for films grown at other Tsub. It has been reported that the CZTSSe thin films with the highest efficiency are typically at Cu-poor and Zn-rich states. The values of band gap in the fundamental absorption region of CZTSSe are found to be in the range of 1.23-1.70 eV depending upon the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. It is also observed that there is a decline in optical band gap with the increase in Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio (evaluated from EDX measurement). Cu-poor films are found to have higher optical band gap than Cu-rich films. The decrease in the band gap with the increase in Cu content in case of CZTSSe films may be attributed to changes in the extent of p-d hybridization between Cu d-levels and (S, Se) p-levels. CZTSSe thin films with Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio in the range 0.86–1.5 have been successfully deposited using DIBS. Optical band gap of the films is found to vary from 1.23 to 1.70 eV based on Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. CZTSe films with Cu/ (Zn+Sn) ratio of .86 are found to have optical band gap close to the ideal band gap (1.49 eV) for highest theoretical conversion efficiency. Thus by tailoring the value of Cu/(Zn+Sn), CZTSSe thin films with the desired band gap could be obtained. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B. S. S and A. K. acknowledge CSIR, and V. G. acknowledges UGC, India for their fellowships. B. S. S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: CZTSSe, DIBS, EDX, solar cell

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2 Biomimicked Nano-Structured Coating Elaboration by Soft Chemistry Route for Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Uses

Authors: Elodie Niemiec, Philippe Champagne, Jean-Francois Blach, Philippe Moreau, Anthony Thuault, Arnaud Tricoteaux


Hygiene of equipment in contact with users is an important issue in the railroad industry. The numerous cleanings to eliminate bacteria and dirt cost a lot. Besides, mechanical solicitations on contact parts are observed daily. It should be interesting to elaborate on a self-cleaning and antibacterial coating with sufficient adhesion and good resistance against mechanical and chemical solicitations. Thus, a Hauts-de-France and Maubeuge Val-de-Sambre conurbation authority co-financed Ph.D. thesis has been set up since October 2017 based on anterior studies carried by the Laboratory of Ceramic Materials and Processing. To accomplish this task, a soft chemical route has been implemented to bring a lotus effect on metallic substrates. It involves nanometric liquid zinc oxide synthesis under 100°C. The originality here consists in a variation of surface texturing by modification of the synthesis time of the species in solution. This helps to adjust wettability. Nanostructured zinc oxide has been chosen because of the inherent photocatalytic effect, which can activate organic substance degradation. Two methods of heating have been compared: conventional and microwave assistance. Tested subtracts are made of stainless steel to conform to transport uses. Substrate preparation was the first step of this protocol: a meticulous cleaning of the samples is applied. The main goal of the elaboration protocol is to fix enough zinc-based seeds to make them grow during the next step as desired (nanorod shaped). To improve this adhesion, a silica gel has been formulated and optimized to ensure chemical bonding between substrate and zinc seeds. The last step consists of deposing a wide carbonated organosilane to improve the superhydrophobic property of the coating. The quasi-proportionality between the reaction time and the nanorod length will be demonstrated. Water Contact (superior to 150°) and Roll-off Angle at different steps of the process will be presented. The antibacterial effect has been proved with Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Bacillus Subtilis. The mortality rate is found to be four times superior to a non-treated substrate. Photocatalytic experiences were carried out from different dyed solutions in contact with treated samples under UV irradiation. Spectroscopic measurements allow to determinate times of degradation according to the zinc quantity available on the surface. The final coating obtained is, therefore, not a monolayer but rather a set of amorphous/crystalline/amorphous layers that have been characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We will show that the thickness of the nanostructured oxide layer depends essentially on the synthesis time set in the hydrothermal growth step. A green, easy-to-process and control coating with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties has been synthesized with a satisfying surface structuration.

Keywords: antibacterial, biomimetism, soft-chemistry, zinc oxide

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1 An Investigation on the Suitability of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered GMZO Thin Films: For All Sputtered Buffer-Less Solar Cells

Authors: Vivek Garg, Brajendra S. Sengar, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shailendra Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee


CuInGaSe (CIGSe) is the dominant thin film solar cell technology. The band alignment of Buffer/CIGSe interface is one of the most crucial parameters for solar cell performance. In this article, the valence band offset (VBOff) and conduction band offset (CBOff) values of Cu(In0.70Ga0.30)Se/ 1 at.% Ga: Mg0.25Zn0.75O (GMZO) heterojunction, grown by dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS), are calculated to understand the carrier transport mechanism at the heterojunction for the realization of all sputtered buffer-less solar cells. To determine the valence band offset (VBOff), ∆E_V at GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction interface, the standard method based on core-level photoemission is utilized. The value of ∆E_V can be evaluated by considering common core-level peaks. In our study, the values of (Valence band onset)VBOn, obtained by linear extrapolation method for GMZO and CIGSe films are calculated to be 2.86 and 0.76 eV. In the UPS spectra peak positions of Se 3d is observed in UPS spectra at 54.82 and 54.7 eV for CIGSe film and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively, while the peak position of Mg 2p is observed at 50.09 and 50.12 eV for GMZO and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively. The optical band gap of CIGSe and GMZO are obtained from absorption spectra procured from spectroscopic ellipsometry are 1.26 and 3.84 eV respectively. The calculated average values of ∆E_v and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. We investigated the band-offset properties at the GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction to verify the suitability of the GMZO for the realization of the buffer-less solar cells. The calculated average values of ∆E_V and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B.S.S and A.K acknowledge CSIR and V.G acknowledge UGC, India for their fellowships. B.S.S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: CIGSe, DIBS, GMZO, solar cells, UPS

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