Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13822

Search results for: residence time

13822 Torrefaction of Spelt Husks to Increase Its Fuel Properties

Authors: Abubakar Halidu, Paul E. Bilsborrow, Anh N. Phan

Abstract:

Torrefaction is a term that refers to the moderate pyrolysis of biomass at temperatures between 200 and 300oC in an oxygen-free environment to boost its heating value, grindability, and storability. This process can also be used as a pre-treatment for other thermochemical processes. The torrefaction of spelt husks was carried out at temperatures of 200, 250, and 300oC in an inert nitrogen environment with a heating rate of 20oC.min-1 and a residence time of 15–60 min, respectively. We examined the influence of torrefaction temperatures and residence time. The results indicated that increasing the torrefaction temperature increased the higher heating values (HHV) and improved grindability. Torrefied spelt husks at 300oC for 15 minutes exhibited the highest increase in HHV at 30.88 MJ kg-1, compared to non-torrefied spelt husks at 17.56 MJ kg-1.

Keywords: grindability, higher heating value, residence time, temperature, torrefaction

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13821 Growth of Struvite Crystals in Synthetic Urine Using Magnesium Nitrate

Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Urine diversion toilets have become popular as a means of solving the challenges in sanitation. As a result, the source-separated urine must be adequately treated so that it can be disposed of safely and valuable struvite can be extracted for use as fertilizer. In this study, synthetic urine was prepared, and struvite crystallisation experiments carried out using magnesium nitrate. The effect of residence time on crystal growth was studied. At residence time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes, mean particle sizes were 17, 34 and 53 µm showing that with higher residence times, larger crystal sizes can be achieved. SEM analysis of the crystal showed that the resultant crystals had the typical morphology of struvite crystals.

Keywords: struvite, magnesium nitrate, crystallisation, urine treatment

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13820 Effects of Residence Time on Selective Absorption of Hydrogen Suphide

Authors: Dara Satyadileep, Abdallah S. Berrouk

Abstract:

Selective absorption of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) using methyldiethanol amine (MDEA) has become a point of interest as means of minimizing capital and operating costs of gas sweetening plants. This paper discusses the prominence of optimum design of column internals to best achieve H2S selectivity using MDEA. To this end, a kinetics-based process simulation model has been developed for a commercial gas sweetening unit. Trends of sweet gas H2S & CO2 contents as function of fraction active area (and hence residence time) have been explained through analysis of interdependent heat and mass transfer phenomena. Guidelines for column internals design in order to achieve desired degree of H2S selectivity are provided. Also the effectiveness of various operating conditions in achieving H2S selectivity for an industrial absorber with fixed internals is investigated.

Keywords: gas sweetening, H2S selectivity, methyldiethanol amine, process simulation, residence time

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13819 A Comparative Assessment of Membrane Bioscrubber and Classical Bioscrubber for Biogas Purification

Authors: Ebrahim Tilahun, Erkan Sahinkaya, Bariş Calli̇

Abstract:

Raw biogas is a valuable renewable energy source however it usually needs removal of the impurities. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas has detrimental corrosion effects on the cogeneration units. Removal of H2S from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the biogas quality. In this work, a conventional bioscrubber (CBS), and a dense membrane bioscrubber (DMBS) were comparatively evaluated in terms of H2S removal efficiency (RE), CH4 enrichment and alkaline consumption at gas residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Both bioscrubbers were fed with a synthetic biogas containing H2S (1%), CO2 (39%) and CH4 (60%). The results show that high RE (98%) was obtained in the DMBS when gas residence time was 20 min, whereas slightly lower CO2 RE was observed. While in CBS system the outlet H2S concentration was always lower than 250 ppmv, and its H2S RE remained higher than 98% regardless of the gas residence time, although the high alkaline consumption and frequent absorbent replacement limited its cost-effectiveness. The result also indicates that in DMBS when the gas residence time increased to 20 min, the CH4 content in the treated biogas enriched upto 80%. However, while operating the CBS unit the CH4 content of the raw biogas (60%) decreased by three fold. The lower CH4 content in CBS was probably caused by extreme dilution of biogas with air (N2 and O2). According to the results obtained here the DMBS system is a robust and effective biotechnology in comparison with CBS. Hence, DMBS has a better potential for real scale applications.

Keywords: biogas, bioscrubber, desulfurization, PDMS membrane

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13818 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

Abstract:

This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

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13817 Improving the Residence Time of a Rectangular Contact Tank by Varying the Geometry Using Numerical Modeling

Authors: Yamileth P. Herrera, Ronald R. Gutierrez, Carlos, Pacheco-Bustos

Abstract:

This research aims at the numerical modeling of a rectangular contact tank in order to improve the hydrodynamic behavior and the retention time of the water to be treated with the disinfecting agent. The methodology to be followed includes a hydraulic analysis of the tank to observe the fluid velocities, which will allow evidence of low-speed areas that may generate pathogenic agent incubation or high-velocity areas, which may decrease the optimal contact time between the disinfecting agent and the microorganisms to be eliminated. Based on the results of the numerical model, the efficiency of the tank under the geometric and hydraulic conditions considered will be analyzed. This would allow the performance of the tank to be improved before starting a construction process, thus avoiding unnecessary costs.

Keywords: contact tank, numerical models, hydrodynamic modeling, residence time

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13816 Cracking of Tar Analogue in N₂ Carrier Gas Using Non-Thermal Plasma Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey

Abstract:

The role of N₂ carrier gas towards the conversion of tar analogue was studied in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The important parameters such as power (5-40W), residence time (1.41-4.23 s), concentration (20-82 g/Nm³), and temperature (Ambient-400°C) were explored. The present study demonstrated that plasma power and residence time played a key role in the decomposition of toluene, and almost complete removal of toluene was observed at 40w and 4.23 s. H₂ is obtained as a major gaseous product with a maximum selectivity of 40% along with some lighter hydrocarbons (5.5%). The removal efficiency of toluene slightly decreases with increasing the concentration of toluene from 20 g/Nm³ to 82 g/Nm³. The solid residue formation takes place inside the plasma reactor. The selectivity of LHC (lower hydrocarbons) increased up to 15% by increasing the temperature to 400°C. Introducing H₂ to the gas at elevated temperature opens up new reaction routes to raise the selectivity to lower hydrocarbons. The selectivity to methane reaches to 42% using 35% H₂ at 400°C and total selectivity of LHC increases to 57%.

Keywords: biomass gasification tar, non-thermal plasma, dielectric barrier discharge, residence time

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13815 Investigation into the Optimum Hydraulic Loading Rate for Selected Filter Media Packed in a Continuous Upflow Filter

Authors: A. Alzeyadi, E. Loffill, R. Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Continuous upflow filters can combine the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphate) and suspended solid removal in one unit process. The contaminant removal could be achieved chemically or biologically; in both processes the filter removal efficiency depends on the interaction between the packed filter media and the influent. In this paper a residence time distribution (RTD) study was carried out to understand and compare the transfer behaviour of contaminants through a selected filter media packed in a laboratory-scale continuous up flow filter; the selected filter media are limestone and white dolomite. The experimental work was conducted by injecting a tracer (red drain dye tracer –RDD) into the filtration system and then measuring the tracer concentration at the outflow as a function of time; the tracer injection was applied at hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) (3.8 to 15.2 m h-1). The results were analysed according to the cumulative distribution function F(t) to estimate the residence time of the tracer molecules inside the filter media. The mean residence time (MRT) and variance σ2 are two moments of RTD that were calculated to compare the RTD characteristics of limestone with white dolomite. The results showed that the exit-age distribution of the tracer looks better at HLRs (3.8 to 7.6 m h-1) and (3.8 m h-1) for limestone and white dolomite respectively. At these HLRs the cumulative distribution function F(t) revealed that the residence time of the tracer inside the limestone was longer than in the white dolomite; whereas all the tracer took 8 minutes to leave the white dolomite at 3.8 m h-1. On the other hand, the same amount of the tracer took 10 minutes to leave the limestone at the same HLR. In conclusion, the determination of the optimal level of hydraulic loading rate, which achieved the better influent distribution over the filtration system, helps to identify the applicability of the material as filter media. Further work will be applied to examine the efficiency of the limestone and white dolomite for phosphate removal by pumping a phosphate solution into the filter at HLRs (3.8 to 7.6 m h-1).

Keywords: filter media, hydraulic loading rate, residence time distribution, tracer

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13814 On the Thermal Behavior of the Slab in a Reheating Furnace with Radiation

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace has been developed by considering the nongray thermal radiation with given furnace environments. The furnace is modeled as radiating nongray medium with carbon dioxide and water with five-zoned gas temperature and the furnace wall is considered as a constant temperature lower than furnace gas one. The slabs are moving with constant velocity depending on the residence time through the non-firing, charging, preheating, heating, and final soaking zones. Radiative heat flux obtained by considering the radiative heat exchange inside the furnace as well as convective one from the surrounding hot gases are introduced as boundary condition of the transient heat conduction within the slab. After validating thermal radiation model adopted in this work, thermal fields in both model and real reheating furnace are investigated in terms of radiative heat flux in the furnace and temperature inside the slab. The results show that the slab in the furnace can be more heated with higher slab emissivity and residence time.

Keywords: reheating furnace, steel slab, radiative heat transfer, WSGGM, emissivity, residence time

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13813 Optimization of Reaction Parameters' Influences on Production of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Chayanoot Sangwichien, Taweesak Reungpeerakul, Kyaw Thu

Abstract:

Oil palm mills in Southern Thailand produced a large amount of biomass solid wastes. Lignocellulose biomass is the main source for production of biofuel which can be combined or used as an alternative to fossil fuels. Biomass composed of three main constituents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Thermochemical conversion process applied to produce biofuel from biomass. Pyrolysis of biomass is the best way to thermochemical conversion of biomass into pyrolytic products (bio-oil, gas, and char). Operating parameters play an important role to optimize the product yields from fast pyrolysis of biomass. This present work concerns with the modeling of reaction kinetics parameters for fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch in the fluidized bed reactor. A global kinetic model used to predict the product yields from fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters are mainly affected by product yields of EFB pyrolysis. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters effects on empty fruit bunch pyrolysis are considered at the reaction temperature in the range of 450-500˚C and at a vapor residence time of 2 s, respectively. The optimum simulated bio-oil yield of 53 wt.% obtained at the reaction temperature and vapor residence time of 450˚C and 2 s, 500˚C and 1 s, respectively. The simulated data are in good agreement with the reported experimental data. These simulated data can be applied to the performance of experiment work for the fast pyrolysis of biomass.

Keywords: kinetics, empty fruit bunch, fast pyrolysis, modeling

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13812 A Feasibility Study on Producing Bio-Coal from Orange Peel Residue by Using Torrefaction

Authors: Huashan Tai, Chien-Hui Lung

Abstract:

Nowadays people use massive fossil fuels which not only cause environmental impacts and global climate change, but also cause the depletion of non-renewable energy such as coal and oil. Bioenergy is currently the most widely used renewable energy, and agricultural waste is one of the main raw materials for bioenergy. In this study, we use orange peel residue, which is easier to collect from agricultural waste to produce bio-coal by torrefaction. The orange peel residue (with 25 to 30% moisture) was treated by torrefaction, and the experiments were conducted with initial temperature at room temperature (approximately at 25° C), with heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C / min, with terminal temperatures at 150, 200, 250, 300, 350℃, and with residence time of 10, 20, and 30 minutes. The results revealed that the heating value, ash content and energy densification ratio of the solid products after torrefaction are in direct proportion to terminal temperatures and residence time, and are inversely proportional to heating rates. The moisture content, solid mass yield, energy yield, and volumetric energy density of the solid products after torrefaction are inversely proportional to terminal temperatures and residence time, and are in direct proportion to heating rates. In conclusion, we found that the heating values of the solid products were 1.3 times higher than those of the raw orange peels before torrefaction, and the volumetric energy densities were increased by 1.45 times under operating parameters with terminal temperature at 250°C, residence time of 10 minutes, and heating rate of 10°C / min of torrefaction. The results indicated that the residue of orange peel treated by torrefaction improved its energy density and fuel properties, and became more suitable for bio-fuel applications.

Keywords: biomass energy, orange, torrefaction

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13811 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

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13810 Study on Eco-Feedback of Thermal Comfort and Cost Efficiency for Low Energy Residence

Authors: Y. Jin, N. Zhang, X. Luo, W. Zhang

Abstract:

China with annual increasing 0.5-0.6 billion squares city residence has brought in enormous energy consumption by HVAC facilities and other appliances. In this regard, governments and researchers are encouraging renewable energy like solar energy, geothermal energy using in houses. However, high cost of equipment and low energy conversion result in a very low acceptable to residents. So what’s the equilibrium point of eco-feedback to reach economic benefit and thermal comfort? That is the main question should be answered. In this paper, the objective is an on-site solar PV and heater house, which has been evaluated as a low energy building. Since HVAC system is considered as main energy consumption equipment, the residence with 24-hour monitoring system set to measure temperature, wind velocity and energy in-out value with no HVAC system for one month of summer and winter. Thermal comfort time period will be analyzed and confirmed; then the air-conditioner will be started within thermal discomfort time for the following one summer and winter month. The same data will be recorded to calculate the average energy consumption monthly for a purpose of whole day thermal comfort. Finally, two analysis work will be done: 1) Original building thermal simulation by computer at design stage with actual measured temperature after construction will be contrastive analyzed; 2) The cost of renewable energy facilities and power consumption converted to cost efficient rate to assess the feasibility of renewable energy input for residence. The results of the experiment showed that a certain deviation exists between actual measured data and simulated one for human thermal comfort, especially in summer period. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness is high for a house in targeting city Guilin now with at least 11 years of cost-covering. The conclusion proves that an eco-feedback of a low energy residence is never only consideration of its energy net value, but also the cost efficiency that is the critical factor to push renewable energy acceptable by the public.

Keywords: cost efficiency, eco-feedback, low energy residence, thermal comfort

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13809 Plasma-Assisted Decomposition of Cyclohexane in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Usman Dahiru, Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are atmospheric contaminants predominantly derived from petroleum spills, solvent usage, agricultural processes, automobile, and chemical processing industries, which can be detrimental to the environment and human health. Environmental problems such as the formation of photochemical smog, organic aerosols, and global warming are associated with VOC emissions. Research showed a clear relationship between VOC emissions and cancer. In recent years, stricter emission regulations, especially in industrialized countries, have been put in place around the world to restrict VOC emissions. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) are a promising technology for reducing VOC emissions by converting them into less toxic/environmentally friendly species. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is of interest due to its flexibility, moderate capital cost, and ease of operation under ambient conditions. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the decomposition of cyclohexane (as a VOC model compound) using nitrogen, dry, and humidified air carrier gases. The effect of specific input energy (1.2-3.0 kJ/L), residence time (1.2-2.3 s) and concentration (220-520 ppm) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of cyclohexane increased with increasing plasma power and residence time. The removal of cyclohexane decreased with increasing cyclohexane inlet concentration at fixed plasma power and residence time. The decomposition products included H₂, CO₂, H₂O, lower hydrocarbons (C₁-C₅) and solid residue. The highest removal efficiency (98.2%) was observed at specific input energy of 3.0 kJ/L and a residence time of 2.3 s in humidified air plasma. The effect of humidity was investigated to determine whether it could reduce the formation of solid residue in the DBD reactor. It was observed that the solid residue completely disappeared in humidified air plasma. Furthermore, the presence of OH radicals due to humidification not only increased the removal efficiency of cyclohexane but also improves product selectivity. This work demonstrates that cyclohexane can be converted to smaller molecules by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor by varying plasma power (SIE), residence time, reactor configuration, and carrier gas.

Keywords: cyclohexane, dielectric barrier discharge reactor, non-thermal plasma, removal efficiency

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13808 The Enlightenment of the Ventilation System in Chinese Traditional Residence to Architecture Design

Authors: Wu Xingchun, Chen Xi

Abstract:

Nowadays, China's building energy consumption constitutes 25% of the total energy consumption, half of which was caused by air conditioning in both summer and winter. The ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, which is totally passive and environmentally friendly, works effectively to create comfortable indoor environment. The research on the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence can provide advancements to architecture design and energy savings to the society. Through field investigation, case analysis, strategy proposing and other methods, it comes out that the location and layout, the structure system and the design of atrium are the most important elements for a good ventilation system. Taking every factor into consideration, techniques are deployed extensively such as the organization of draught, the design of the thermal pressure ventilation system and the application of modern materials. With the enlightenment of the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, we can take effective measures to achieve low energy consumption and sustainable architecture.

Keywords: ventilation system, chinese traditional residence, energy consumption, sustainable architecture

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13807 The Effect of Region of Residence on Fertility in Nigeria

Authors: Motlatso Rampedi

Abstract:

Nigeria has the fifth highest Total Fertility Rate in Sub-Saharan Africa at 5.5 children born to a woman. Some demographic research has found that there is an association between region of residence and fertility in Nigeria, with the Northern regions pertaining to high fertility and the Southern regions pertaining to low fertility levels. Even so, little attention has been given to understanding the effect of region of residence on fertility. Instead, a significant amount of research has been conducted on exploring the proximate determinants of fertility in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to test whether there is an association between region of residence and fertility in Nigeria. Using a sample size of 38 948 women aged 15-49 derived from the 2013 NDHS and the Poisson regression model for analysis, the study has found that region of residence has a significant effect on fertility. Moreover, the ANOVA test has shown that there is a socioeconomic disparity by region of residence in Nigeria. The Northern regions of Nigeria have shown to have higher levels of fertility as compared to the Southern regions. Therefore, while proximate determinants of fertility and socio-demographic characteristics of women are important, region of residence remains one of the fundamental determinants of fertility. Given these findings, it is recommended that government should not exhaust its resources or focus its fertility reduction policies and programmes at entire populations but target specific regions where fertility is most prevalent.

Keywords: high fertility, region, socioeconomic disparity, socio-demographic characteristics

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13806 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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13805 Habitual Residence and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction

Authors: Molshree A. Sharma

Abstract:

As a result of globalization, it is increasingly common for people to live in different parts of the world. However there is a corresponding rise of international family law issues and competing jurisdictions. The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction is a multilateral treaty that provides an expeditious method to return a child to their country of habitual residence when ‘internationally abducted’ by a parent from one member country to another. Specifically, the Convention provides a protocol for expeditious return of the child to their habitual residence unless there is a valid exception, the most common being that return would result in an intolerable situation or cause grave risk of harm to the child. This paper analyzes case law from various signatory countries including the United States, highlighting the differences in interpretation of key terms under the Convention, as well as case law in non-Hague signatory countries, with a focus on India and the Middle East.

Keywords: best interest of the child, grave risk of harm, habitual residence, well-settled

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13804 Interactions between Residential Mobility, Car Ownership and Commute Mode: The Case for Melbourne

Authors: Solmaz Jahed Shiran, John Hearne, Tayebeh Saghapour

Abstract:

Daily travel behavior is strongly influenced by the location of the places of residence, education, and employment. Hence a change in those locations due to a move or changes in an occupation leads to a change in travel behavior. Given the interventions of housing mobility and travel behaviors, the hypothesis is that a mobile housing market allows households to move as a result of any change in their life course, allowing them to be closer to central services, public transport facilities and workplace and hence reducing the time spent by individuals on daily travel. Conversely, household’s immobility may lead to longer commutes of residents, for example, after a change of a job or a need for new services such as schools for children who have reached their school age. This paper aims to investigate the association between residential mobility and travel behavior. The Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity (VISTA) data is used for the empirical analysis. Car ownership and journey to work time and distance of employed people are used as indicators of travel behavior. Change of usual residence within the last five years used to identify movers and non-movers. Statistical analysis, including regression models, is used to compare the travel behavior of movers and non-movers. The results show travel time, and the distance does not differ for movers and non-movers. However, this is not the case when taking into account the residence tenure-type. In addition, car ownership rate and number found to be significantly higher for non-movers. It is hoped that the results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of factors other than common socioeconomic and built environment features influencing travel behavior.

Keywords: journey to work, regression models, residential mobility, commute mode, car ownership

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13803 Method for Tuning Level Control Loops Based on Internal Model Control and Closed Loop Step Test Data

Authors: Arnaud Nougues

Abstract:

This paper describes a two-stage methodology derived from internal model control (IMC) for tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for levels or other integrating processes in an industrial environment. Focus is the ease of use and implementation speed which are critical for an industrial application. Tuning can be done with minimum effort and without the need for time-consuming open-loop step tests on the plant. The first stage of the method applies to levels only: the vessel residence time is calculated from equipment dimensions and used to derive a set of preliminary proportional-integral (PI) settings with IMC. The second stage, re-tuning in closed-loop, applies to levels as well as other integrating processes: a tuning correction mechanism has been developed based on a series of closed-loop simulations with model errors. The tuning correction is done from a simple closed-loop step test and the application of a generic correlation between observed overshoot and integral time correction. A spin-off of the method is that an estimate of the vessel residence time (levels) or open-loop process gain (other integrating process) is obtained from the closed-loop data.

Keywords: closed-loop model identification, IMC-PID tuning method, integrating process control, on-line PID tuning adaptation

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13802 Predicting Mixing Patterns of Overflows from a Square Manhole

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh

Abstract:

During manhole overflows, its contents pollute the immediate environment. Understanding the pollutant transfer characteristics between manhole’s incoming sewer and the overflow is therefore of great importance. A square manhole with sides 388 mm by 388 mm and height 700 mm with an overflow facility was used in the laboratory to carry out overflow concentration measurements. Two scenarios were investigated using three flow rates. The first scenario corresponded to when the exit of the pipe becomes blocked and the only exit for the flow is the manhole. The second scenario is when there is an overflow in combination with a pipe exit. The temporal concentration measurements showed that the peak concentration of pollutants in the flow was attenuated between the inlet and the overflow. A deconvolution software was used to predict the Residence time distribution (RTD) and consequently the Cumulative Residence time distribution (CRTD). The CRTDs suggest that complete mixing is occurring between the pipe inlet and the overflow, like what is obtained in a low surcharged manhole. The results also suggest that an instantaneous stirred tank reactor model can describe the mixing characteristics.

Keywords: CRTDs, instantaneous stirred tank reactor model, overflow, square manholes, surcharge, temporal concentration profiles

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13801 Hydrodynamics of Dual Hybrid Impeller of Stirred Reactor Using Radiotracer

Authors: Noraishah Othman, Siti K. Kamarudin, Norinsan K. Othman, Mohd S. Takriff, Masli I. Rosli, Engku M. Fahmi, Mior A. Khusaini

Abstract:

The present work describes hydrodynamics of mixing characteristics of two dual hybrid impeller consisting of, radial and axial impeller using radiotracer technique. Type A mixer, a Rushton turbine is mounted above a Pitched Blade Turbine (PBT) at common shaft and Type B mixer, a Rushton turbine is mounted below PBT. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the residence time distribution (RTD) of two hybrid mixers and to represent the respective mixers by RTD model. Each type of mixer will experience five radiotracer experiments using Tc99m as source of tracer and scintillation detectors NaI(Tl) are used for tracer detection. The results showed that mixer in parallel model and mixers in series with exchange can represent the flow model in mixer A whereas only mixer in parallel model can represent Type B mixer well than other models. In conclusion, Type A impeller, Rushton impeller above PBT, reduced the presence of dead zone in the mixer significantly rather than Type B.

Keywords: hybrid impeller, residence time distribution (RTD), radiotracer experiments, RTD model

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13800 Photovoltaic System: An Alternative to Energy Efficiency in a Residence

Authors: Arsenio Jose Mindu

Abstract:

The concern to carry out a study related to Energy Efficiency arose based on the various debates in international television networks and not only, but also in several forums of national debates. The concept of Energy Efficiency is not yet widely disseminated and /or taken into account in terms of energy consumption, not only at the domestic level but also at the industrial level in Mozambique. In the context of the energy audit, the time during which each of the appliances is connected to the voltage source, the time during which they are in standby mode was recorded on a spreadsheet basis. Based on these data, daily and monthly consumption was calculated. In order to have more accurate information on the daily levels of daily consumption, the electricity consumption was read every hour of the day (from 5:00 am to 11:00 pm), since after 23:00 the energy consumption remains constant. For ten days. Based on the daily energy consumption and the maximum consumption power, the design of the photovoltaic system for the residence was made. With the implementation of the photovoltaic system in order to guarantee energy efficiency, there was a significant reduction in the use of electricity from the public grid, increasing from approximately 17 kwh per day to around 11 kwh, thus achieving an energy efficiency of 67.4 %. That is to say, there was a reduction not only in terms of the amount of energy consumed but also of the monthly expenses with electricity, having increased from around 2,500,00Mt (2,500 meticais) to around 800Mt per month.

Keywords: energy efficiency, photovoltaic system, residential sector, Mozambique

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13799 Thermal Pre-Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed for Enhancing Its Solid Fuel Properties

Authors: Sujeeta Karki, Jeeban Poudel, Ja Hyung Choi, Sea Cheon Oh

Abstract:

A lab-scale fluidized bed was used for the study of sewage sludge, a non-lignocellulosic biomass, torrefaction. The influence of torrefaction temperature ranging from 200–350 °C and residence time of 0–50 minutes on the physical and chemical properties of the torrefied product was investigated. Properties of the torrefied product were analyzed on the basis of degree of torrefaction, ultimate and proximate analysis, gas analysis and chemical exergy. The degree of torrefaction and chemical exergy had a positive influence on increasing the torrefaction temperature. Moreover, the effect of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the elemental variation of sewage sludge exhibited an increase in the weight percentage of carbon while the content of H/C and O/C molar ratios decreased. The product gas emitted during torrefaction was analyzed to study the pathway of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing compounds. The compounds with oxygen were emitted at higher temperatures in contrast to hydrocarbon gases. An attempt was made to obtain the chemical exergy of sewage sludge. In addition, the study of various correlations for predicting the calorific value of torrefied sewage sludge was made.

Keywords: chemical exergy, degree of torrefaction, fluidized bed, higher heating value (HHV), O/C and H/C molar ratios, sewage sludge

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13798 Optimization of Tundish Geometry for Minimizing Dead Volume Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Prateek Singh, Dilshad Ahmad

Abstract:

Growing demand for high-quality steel products has inspired researchers to investigate the unit operations involved in the manufacturing of these products (slabs, rods, sheets, etc.). One such operation is tundish operation, in which a vessel (tundish) acts as a buffer of molten steel for the solidification operation in mold. It is observed that tundish also plays a crucial role in the quality and cleanliness of the steel produced, besides merely acting as a reservoir for the mold. It facilitates removal of dissolved oxygen (inclusions) from the molten steel thus improving its cleanliness. Inclusion removal can be enhanced by increasing the residence time of molten steel in the tundish by incorporation of flow modifiers like dams, weirs, turbo-pad, etc. These flow modifiers also help in reducing the dead or short circuit zones within the tundish which is significant for maintaining thermal and chemical homogeneity of molten steel. Thus, it becomes important to analyze the flow of molten steel in the tundish for different configuration of flow modifiers. In the present work, effect of varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir on the dead volume in tundish is studied. Steady state thermal and flow profiles of molten steel within the tundish are obtained using OpenFOAM. Subsequently, Residence Time Distribution analysis is performed to obtain the percentage of dead volume in the tundish. Design of Experiment method is then used to configure different tundish geometries for varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir, and dead volume for each tundish design is obtained. A second-degree polynomial with two-term interactions of independent variables to predict the dead volume in the tundish with positions and heights/depths of dam and weir as variables are computed using Multiple Linear Regression model. This polynomial is then used in an optimization framework to obtain the optimal tundish geometry for minimizing dead volume using Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization.

Keywords: design of experiments, multiple linear regression, OpenFOAM, residence time distribution, sequential quadratic programming optimization, steel, tundish

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
13797 Environmental Effects of Interactions of Industry and Residence in District No 21 Tehran Municipality (Iran)

Authors: Farideh Gheitasi, Zahra Mirzaei Pour

Abstract:

Considering mutual interactions of industry and residence in an environmental point of view is essential in effective urban management and all the policies must be made based on the results of these interactions. So, District No 21 of Tehran Municipality (Iran) which is almost industrial combined with some residential area was selected to study the consequences of industrial and residential area neighborhood. In this paper the results of two observations conducted in two timescales in 2010 and 2015, according to completed questionnaires by residents of an industrial region in the study area, were analyzed. The questionnaires contain 19 different environmental parameters considering positive and negative effects of industry on human life. The results of this study show that 96% of the target group in 2010 believed if the companies regard the law, mutual coexistence of industry and residency is possible. While this number decreased to 21% in 2015, which indicates that the problem got worse and people became more unsatisfied with the situation.

Keywords: environment, industry, residence, pollution

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13796 Upgrading of Bio-Oil by Bio-Pd Catalyst

Authors: Sam Derakhshan Deilami, Iain N. Kings, Lynne E. Macaskie, Brajendra K. Sharma, Anthony V. Bridgwater, Joseph Wood

Abstract:

This paper reports the application of a bacteria-supported palladium catalyst to the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis bio-oil, towards producing an upgraded transport fuel. Biofuels are key to the timely replacement of fossil fuels in order to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gases and depletion of non-renewable resources. The process is an essential step in the upgrading of bio-oils derived from industrial by-products such as agricultural and forestry wastes, the crude oil from pyrolysis containing a large amount of oxygen that requires to be removed in order to create a fuel resembling fossil-derived hydrocarbons. The bacteria supported catalyst manufacture is a means of utilizing recycled metals and second life bacteria, and the metal can also be easily recovered from the spent catalysts after use. Comparisons are made between bio-Pd, and a conventional activated carbon supported Pd/C catalyst. Bio-oil was produced by fast pyrolysis of beechwood at 500 C at a residence time below 2 seconds, provided by Aston University. 5 wt % BioPd/C was prepared under reducing conditions, exposing cells of E. coli MC4100 to a solution of sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2PdCl4), followed by rinsing, drying and grinding to form a powder. Pd/C was procured from Sigma-Aldrich. The HDO experiments were carried out in a 100 mL Parr batch autoclave using ~20g bio-crude oil and 0.6 g bio-Pd/C catalyst. Experimental variables investigated for optimization included temperature (160-350C) and reaction times (up to 5 h) at a hydrogen pressure of 100 bar. Most of the experiments resulted in an aqueous phase (~40%) and an organic phase (~50-60%) as well as gas phase (<5%) and coke (<2%). Study of the temperature and time upon the process showed that the degree of deoxygenation increased (from ~20 % up to 60 %) at higher temperatures in the region of 350 C and longer residence times up to 5 h. However minimum viscosity (~0.035 Pa.s) occurred at 250 C and 3 h residence time, indicating that some polymerization of the oil product occurs at the higher temperatures. Bio-Pd showed a similar degree of deoxygenation (~20 %) to Pd/C at lower temperatures of 160 C, but did not rise as steeply with temperature. More coke was formed over bio-Pd/C than Pd/C at temperatures above 250 C, suggesting that bio-Pd/C may be more susceptible to coke formation than Pd/C. Reactions occurring during bio-oil upgrading include catalytic cracking, decarbonylation, decarboxylation, hydrocracking, hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation. In conclusion, it was shown that bio-Pd/C displays an acceptable rate of HDO, which increases with residence time and temperature. However some undesirable reactions also occur, leading to a deleterious increase in viscosity at higher temperatures. Comparisons are also drawn with earlier work on the HDO of Chlorella derived bio-oil manufactured from micro-algae via hydrothermal liquefaction. Future work will analyze the kinetics of the reaction and investigate the effect of bi-metallic catalysts.

Keywords: bio-oil, catalyst, palladium, upgrading

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13795 A Feasibility Study of Producing Biofuels from Textile Sludge by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Hua-Shan Tai, Yu-Ting Zeng

Abstract:

In modern and industrial society, enormous amounts of sludge from various of industries are constantly produced; currently, most of the sludge are treated by landfill and incineration. However, both treatments are not ideal because of the limited land for landfill and the secondary pollution caused by incineration. Consequently, treating industrial sludge appropriately has become an urgent issue of environmental protection. In order to solve the problem of the massive sludge, this study uses textile sludge which is the major source of waste sludge in Taiwan as raw material for torrefaction treatments. To investigate the feasibility of producing biofuels from textile sludge by torrefaction, the experiments were conducted with temperatures at 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350°C, with heating rates of 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min, and with residence time of 30 and 60 minutes. The results revealed that the mass yields after torrefaction were approximately in the range of 54.9 to 93.4%. The energy densification ratios were approximately in the range of 0.84 to 1.10, and the energy yields were approximately in the range of 45.9 to 98.3%. The volumetric densities were approximately in the range of 0.78 to 1.14, and the volumetric energy densities were approximately in the range of 0.65 to 1.18. To sum up, the optimum energy yield (98.3%) can be reached with terminal temperature at 150 °C, heating rate of 20°C/min, and residence time of 30 minutes, and the mass yield, energy densification ratio as well as volumetric energy density were 92.2%, 1.07, and 1.15, respectively. These results indicated that the solid products after torrefaction are easy to preserve, which not only enhance the quality of the product, but also achieve the purpose of developing the material into fuel.

Keywords: biofuel, biomass energy, textile sludge, torrefaction

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13794 Thermochemical and Biological Pretreatment Study for Efficient Sugar Release from Lignocellulosic Biomass (Deodar and Sal Wood Residues)

Authors: Neelu Raina, Parvez Singh Slathia, Deepali Bhagat, Preeti Sharma

Abstract:

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for generating suitable substrates (starch/ sugars) for conversion to bioethanol is the most crucial step. In present study waste from furniture industry i.e sawdust from softwood Cedrus deodara (deodar) and hardwood Shorea robusta (sal) was used as lignocellulosic biomass. Thermochemical pretreatment was given by autoclaving at 121°C temperature and 15 psi pressure. Acids (H2SO4,HCl,HNO3,H3PO4), alkali (NaOH,NH4OH,KOH,Ca(OH)2) and organic acids (C6H8O7,C2H2O4,C4H4O4) were used at 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentration without giving any residence time. 1% HCl gave maximum sugar yield of 3.6587g/L in deodar and 6.1539 g/L in sal. For biological pretreatment a fungi isolated from decaying wood was used , sawdust from deodar tree species was used as a lignocellulosic substrate and before thermochemical pretreatment sawdust was treated with fungal culture at 37°C under submerged conditions with a residence time of one week followed by a thermochemical pretreatment methodology. Higher sugar yields were obtained with sal tree species followed by deodar tree species, i.e., 6.0334g/L in deodar and 8.3605g/L in sal was obtained by a combined biological and thermochemical pretreatment. Use of acids along with biological pretreatment is a favourable factor for breaking the lignin seal and thus increasing the sugar yield. Sugar estimation was done using Dinitrosalicyclic assay method. Result validation is being done by statistical analysis.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, pretreatment, sawdust

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
13793 Life Course Events, Residential and Job Relocation and Commute Time in Australian Cities

Authors: Solmaz Jahed Shiran, Elizabeth Taylor, John Hearne

Abstract:

Over the past decade a growing body of research, known as mobility biography approach has emerged that focuses on changes in travel behaviour over the life course of individuals. Mobility biographies suggest that changes in travel behaviour have a certain relation to important key events in life courses such as residential relocation, workplace changes, marriage and the birth of children. Taking this approach as the theoretical background, this study uses data from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics Survey in Australia (HILDA) to model a set of life course events and their interaction with the commute time. By analysing longitudinal data, it is possible to assign different key events during the life course to change a person’s travel behaviour. Changes in the journey-to-work travel time is used as an indication of travel behaviour change in this study. Results of a linear regression model for change in commute time show a significant influence from socio-demographic factors like income and age, the previous home-to-work commute time and remoteness of the residence. Residential relocation and job change have significant influences on commute time. Other life events such as birth of a child, marriage and divorce or separation have also a strong impact on commute time change. Overall, the research confirms previous studies of links between life course events and travel behaviour.

Keywords: life course events, residential mobility, travel behaviour, commute time, job change

Procedia PDF Downloads 69