Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 612

Search results for: vegetable oils

612 An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid

Authors: Celal Kocatepe, Eyup Taslak, Celal Fadil Kumru, Oktay Arikan


While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, dielectric dissipation factor, mineral oil, vegetable oils

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611 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.


Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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610 Heavy Metal Contents in Vegetable Oils of Kazakhstan Origin and Life Risk Assessment

Authors: A. E. Mukhametov, M. T. Yerbulekova, D. R. Dautkanova, G. A. Tuyakova, G. Aitkhozhayeva


The accumulation of heavy metals in food is a constant problem in many parts of the world. Vegetable oils are widely used, both for cooking and for processing in the food industry, meeting the main dietary requirements. One of the main chemical pollutants, heavy metals, is usually found in vegetable oils. These chemical pollutants are carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunotoxic, harmful to consumption and have a negative effect on human health even in trace amounts. Residues of these substances can easily accumulate in vegetable oil during cultivation, processing and storage. In this article, the content of the concentration of heavy metal ions in vegetable oils of Kazakhstan production is studied: sunflower, rapeseed, safflower and linseed oil. Heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel, were determined in three repetitions by the method of flame atomic absorption. Analysis of vegetable oil samples revealed that the largest lead contamination (Pb) was determined to be 0.065 mg/kg in linseed oil. The content of cadmium (Cd) in the largest amount of 0.009 mg/kg was found in safflower oil. Arsenic (As) content was determined in rapeseed and safflower oils at 0.003 mg/kg, and arsenic (As) was not detected in linseed and sunflower oil. The nickel (Ni) content in the largest amount of 0.433 mg/kg was in linseed oil. The heavy metal contents in the test samples complied with the requirements of regulatory documents for vegetable oils. An assessment of the health risk of vegetable oils with a daily consumption of 36 g per day shows that all samples of vegetable oils produced in Kazakhstan are safe for consumption. But further monitoring is needed, since all these metals are toxic and their harmful effects become apparent only after several years of exposure.

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil, safflower oil, toxic metals, food safety, rape oil

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609 Estimation of Cholesterol Level in Different Brands of Vegetable Oils in Iraq

Authors: Mohammed Idaan Hassan Al-Majidi


An analysis of twenty one assorted brands of vegetable oils in Babylon Iraq, reveals varying levels of cholesterol content. Cholesterol was found to be present in most of the oil brands sampled using three standard methods. Cholesterol was detected in seventeen of the vegetable oil brands with concentration of less than 1 mg/ml while seven of the oil brands had cholesterol concentrations ranging between 1-4 mg/ml. Low iodine values were obtained in four of the vegetable oil brands and three of them had high acid values. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of cholesterol at varying concentrations in all the oil brands and gave the lowest detectable cholesterol values in all the oil brands. The Laser brand made from rapeseed had the highest cholesterol concentration of 3.2 mg/ml while Grand brand made from groundnuts had the least concentration (0.12 mg/ml) of cholesterol using HPLC analysis. Leibermann-Burchard method showed that Gino brand from palm kernel had the least concentration of cholesterol (3.86 mg/ml ±0.032) and the highest concentration of 3.996 mg/ml ±0.0404 was obtained in Sesame seed oil brand. This report is important in view of health implications of cholesterol in our diets. Consequently, we have been able to show that there is no cholesterol free oil in the market as shown on the vegetable oil brand labels. Therefore, companies producing and marketing vegetable oils are enjoined to desist from misleading the public by labeling their products as “cholesterol free”. They should indicate the amount of cholesterol present in the vegetable oil, no matter how small the quantity may be.

Keywords: vegetable oils, heart diseases, leibermann-burchard, cholesterol

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608 Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Varieties of Vegetable oils Consumed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Health Risk Assessment of Local Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf


Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 µg/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population.

Keywords: vegetable oils, heavy metals, contamination, health risk assessment

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607 Assessment of the Quality of a Mixture of Vegetable Oils from Kazakhstan Origin

Authors: Almas Mukhametov, Dina Dautkanova, Moldir Yerbulekova, Gulim Tuyakova, Raziya Zhakudaeva, Makpal Seisenaly, Asemay Kazhymurat


The composition of samples of mixtures of vegetable oils of Kazakhstan origin, consisting of sunflower, safflower and linseed oils, has been experimentally substantiated. With an approximate optimal ratio of w-6:w-3 fatty acids in 80:15:05 triacylglycerols, providing its therapeutic and prophylactic properties. The resulting mixture can be used in the development of functional products. The result was also identified and evaluated by physical and chemical quality indicators, the content of vitamin E, and the concentration of ions of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), as well as mercury (Hg).

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower, safflower, linseed, mixture, fatty acid composition, heavy metals

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606 Study of Compatibility and Oxidation Stability of Vegetable Insulating Oils

Authors: Helena M. Wilhelm, Paulo O. Fernandes, Laís P. Dill, Kethlyn G. Moscon


The use of vegetable oil (or natural ester) as an insulating fluid in electrical transformers is a trend that aims to contribute to environmental preservation since it is biodegradable and non-toxic. Besides, vegetable oil has high flash and combustion points, being considered a fire safety fluid. However, vegetable oil is usually less stable towards oxidation than mineral oil. Both insulating fluids, mineral and vegetable oils, need to be tested periodically according to specific standards. Oxidation stability can be determined by the induction period measured by conductivity method (Rancimat) by monitoring the effectivity of oil’s antioxidant additives, a methodology already developed for food application and biodiesel but still not standardized for insulating fluids. Besides adequate oxidation stability, fluids must be compatible with transformer's construction materials under normal operating conditions to ensure that damage to the oil and parts of the transformer does not occur. ASTM standard and Brazilian normative differ in parameters evaluated, which reveals the need to regulate tests for each oil type. The aim of this study was to assess oxidation stability and compatibility of vegetable oils to suggest the best way to assure a viable performance of vegetable oil as transformer insulating fluid. The determination of the induction period for several vegetable insulating oils from the local market by using Rancimat was carried out according to BS EN 14112 standard, at different temperatures (110, 120, and 130 °C). Also, the compatibility of vegetable oil was assessed according to ASTM and ABNT NBR standards. The main results showed that the best temperature for use in the Rancimat test is 130 °C, which allows a better observation of conductivity change. The compatibility test results presented differences between vegetable and mineral oil standards that should be taken into account in oil testing since materials compatibility and oxidation stability are essential for equipment reliability.

Keywords: compatibility, Rancimat, natural ester, vegetable oil

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605 Study on Breakdown Voltage Characteristics of Different Types of Oils with Contaminations

Authors: C. Jouhar, B. Rajesh Kamath, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian


Since long time ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used for liquid insulation in high voltage equipments. Mineral oils are widely used as insulation for transmission and distribution power transformers, capacitors and other high voltage equipment. Petroleum-based insulating oils have excellent dielectric properties such as high electric field strength, low dielectric losses and good long-term performance. Due to environmental consideration, an attempt to search the alternate liquid insulation is required. The influence of particles on the voltage breakdown in insulating oil and other liquids has been recognized for many years. Particles influence both AC and DC voltage breakdown in insulating oil. Experiments are conducted under AC voltage. The breakdown process starts with a microscopic bubble, an area of large distance where ions or electrons initiate avalanches. Insulating liquids drive their dielectric strength from the much higher density compare to gases. Experiments are carried out under High Voltage AC (HVAC) in different types of oils namely castor oil, vegetable oil and mineral oil. The Breakdown Voltage (BDV) with presence of moisture and particle contamination in different types of oils is studied. The BDV of vegetable oil is better when compared to other oils without contamination. The BDV of mineral oil is better when compared to other types of oils in presence of contamination.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, high voltage AC, insulating oil, oil breakdown

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604 1H-NMR Spectra of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends to Evaluate the Quality and Determine the Adulteration of Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil

Authors: Luis F. Bianchessi, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


The use of biodiesel has been diffused in Brazil and all over the world by the trading of biodiesel (B100). In Brazil, the diesel oil currently being sold is a blend, containing 7% biodiesel (B7). In this context, it is necessary to develop methods capable of identifying this blend composition, especially regarding the biodiesel quality used for making these blends. In this study, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR) are proposed as a form of identifying and confirming the quality of type B10 blends (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel). Furthermore, the presence of vegetable oils, which may be from fuel adulteration or as an evidence of low degree of transesterification conversion during the synthesis of B100, may also be identified. Mixtures of diesel, vegetable oils and their respective biodiesel were prepared. Soybean oil and macauba kernel oil were used as raw material. The diesel proportion remained fixed at 90%. The other proportion (10%) was varied in terms of vegetable oil and biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectra were obtained for each one of the mixtures, in order to find a correlation between the spectra and the amount of biodiesel, as well as the amount of residual vegetable oil. The ratio of the integral of the methylenic hydrogen H-2 of glycerol (exclusive of vegetable oil) with respect to the integral of the olefinic hydrogens (present in vegetable oil and biodiesel) was obtained. These ratios were correlated with the percentage of vegetable oil in each mixture, from 0% to 10%. The obtained correlation could be described by linear relationships with R2 of 0.9929 for soybean biodiesel and 0.9982 for macauba kernel biodiesel. Preliminary results show that the technique can be used to monitor the biodiesel quality in commercial diesel-biodiesel blends, besides indicating possible adulteration.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel, biodiesel quality, adulteration

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603 Tribological Behavior of EP Additives with Different Percentage of Sulfur

Authors: Salete Martins Alves, José Josemar de Oliveira Junior


The current efforts on design of lubricants are based in attending the new requirement of modern equipment with the focus on the choice of base oil and additives. Nowadays, there are different types of lubricant oils’ bases, such as mineral oils, synthetic oils, re-refined oils and vegetable oils. The lubrication in the boundary condition is controlled mainly by EP additives that interact with the surface forming very thin films. Therefore, the study’s goal is to evaluate the action of three EP additives, with different percentage of sulfur, on friction and wear reduction. They were evaluated in mineral and synthetic oils. Lubricants were prepared with synthetic and mineral oils and added 3 % and 5 % of EP additives. The friction and wear characteristics were studied using HFRR test. In this test, a normal load of 10 N was applied at a frequency of 20 Hz. The analysis of results has appointed that the percentage of sulfur in mineral oil has influenced on wear reduction. However, synthetic oil had good performance with low sulfur content.

Keywords: boundary lubrication, EP additives, sulfur, wear

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602 Phenolic Compounds, Antiradical Activity, and Antioxidant Efficacy of Satureja hortensisl - Extracts in Vegetable Oil Protection

Authors: Abolfazl Kamkar


Vegetable oils and fats are recognized as important components of our diet. They provide essential fatty acids, which are precursors of important hormones and control many physiological factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol level, and the reproductive system.Vegetable oils with higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are more susceptible to oxidation.Protective effects of Sature jahortensis(SE) extracts in stabilizing soybean oil at different concentrations (200 and 400 ppm) were tested. Results showed that plant extracts could significantly (P< 0.05) lower the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of oil during storage at 60 oC. The IC50 values for methanol and ethanol extracts were 31.5 ± 0.7 and 37.00 ± 0 µg/ml, respectively. In the β- carotene/linoleic acid system, methanol and ethanol extracts exhibited 87.5 ± 1.41% and 74.0 ±2.25 % inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol and ethanol extracts were (101.58 ± 0. 26m g/ g) and (96.00 ± 0.027 mg/ g), (44.91 ± 0.14 m g/ g) and (14.30 ± 0.12 mg/ g) expressed in Gallic acid and Quercetin equivalents, respectively.These findings suggest that Satureja extracts may have potential application as natural antioxidants in the edible oil and food industry.

Keywords: satureja hortensis, antioxidant activity, oxidative stability, vegetable oil, extract

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601 Effects of Vegetable Oils Supplementation on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production in Buffaloes

Authors: Avijit Dey, Shyam S. Paul, Satbir S. Dahiya, Balbir S. Punia, Luciano A. Gonzalez


Methane emitted from ruminant livestock not only reduces the efficiency of feed energy utilization but also contributes to global warming. Vegetable oils, a source of poly unsaturated fatty acids, have potential to reduce methane production and increase conjugated linoleic acid in the rumen. However, characteristics of oils, level of inclusion and composition of basal diet influences their efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of sunflower (SFL) and cottonseed (CSL) oils on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids composition and feed fermentation pattern by in vitro gas production (IVGP) test. Four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml /30ml buffered rumen fluid) of each oil were used. Fresh rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from two rumen cannulated buffalo steers fed a mixed ration. In vitro incubation was carried out with sorghum hay (200 ± 5 mg) as substrate in 100 ml calibrated glass syringes following standard IVGP protocol. After 24h incubation, gas production was recorded by displacement of piston. Methane in the gas phase and volatile fatty acids in the fermentation medium were estimated by gas chromatography. Addition of oils resulted in increase (p<0.05) in total gas production and decrease (p<0.05) in methane production, irrespective of type and concentration. Although the increase in gas production was similar, methane production (ml/g DM) and its concentration (%) in head space gas was lower (p< 0.01) in CSL than in SFL at corresponding doses. Linear decrease (p<0.001) in degradability of DM was evident with increasing doses of oils (0.2ml onwards). However, these effects were more pronounced with SFL. Acetate production tended to decrease but propionate and butyrate production increased (p<0.05) with addition of oils, irrespective of type and doses. The ratio of acetate to propionate was reduced (p<0.01) with addition of oils but no difference between the oils was noted. It is concluded that both the oils can reduce methane production. However, feed degradability was also affected with higher doses. Cotton seed oil in small dose (0.1ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) exerted greater inhibitory effects on methane production without impeding dry matter degradability. Further in vivo studies need to be carried out for their practical application in animal ration.

Keywords: buffalo, methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, vegetable oils

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600 CI Engine Performance Analysis Using Sunflower and Peanut Bio-Diesel Blends

Authors: M. Manjunath, R. Rakesh, Y. T. Krishne Gowda, G. Panduranga Murthy


The availability of energy resources plays a vital role in the progress of a country. Over the last decades, there is an increase in the consumption of energy worldwide resulting in the depletion of fossil fuels. This necessitates dependency on other countries for energy resources. Therefore, a renewable eco-friendly alternate fuel is replaced in place of fossil fuel which can be vegetable oils as a substitute fuel for diesel. Since oils are more viscous it cannot be used directly in CI engines without any engine modification. Thus, a conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is done by a Transesterification process. The present paper is restricted to Biofuel substitute for diesel and which can be obtained from a number of edible and non-edible oil resources. The oil from these resources can be Transesterified by a suitable method depending on its FFA content for the production of biodiesel and that can be used to operate CI engine. In this work, an attempt is made to test the performance of CI engine using Transesterified peanut and sunflower oil methyl esters blends with diesel.


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599 Study of Coconut and Babassu Oils with High Acid Content and the Fatty Acids (C6 to C16) Obtained from These Oils

Authors: Flávio A. F. da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, José A. S. Ramos Filho, Monica C. G. Albuquerque


The vegetable oils have many applications in industrial processes and due to this potential have constantly increased the demand for the use of low-quality oils, mainly in the production of biofuel. This work aims to the physicochemical evaluation of babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) of low quality, as well the obtaining the free fatty acids 6 to 16 carbon atoms, with intention to be used as raw material for the biofuels production. The babassu oil and coconut low quality, as well the fatty acids obtained from these oils were characterized as their physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition (using gas chromatography coupled to mass). The NMR technique was used to assess the efficiency of fractional distillation under reduced pressure to obtain the intermediate carbonic chain fatty acids. The results showed that the bad quality in terms of physicochemical evaluation of babassu oils and coconut oils interfere directly in industrial application. However the fatty acids of intermediate carbonic chain (C6 to C16) may be used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and particularly as the biokerosene fuel. The chromatographic analysis showed that the babassu oil and coconut oil have as major fatty acids are lauric acid (57.5 and 38.6%, respectively), whereas the top phase from distillation of coconut oil showed caprylic acid (39.1%) and major fatty acid.

Keywords: babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa), coconut oil (Cocos nucifera), fatty acids, biomass

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598 Effect of Injection Pressure and Fuel Injection Timing on Emission and Performance Characteristics of Karanja Biodiesel and its Blends in CI Engine

Authors: Mohan H., C. Elajchet Senni


In the present of high energy consumption in every sphere of life, renewable energy sources are emerging as alternative to conventional fuels for energy security, mitigating green house gas emission and climate change. There has been a world wide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. But high smoke emission and lower thermal efficiency are the main problems associated with the use of neat vegetable oils in diesel engines. In the present work, performance, combustion and emission characteristics of CI engine fuelled with 20% by vol. methyl esters mixed with Karanja seed Oil, and Fuel injection pressures of 200 bar and 240 bar, injection timings (21°,23° and 25° BTDC) and Proportion B20 diesel respectively. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. But, high smoke emission and lower thermal efficiency are the main problems associated with the use of neat vegetable oils in diesel engines. In the present work, performance, combustion and emission characteristics of CI engine fuelled with 20% by vol. methyl esters mixed with Karanja seed Oil, and Fuel injection pressures of 200 bar and 240 bar ,Injection timings (21°,23° and 25° BTDC) and Proportion B20 diesel respectively. Various performance, combustion and emission characteristics such as thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption, maximum cylinder pressure, instantaneous heat release, cumulative heat release with respect to crank angle, ignition lag, combustion duration, HC, NOx, CO, exhaust temperature and smoke intensity were measured.

Keywords: karanja oil, injection pressure, injection timing, karanja oil methyl ester

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597 Comparative Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and Bitter Apricot Kernal Oil Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Virender Singh Gurau, Akash Deep, Sarbjot S. Sandhu


Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. In the present research work Bitter Apricot kernel oil was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the Bitter Apricot kernel oil methyl ester were investigated as per ASTM D6751. From the series of engine testing, it is concluded that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with biodiesel blend was little lower than that of diesel. BSEC is slightly higher for Bitter apricot kernel oil methyl ester blends than neat diesel. For biodiesel blends, CO emission was lower than diesel fuel as B 20 reduced CO emissions by 18.75%. Approximately 11% increase in NOx emission was observed with 20% biodiesel blend. It is observed that HC emissions tend to decrease for biodiesel based fuels and Smoke opacity was found lower for biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification, bitter apricot kernel oil, performance and emission testing

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596 Microbiological Analysis of Biofuels in Order to Follow Stability on Room Temperature

Authors: Radovan Cobanovic, Milica Rankov Sicar


Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. It is derived by alcoholysis of triacylglycerols (triglycerides) from various lipid based materials that can be traditionally categorized into the following main groups: vegetable oils, animal fats, waste and algal oils. The goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological stability of biodiesel samples since it has been made from vegetable oil or animal fat which was stored on room temperature. For the purposes of this study, analyzes were conducted on six samples of biodiesel first at zero sample at the reception day than fifth, thirtieth, sixtieth, ninetieth and one hundred twentieth day from the day of reception. During this period, biodiesel samples were subjected to microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count). All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-1, total plate count ISO 4833-1. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 120 days indicate that are no changes of products concerning microbiological analyses. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and results for total plate count showed values < 10 cfu/g for all six samples. On the basis of this monitoring under defined storage conditions at room temperatures, the results showed that biodiesel is very stable as far as microbiological analysis were concerned.

Keywords: biodiesel, microbiology, room temperature, stability

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595 Effect of Cutting Tools and Working Conditions on the Machinability of Ti-6Al-4V Using Vegetable Oil-Based Cutting Fluids

Authors: S. Gariani, I. Shyha


Cutting titanium alloys are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality, short tool life and high machining costs. This is due to the excessive generation of heat at the cutting zone and difficulties in heat dissipation due to relatively low heat conductivity of this metal. The cooling applications in machining processes are crucial as many operations cannot be performed efficiently without cooling. Improving machinability, increasing productivity, enhancing surface integrity and part accuracy are the main advantages of cutting fluids. Conventional fluids such as mineral oil-based, synthetic and semi-synthetic are the most common cutting fluids in the machining industry. Although, these cutting fluids are beneficial in the industries, they pose a great threat to human health and ecosystem. Vegetable oils (VOs) are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, good lubricous properties, low toxicity, high flash points, low volatility, high viscosity indices and thermal stability. Fatty acids of vegetable oils are known to provide thick, strong, and durable lubricant films. These strong lubricating films give the vegetable oil base stock a greater capability to absorb pressure and high load carrying capacity. This paper details preliminary experimental results when turning Ti-6Al-4V. The impact of various VO-based cutting fluids, cutting tool materials, working conditions was investigated. The full factorial experimental design was employed involving 24 tests to evaluate the influence of process variables on average surface roughness (Ra), tool wear and chip formation. In general, Ra varied between 0.5 and 1.56 µm and Vasco1000 cutting fluid presented comparable performance with other fluids in terms of surface roughness while uncoated coarse grain WC carbide tool achieved lower flank wear at all cutting speeds. On the other hand, all tools tips were subjected to uniform flank wear during whole cutting trails. Additionally, formed chip thickness ranged between 0.1 and 0.14 mm with a noticeable decrease in chip size when higher cutting speed was used.

Keywords: cutting fluids, turning, Ti-6Al-4V, vegetable oils, working conditions

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594 Improving the Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil for High Health Index: An FEM Based Approach Using Nanofluids

Authors: Fatima Khurshid, Noor Ul Ain, Syed Abdul Rehman Kashif, Zainab Riaz, Abdullah Usman Khan, Muhammad Imran


As the world is moving towards extra-high voltage (EHV) and ultra-high voltage (UHV) power systems, the performance requirements of power transformers are becoming crucial to the system reliability and security. With the transformers being an essential component of a power system, low health index of transformers poses greater risks for safe and reliable operation. Therefore, to meet the rising demands of the power system and transformer performance, researchers are being prompted to provide solutions for enhanced thermal and electrical properties of transformers. This paper proposes an approach to improve the health index of a transformer by using nano-technology in conjunction with bio-degradable oils. Vegetable oils can serve as potential dielectric fluid alternatives to the conventional mineral oils, owing to their numerous inherent benefits; namely, higher fire and flashpoints, and being environment-friendly in nature. Moreover, the addition of nanoparticles in the dielectric fluid further serves to improve the dielectric strength of the insulation medium. In this research, using the finite element method (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics environment, and a 2D space dimension, three different oil samples have been modelled, and the electric field distribution is computed for each sample at various electric potentials, i.e., 90 kV, 100 kV, 150 kV, and 200 kV. Furthermore, each sample has been modified with the addition of nanoparticles of different radii (50 nm and 100 nm) and at different interparticle distance (5 mm and 10 mm), considering an instant of time. The nanoparticles used are non-conductive and have been modelled as alumina (Al₂O₃). The geometry has been modelled according to IEC standard 60897, with a standard electrode gap distance of 25 mm. For an input supply voltage of 100 kV, the maximum electric field stresses obtained for the samples of synthetic vegetable oil, olive oil, and mineral oil are 5.08 ×10⁶ V/m, 5.11×10⁶ V/m and 5.62×10⁶ V/m, respectively. It is observed that for the unmodified samples, vegetable oils have a greater dielectric strength as compared to the conventionally used mineral oils because of their higher flash points and higher values of relative permittivity. Also, for the modified samples, the addition of nanoparticles inhibits the streamer propagation inside the dielectric medium and hence, serves to improve the dielectric properties of the medium.

Keywords: dielectric strength, finite element method, health index, nanotechnology, streamer propagation

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593 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov


The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: biocomposite, composite, diffusion, polyethylene, vegetable filler

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592 Composite Materials from Epoxidized Linseed Oil and Lignin

Authors: R. S. Komartin, B. Balanuca, R. Stan


the last decades, studies about the use of polymeric materials of plant origin, considering environmental concerns, have captured the interest of researchers because these represent an alternative to petroleum-derived materials. Vegetable oils are one of the preferred alternatives for petroleum-based raw materials having long aliphatic chains similar to hydrocarbons which means that can be processed using conventional chemistry. Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) are among the most interesting products derived from oil both for their high reactivity (epoxy group) and for the potential to react with compounds from various classes. As in the case of epoxy resins starting from petrochemical raw materials, those obtained from EVO can be crosslinked with different agents to build polymeric networks and can also be reinforced with various additives to improve their thermal and mechanical performances. Among the multitude of known EVO, the most common in industrial practice are epoxidized linseed oils (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oils (ESO), the first with an iodine index over 180, the second having a lower iodine index but being cheaper. On the other hand, lignin (Ln) is the second natural organic material as a spread, whose use has long been hampered because of the high costs associated with its isolation and purification. In this context, our goal was to obtain new composite materials with satisfactory intermediate properties in terms of stiffness and elasticity using the characteristics of ELO and Ln and choosing the proper curing procedure. In the present study linseed oil (LO) epoxidation was performed using peracetic acid generated in situ. The obtained bio-based epoxy resin derived from linseed oil was used further to produce the new composites byloading Ln in various mass ratios. The resulted ELO-Ln blends were subjected to a dual-curing protocol, namely photochemical and thermal. The new ELO-Ln composites were investigated by FTIR spectrometry, thermal stability, water affinity, and morphology. The positive effect of lignin regarding the thermal stability of the composites could be proved. The results highlight again the still largely unexplored potential of lignin in industrial applications.

Keywords: composite materials, dual curing, epoxidized linseed oil, lignin

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591 Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydroesterification of Soybean Oil to Develop a Biodiesel Formation

Authors: O. Mowla, E. Kennedy, M. Stockenhuber


Finding alternative renewable resources of energy has attracted the attentions in consequence of limitation of the traditional fossil fuel resources, increasing of crude oil price and environmental concern over greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel (or Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)), an alternative energy source, is synthesised from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats and can be produced from waste oils. FAME can be produced via hydroesterification of oils. The process involves two stages. In the first stage of this process, fatty acids and glycerol are being obtained by hydrolysis of the feed stock oil. In the second stage, the recovered fatty acids are then esterified with an alcohol to methyl esters. The presence of a catalyst accelerates the rate of the hydroesterification reaction of oils. The overarching aim of this study is to find the effect of using zeolite as a catalyst in the heterogeneous hydroesterification of soybean oil. Both stages of the catalytic hydroesterification of soybean oil had been conducted at atmospheric and high-pressure conditions using reflux glass reactor and Parr reactor, respectively. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature and reaction time on the overall yield of biodiesel formation was also investigated.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalytic hydroesterification, soybean oil, zeolite

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590 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Essential Oils in Synergy with Amoxicillin against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Naheed Niaz, Nimra Naeem, Bushra Uzair, Riffat Tahira


Antibacterial activity of different traditional plants essential oils against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion method was evaluated. All the tested essential oils, in different concentrations, inhibited growth of S. aureus to varying degrees. Cinnamon and Thyme essential oils were observed to be the “best” against test pathogen. Even at lowest concentration of these essential oils i.e. 25 µl/ml, clear zone of inhibition was recorded 9+0.085mm and 8+0.051mm respectively, and at higher concentrations there was a total reduction in growth of MRSA. The study also focused on analyzing the synergistic effects of essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. Results showed that oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils which were not very effective alone turned out to be strong synergistic enhancers. The activity increased with increase in concentration of the essential oils. It may be concluded from present results that cinnamon and thyme essential oils could be used as potential antimicrobial source for the treatment of infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, essential oils, antibiotics, combination therapy, minimum inhibitory concentration

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589 Biofuel Production via Thermal Cracking of Castor Methyl Ester

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyed Mojtaba Sadrameli


Diminishing oil reserves, deteriorating health standards because of greenhouse gas emissions and associated environmental impacts have emerged biofuel production. Vegetable oils are proved to be valuable feedstock in these growing industries as they are renewable and potentially inexhaustible sources. Thermal Cracking of vegetable oils (triglycerides) leads to production of biofuels which are similar to fossil fuels in terms of composition but their combustion and physical properties have limits. Acrolein (very poisonous gas) and water production during cracking of triglycerides occurs because of presence of glycerin in their molecular structure. Transesterification of vegetable oil is a method to extract glycerol from triglycerides structure and produce methyl ester. In this study, castor methyl ester was used for thermal cracking in order to survey the efficiency of this method to produce bio-gasoline and bio-diesel. Thus, several experiments were designed by means of central composite method. Statistical studies showed that two reaction parameters, namely cracking temperature and feed flowrate, affect products yield significantly. At the optimized conditions (480 °C and 29 g/h) for maximum bio-gasoline production, 88.6% bio-oil was achieved which was distilled and separated as bio-gasoline (28%) and bio-diesel (48.2%). Bio-gasoline exposed a high octane number and combustion heat. Distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure of bio-gasoline fell in the criteria of standard gasoline (class AA) by ASTM D4814. Bio-diesel was compatible with standard diesel by ASTM D975. Water production was negligible and no evidence of acrolein production was distinguished. Therefore, thermal cracking of castor methyl ester could be used as a method to produce valuable biofuels.

Keywords: bio-diesel, bio-gasoline, castor methyl ester, thermal cracking, transesterification

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588 Optochemical and Electrochemical Method to Study of Vegetable Oil Deterioration

Authors: A. V. Shelke, P. S. More


This research aimed to study the kinetic reaction of reused cooking oil and to find the optimum condition of its process. The feedstock was collected from the street sellers and also prepared at laboratory. From this research, it is found that the kinetic reaction of reused sunflower oil (auto-oxidation) is obtained in terms of variation of the absorption coefficient of unexposed sunflower oil as 0.05 which is very close to that of exposed sunflower oil 0.075. At room temperature, the optimum intensity obtained from optical absorption spectroscopy study is 0.267 for unexposed sunflower oil and 0.194 for exposed sunflower oil. However, results indicated that FTIR spectroscopy is accurate and precise enough for such determination. Free Fatty Acid (FFA% = 026), acid ~53% and safonication ~%192 get reduce in exposed oil was investigated.

Keywords: friction, oxidation, sunflower oil, vegetable oils

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587 Sustainable Treatment of Vegetable Oil Industry Wastewaters by Xanthomonas campestris

Authors: Bojana Ž. Bajić, Siniša N. Dodić, Vladimir S. Puškaš, Jelena M. Dodić


Increasing industrialization as a response to the demands of the consumer society greatly exploits resources and generates large amounts of waste effluents in addition to the desired product. This means it is a priority to implement technologies with the maximum utilization of raw materials and energy, minimum generation of waste effluents and/or their recycling (secondary use). Considering the process conditions and the nature of the raw materials used by the vegetable oil industry, its wastewaters can be used as substrates for the biotechnological production which requires large amounts of water. This way the waste effluents of one branch of industry become raw materials for another branch which produces a new product while reducing wastewater pollution and thereby reducing negative environmental impacts. Vegetable oil production generates wastewaters during the process of rinsing oils and fats which contain mainly fatty acid pollutants. The vegetable oil industry generates large amounts of waste effluents, especially in the processes of degumming, deacidification, deodorization and neutralization. Wastewaters from the vegetable oil industry are generated during the whole year in significant amounts, based on the capacity of the vegetable oil production. There are no known alternative applications for these wastewaters as raw materials for the production of marketable products. Since the literature has no data on the potential negative impact of fatty acids on the metabolism of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, these wastewaters were considered as potential raw materials for the biotechnological production of xanthan. In this research, vegetable oil industry wastewaters were used as the basis for the cultivation media for xanthan production with Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. Examining the process of biosynthesis of xanthan on vegetable oil industry wastewaters as the basis for the cultivation media was performed to obtain insight into the possibility of its use in the aforementioned biotechnological process. Additionally, it was important to experimentally determine the absence of substances that have an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of the production microorganism. Xanthan content, rheological parameters of the cultivation media, carbon conversion into xanthan and conversions of the most significant nutrients for biosynthesis (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources) were determined as indicators of the success of biosynthesis. The obtained results show that biotechnological production of the biopolymer xanthan by bacterium Xanthomonas campestris on vegetable oil industry wastewaters based cultivation media simultaneously provides preservation of the environment and economic benefits which is a sustainable solution to the problem of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: biotechnology, sustainable bioprocess, vegetable oil industry wastewaters, Xanthomonas campestris

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586 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik


In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performance

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585 The Insecticidal Activity of Three Essential Oils on the Chickpea Weevil Callosobruchus Maculatus F (Coleoptera; Curculionidae)

Authors: Azzaz Siham


Essential oils are, by definition, secondary metabolites produced by plants as a means of defense against phytophagous pests. This work aims to study the insecticidal effect of the essential oil of three plants: Phoenician juniper Juniperus phoenicea; the Niaouli Melaleuca quinquenervia and the wild carrot Daucus carota L, on the chickpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F, which is known as a formidable pest of legumes. Essential oils are obtained by hydrodistillation. The study carried out in the laboratory concerning the insecticidal activity of these essential oils by contact and inhalation effect on C.maculatus gave important results, especially for the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea for the contact test; and for the inhalation test, the essential oil of Melaleuca quinquenervia shows remarkable insecticidal activity compared to the other two oils. The results of these tests showed a very interesting action. The essential oils used very significantly describe the lifespan of adults.

Keywords: essential oils, juniperus phoenicea, melaleuca quinquenervia, daucus carota, Callosobruchus maculatus

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584 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah


Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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583 Perceptions of Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Regarding Use of Biological Control Practices: A Case Study in Jiroft County, Iran

Authors: Hossein Shabanali Fami, Omid Sharifi, Javad Ghasemi, Mahtab Pouratashi, Mona Sadat Moghadasian


The main purpose of this study was to investigate perception of greenhouse vegetable growers regarding use of biological control practices during the growing season. The statistical population of the study included greenhouse vegetable growers in Jiroft county (N=1862). A sample of 137 vegetable growers was selected, using random sampling method. Data were collected via a questionnaire. The validity of the instrument was obtained by the faculty members of the Department of Agricultural Development and Management in the University of Tehran. Cronbach’s alpha was applied to estimate the reliability which showed a high reliability for the instrument. Data was analyzed using SPSS/Windows 13.5. The results revealed that greenhouse vegetable growers had moderate level of perception regarding biological control practices. Levels of vegetable growers’ perceptions regarding biological control practices were different on the basis of their academic qualifications as well as educational level and job. In addition, the results indicated that about 54.1% of variations in vegetable growers’ perceptions could be explained by variables such as awareness of biological control practices, knowledge on pests, annual production and age.

Keywords: greenhouse, biological control, biological agents, perception, vegetable grower

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