Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: perovskite

70 Morphology Optimization and Photophysics Study in Air-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Soumitra Satapathi, Anubhav Raghav

Abstract:

Perovskite solar cell technology has passed through a phase of unprecedented growth in the efficiency scale from 3.8% to above 22% within a half decade. This technology has drawn tremendous research interest. It has been observed that performances of perovskite based solar cells are extremely dependent on the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite layer. It has also been observed that device lifetime depends on the perovskite morphology; devices with larger perovskite grains degrade slowly than those of the smaller ones. Various methods of perovskite growth have been applied to achieve the most appropriate morphology necessary for high efficient solar cells. The recent progress in morphology optimization by various methods emphasizing on grain sizes, stoichiometry, and ambient compatibility as well as photophysics study in air-processed perovskite solar cells will be discussed.

Keywords: perovskite solar cells, morphology optimization, photophysics study, air-processed solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
69 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté

Abstract:

Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: oxide, hybrid perovskite, solar cells, impedance

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
68 Investigation of Length Effect on Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells Composed of ZnO Nanowires

Authors: W. S. Li, S. T. Yang, H. C. Cheng

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The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells has been achieved by inserting vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) between the cathode and the active layer and shows better solar cells performance. Perovskite solar cells have drawn significant attention due to the superb efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this experiment, ZnO nanowires are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) due to its low temperature process. The main idea of this thesis is utilizing the 3D structures of the hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires to increase the junction area to improve the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells. The infiltration and the surface coverage of the perovskite precursor solution changed as tuning the length of the ZnO nanowires. It is revealed that the devices with ZnO nanowires of 150 nm demonstrated the best PCE of 8.46 % under the AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

Keywords: hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires, perovskite solar cells, low temperature process, pinholes

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67 Hysteresis Effect in Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoscopic NiO as a Hole Transport Layer

Authors: D. C. Asebiah, D. Saranin, S. Karazhanov, A. R. Tameev, M. Kah

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In this paper, the mesoscopic NiO was used as a hole transport layer in the inverted planar organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell to study the effect of hysteresis. The devices we fabricated have the structures Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO)/mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C₆₁-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₆₁BM) photovoltaic device. The perovskite solar cell was done by toluene air (TLA) method and horn sonication for the dispersion of the NiO nanoparticles in deionized water. The power conversion efficiency was 12.07% under 1.5 AM illumination. We report hysteresis in the in current-voltage dependence of the solar cells with mesoscopic NiO as a hole transport layer.

Keywords: perovskite, mesoscopic, hysteresis, toluene air

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
66 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram

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In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: charge carrier diffusion lengths, Methylamonium lead iodide, precursor composition, perovskite solar cell, sequential deposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
65 Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Perovskite Enhanced with PVDF for Pressure Sensing

Authors: Mohamed E. Harb, Enas Moustafa, Shaker Ebrahim, Moataz Soliman

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In this paper pressure detectors were synthesized and characterized using hybrid perovskite/PVDF composites as an active layer. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI₃) was synthesized from methylammonium iodide (MAI) (CH₃NH₃I) and lead iodide (PbI₂). Composites of perovskite/PVDF using different weight ratio were prepared as the active material. PVDF with weights percentages of 6%, 8%, and 10% was used. All prepared materials were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectrum (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Versastat 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat instrument was used to perform the current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated sensors. The pressure sensors exhibited a voltage increase with applying different forces. Also, the current-voltage characteristics (CV) showed different effects with applying forces. So, the results showed a good pressure sensing performance.

Keywords: perovskite semiconductor, hybrid perovskite, PVDF, Pressure sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
64 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour

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Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
63 Hot Air Flow Annealing of MAPbI₃ Perovskite: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Mouad Ouafi, Lahoucine Atourki, Larbi Laanab, Erika Vega, Miguel Mollar, Bernabe Marib, Boujemaa Jaber

Abstract:

Despite the astonishing emergence of the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite as a promising light harvester for solar cells, their physical properties in solution-processed MAPbI₃ are still crucial and need to be improved. The objective of this work is to investigate the hot airflow effect during the growth of MAPbI₃ films using the spin-coating process on their structural, optical and morphological proprieties. The experimental results show that many physical proprieties of the perovskite strongly depend on the air flow temperature and the optimization which has a beneficial effect on the perovskite quality. In fact, a clear improvement of the crystallinity and the crystallite size of MAPbI₃ perovskite is demonstrated by the XRD analyses, when the airflow temperature is increased up to 100°C. Alternatively, as far as the surface morphology is concerned, SEM micrographs show that significant homogenous nucleation, uniform surface distribution and pin holes free with highest surface coverture of 98% are achieved when the airflow temperature reaches 100°C. At this temperature, the improvement is also observed when considering the optical properties of the films. By contrast, a remarkable degradation of the MAPbI₃ perovskites associated to the PbI₂ phase formation is noticed, when the hot airflow temperature is higher than 100°C, especially 300°C.

Keywords: hot air flow, crystallinity, surface coverage, perovskite morphology

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62 Lead-Free Inorganic Cesium Tin-Germanium Triiodide Perovskites for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Seyedeh Mozhgan Seyed-Talebi, Javad Beheshtian

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The toxicity of lead associated with the lifecycle of perovskite solar cells (PSCs( is a serious concern which may prove to be a major hurdle in the path toward their commercialization. The current proposed lead-free PSCs including Ag(I), Bi(III), Sb(III), Ti(IV), Ge(II), and Sn(II) low-toxicity cations are still plagued with the critical issues of poor stability and low efficiency. This is mainly because of their chemical stability. In the present research, utilization of all inorganic CsSnGeI3 based materials offers the advantages to enhance resistance of device to degradation, reduce the cost of cells, and minimize the carrier recombination. The presence of inorganic halide perovskite improves the photovoltaic parameters of PCSs via improved surface coverage and stability. The inverted structure of simulated devices using a 1D simulator like solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS) version 3308 involves TCOHTL/Perovskite/ETL/Au contact layer. PEDOT:PSS, PCBM, and CsSnGeI3 used as hole transporting layer (HTL), electron transporting layer (ETL), and perovskite absorber layer in the inverted structure for the first time. The holes are injected from highly stable and air tolerant Sn0.5Ge0.5I3 perovskite composition to HTM and electrons from the perovskite to ETL. Simulation results revealed a great dependence of power conversion efficiency (PCE) on the thickness and defect density of perovskite layer. Here the effect of an increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K on the performance of CsSnGeI3 based perovskite devices is investigated. Comparison between simulated CsSnGeI3 based PCSs and similar real testified devices with spiro-OMeTAD as HTL showed that the extraction of carriers at the interfaces of perovskite absorber depends on the energy level mismatches between perovskite and HTL/ETL. We believe that optimization results reported here represent a critical avenue for fabricating the stable, low-cost, efficient, and eco-friendly all-inorganic Cs-Sn-Ge based lead-free perovskite devices.

Keywords: hole transporting layer, lead-free, perovskite solar cell, SCAPS-1D, Sn-Ge based

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61 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon

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In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

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60 Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Based Planar Hetero-Junction Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Khursheed Ahmad, Shaikh M. Mobin

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In this work, we have developed a highly stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a architecture (ITO/GO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3/PCBM/Carbon tape). The PSCs was fabricated under air using GO/PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer while the carbon tape used as a back contact to complete the device. The fabricated PSCs device exhibited good stability and performance in terms of power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. The PSCs devices were exposed to ambient condition for 4 days which shows excellent stability confirmed by XRD analysis. We believed that the stability of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell may be due the presence of GO which inhibits the direct contact between PEDOT:PSS and MAPbI3.

Keywords: graphene oxide, perovskite solar cells, hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
59 Surface Modification of TiO2 Layer with Phosphonic Acid Monolayer in Perovskite Solar Cells: Effect of Chain Length and Terminal Functional Group

Authors: Seid Yimer Abate, Ding-Chi Huang, Yu-Tai Tao

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In this study, charge extraction characteristics at the perovskite/TiO2 interface in the conventional perovskite solar cell is studied by interface engineering. Self-assembled monolayers of phosphonic acids with different chain length and terminal functional group were used to modify mesoporous TiO2 surface to modulate the surface property and interfacial energy barrier to investigate their effect on charge extraction and transport from the perovskite to the mp-TiO2 and then the electrode. The chain length introduces a tunnelling distance and the end group modulate the energy level alignment at the mp-TiO2 and perovskite interface. The work function of these SAM-modified mp-TiO2 varied from −3.89 eV to −4.61 eV, with that of the pristine mp-TiO2 at −4.19 eV. A correlation of charge extraction and transport with respect to the modification was attempted. The study serves as a guide to engineer ETL interfaces with simple SAMs to improve the charge extraction, carrier balance and device long term stability. In this study, a maximum PCE of ~16.09% with insignificant hysteresis was obtained, which is 17% higher than the standard device.

Keywords: Energy level alignment, Interface engineering, Perovskite solar cells, Phosphonic acid monolayer, Tunnelling distance

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58 High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Authors: A. Apostolopoulou, D. Sygkridou, A. N. Kalarakis, E. Stathatos

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Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Keywords: ambient conditions, high efficiency solar cells, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells, TiO₂ / In₂O₃ bilayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
57 Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Omita Nanda, Rakhi Grover, Kanchan Saxena

Abstract:

Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.

Keywords: hybrid perovskite, ammonia, sensor, nanostructure, thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
56 Full Potential Calculation of Structural and Electronic Properties of Perovskite BiAlO3 and BiGaO3

Authors: M. Harmel, H. Khachai

Abstract:

The first principles within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method were applied to study the structural and electronic properties of cubic perovskite-type compounds BiAlO3 and BiGaO3. The lattice constant, bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, band structure and density of states were obtained. The results show that BiGaO3 should exhibit higher hardness and stiffness than BiAlO3. The Al–O or Ga–O bonds are typically covalent with a strong hybridization as well as Bi–O ones that have a significant ionic character. Both materials are weakly ionic and exhibit wide and indirect band gaps, which are typical of insulators.

Keywords: DFT, Ab initio, electronic structure, Perovskite structure, ferroelectrics

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55 Computational Study on the Crystal Structure, Optoelectronic Properties of Perovskites A2BX6 for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Meriem Harmel

Abstract:

The optoelectronic properties and high power conversion efficiency make lead halide perovskites ideal material for solar cell applications. However, the toxic nature of lead and instability of organic cation are the two key challenges in the emerging perovskite solar cells. To overcome these challenges, we present our study about finding potential alternatives to lead in the form of A2BX6 perovskite using the first principles DFT-based calculations. The highly accurate modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) and hybrid functional (HSE06) have been used to investigate the Main Document Click here to view linked References optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of A2PdBr6 (A = K, Rb, and Cs) perovskite. The results indicate that different A-cations in A2PdBr6 can significantly alter their electronic and optical properties. Calculated band structures indicate semiconducting nature, with band gap values of 1.84, 1.53, and 1.54 eV for K2PdBr6, Rb2PdBr6, and Cs2PdBr6, respectively. We find strong optical absorption in the visible region with small effective masses for A2PdBr6. The ideal band gap and optimum light absorption suggest Rb2PdBr6 and Cs2PdBr6 potential candidates for the light absorption layer in perovskite solar cells. Additionally.

Keywords: solar cell, lead free double perovskite, seebeck coefficient, electronic band structiure

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54 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró

Abstract:

The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

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53 First Principle Calculations of Magnetic and Electronic Properties of Double Perovskite Ba2MnMoO6

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Souidi, A. Abbad, T. Lantri, Z. Aziz, A. Zitouni

Abstract:

The electronic and magnetic structures of double perovskite Ba2MnMoO6 are systematically investigated using the first principle method of the Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Waves Plus the Local Orbitals (FP-LAPW+LO) within the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). In order to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb interaction, we included the Hubbard correlation terms: LSDA+U and GGA+U approaches. Whereas half-metallic ferromagnetic character is observed due to dominant Mn spin-up and Mo spin-down contributions insulating ground state is obtained. The LSDA+U and GGA+U calculations yield better agreement with the theoretical and the experimental results than LSDA and GGA do.

Keywords: electronic structure, double perovskite, first principles, Ba2MnMoO6, half-metallic

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52 Perovskite-Type La1−xCaxAlO3 (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) as Active Anode Materials for Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Solutions

Authors: M. Diafi, M. Omari, B. Gasmi

Abstract:

Perovskite-type La1−xCaxAlO3 were synthesized at 1000◦C by a co- precipitation method. The synthesized oxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the oxide powders were produced in the form of films on pretreated Ni-supports by an oxide-slurry painting technique their electrocatalytic activities towards methanol oxidation in alkaline solutions at 25°C using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and anodic Tafel polarization techniques. The oxide catalysts followed the rhombohedral hexagonal crystal geometry. The rate of electro-oxidation of methanol was found to increase with increasing substitution of La by Ca in the oxide matrix. The reaction indicated a Tafel slope of ~2.303RT/F, The electrochemical apparent activation energy (〖∆H〗_el^(°#)) was observed to decrease on increasing Ca content. The results point out the optimum electrode activity and stability of the Ca is x=0.6 of composition.

Keywords: electrocatalysis, oxygen evolution, perovskite-type La1−x Cax AlO3, methanol oxidation

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51 In situ Investigation of PbI₂ Precursor Film Formation and Its Subsequent Conversion to Mixed Cation Perovskite

Authors: Dounya Barrit, Ming-Chun Tang, Hoang Dang, Kai Wang, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Aram Amassian

Abstract:

Several deposition methods have been developed for perovskite film preparation. The one-step spin-coating process has emerged as a more popular option thanks to its ability to produce films of different compositions, including mixed cation and mixed halide perovskites, which can stabilize the perovskite phase and produce phases with desired band gap. The two-step method, however, is not understood in great detail. There is a significant need and opportunity to adopt the two-step process toward mixed cation and mixed halide perovskites, but this requires deeper understanding of the two-step conversion process, for instance when using different cations and mixtures thereof, to produce high-quality perovskite films with uniform composition. In this work, we demonstrate using in situ investigations that the conversion of PbI₂ to perovskite is largely dictated by the state of the PbI₂ precursor film in terms of its solvated state. Using time-resolved grazing incidence wide-angle X-Ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements during spin coating of PbI₂ from a DMF (Dimethylformamide) solution we show the film formation to be a sol-gel process involving three PbI₂-DMF solvate complexes: disordered precursor (P₀), ordered precursor (P₁, P₂) prior to PbI₂ formation at room temperature after 5 minutes. The ordered solvates are highly metastable and eventually disappear, but we show that performing conversion from P₀, P₁, P₂ or PbI₂ can lead to very different conversion behaviors and outcomes. We compare conversion behaviors by using MAI (Methylammonium iodide), FAI (Formamidinium Iodide) and mixtures of these cations, and show that conversion can occur spontaneously and quite rapidly at room temperature without requiring further thermal annealing. We confirm this by demonstrating improvements in the morphology and microstructure of the resulting perovskite films, using techniques such as in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, SEM and XRD.

Keywords: in situ GIWAXS, lead iodide, mixed cation, perovskite solar cell, sol-gel process, solvate phase

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50 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo

Abstract:

For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

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49 Robust Half-Metallicity and Magnetic Properties of Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, T. Lantri, A. Zitouni

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural,electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3. It includes our calculations based on the use of the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, The spin polarized electronic band structures and densities of states aswellas the integer value of the magnetic moment of the unit cell (6 μB) illustrate that PrMnO3 is half-metallic ferromagnetic. The study shows that the robust half-metallicity makes the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.

Keywords: Perovskite, DFT, electronic properties, Magnetic moment, half-metallic

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48 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang

Abstract:

Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
47 Fabrication and Characterization Analysis of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O Perovskite Hollow Fiber Catalyst for Oxygen Removal in Landfill Gas

Authors: Seong Woon Lee, Soo Min Lim, Sung Sik Jeong, Jung Hoon Park

Abstract:

The atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG, Green House Gas) is increasing continuously as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels and industrial development. In response to this trend, many researches have been conducted on the reduction of GHG. Landfill gas (LFG, Land Fill Gas) is one of largest sources of GHG emissions containing the methane (CH₄) as a major constituent and can be considered renewable energy sources as well. In order to use LFG by connecting to the city pipe network, it required a process for removing impurities. In particular, oxygen must be removed because it can cause corrosion of pipes and engines. In this study, methane oxidation was used to eliminate oxygen from LFG and perovskite-type ceramic catalysts of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O composition was selected as a catalyst. Hollow fiber catalysts (HFC, Hollow Fiber Catalysts) have attracted attention as a new concept alternative because they have high specific surface area and mechanical strength compared to other types of catalysts. HFC was prepared by a phase-inversion/sintering technique using commercial La-Sr-Co-Fe-O powder. In order to measure the catalysts' activity, simulated LFG was used for feed gas and complete oxidation reaction of methane was confirmed. Pore structure of the HFC was confirmed by SEM image and perovskite structure of single phase was analyzed by XRD. In addition, TPR analysis was performed to verify the oxygen adsorption mechanism of the HFC. Acknowledgement—The project is supported by the ‘Global Top Environment R&D Program’ in the ‘R&D Center for reduction of Non-CO₂ Greenhouse gases’ (Development and demonstration of oxygen removal technology of landfill gas) funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (ME).

Keywords: complete oxidation, greenhouse gas, hollow fiber catalyst, land fill gas, oxygen removal, perovskite catalyst

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46 Improved Morphology in Sequential Deposition of the Inverted Type Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Cheap Additive (DI-H₂O)

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ceylan Zafer, Ali K. Erdinc, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram

Abstract:

Hybrid halide Perovskites with the general formula ABX₃, where X = Cl, Br or I, are considered as an ideal candidates for the preparation of photovoltaic devices. The most commonly and successfully used hybrid halide perovskite for photovoltaic applications is CH₃NH₃PbI₃ and its analogue prepared from lead chloride, commonly symbolized as CH₃NH₃PbI₃_ₓClₓ. Some researcher groups are using lead free (Sn replaces Pb) and mixed halide perovskites for the fabrication of the devices. Both mesoporous and planar structures have been developed. By Comparing mesoporous structure in which the perovskite materials infiltrate into mesoporous metal oxide scaffold, the planar architecture is much simpler and easy for device fabrication. In a typical perovskite solar cell, a perovskite absorber layer is sandwiched between the hole and electron transport. Upon the irradiation, carriers are created in the absorber layer that can travel through hole and electron transport layers and the interface in between. We fabricated inverted planar heterojunction structure ITO/PEDOT/ Perovskite/PCBM/Al, based solar cell via two-step spin coating method. This is also called Sequential deposition method. A small amount of cheap additive H₂O was added into PbI₂/DMF to make a homogeneous solution. We prepared four different solution such as (W/O H₂O, 1% H₂O, 2% H₂O, 3% H₂O). After preparing, the whole night stirring at 60℃ is essential for the homogenous precursor solutions. We observed that the solution with 1% H₂O was much more homogenous at room temperature as compared to others. The solution with 3% H₂O was precipitated at once at room temperature. The four different films of PbI₂ were formed on PEDOT substrates by spin coating and after that immediately (before drying the PbI₂) the substrates were immersed in the methyl ammonium iodide solution (prepared in isopropanol) for the completion of the desired perovskite film. After getting desired films, rinse the substrates with isopropanol to remove the excess amount of methyl ammonium iodide and finally dried it on hot plate only for 1-2 minutes. In this study, we added H₂O in the PbI₂/DMF precursor solution. The concept of additive is widely used in the bulk- heterojunction solar cells to manipulate the surface morphology, leading to the enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. There are two most important parameters for the selection of additives. (a) Higher boiling point w.r.t host material (b) good interaction with the precursor materials. We observed that the morphology of the films was improved and we achieved a denser, uniform with less cavities and almost full surface coverage films but only using precursor solution having 1% H₂O. Therefore, we fabricated the complete perovskite solar cell by sequential deposition technique with precursor solution having 1% H₂O. We concluded that with the addition of additives in the precursor solutions one can easily be manipulate the morphology of the perovskite film. In the sequential deposition method, thickness of perovskite film is in µm and the charge diffusion length of PbI₂ is in nm. Therefore, by controlling the thickness using other deposition methods for the fabrication of solar cells, we can achieve the better efficiency.

Keywords: methylammonium lead iodide, perovskite solar cell, precursor composition, sequential deposition

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45 Development of Perovskite Quantum Dots Light Emitting Diode by Dual-Source Evaporation

Authors: Antoine Dumont, Weiji Hong, Zheng-Hong Lu

Abstract:

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are steadily becoming the new standard for luminescent display devices because of their energy efficiency and relatively low cost, and the purity of the light they emit. Our research focuses on the optical properties of the lead halide perovskite CsPbBr₃ and its family that is showing steadily improving performances in LEDs and solar cells. The objective of this work is to investigate CsPbBr₃ as an emitting layer made by physical vapor deposition instead of the usual solution-processed perovskites, for use in LEDs. The deposition in vacuum eliminates any risk of contaminants as well as the necessity for the use of chemical ligands in the synthesis of quantum dots. Initial results show the versatility of the dual-source evaporation method, which allowed us to create different phases in bulk form by altering the mole ratio or deposition rate of CsBr and PbBr₂. The distinct phases Cs₄PbBr₆, CsPbBr₃ and CsPb₂Br₅ – confirmed through XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and X-ray diffraction analysis – have different optical properties and morphologies that can be used for specific applications in optoelectronics. We are particularly focused on the blue shift expected from quantum dots (QDs) and the stability of the perovskite in this form. We already obtained proof of the formation of QDs through our dual source evaporation method with electron microscope imaging and photoluminescence testing, which we understand is a first in the community. We also incorporated the QDs in an LED structure to test the electroluminescence and the effect on performance and have already observed a significant wavelength shift. The goal is to reach 480nm after shifting from the original 528nm bulk emission. The hole transport layer (HTL) material onto which the CsPbBr₃ is evaporated is a critical part of this study as the surface energy interaction dictates the behaviour of the QD growth. A thorough study to determine the optimal HTL is in progress. A strong blue shift for a typically green emitting material like CsPbBr₃ would eliminate the necessity of using blue emitting Cl-based perovskite compounds and could prove to be more stable in a QD structure. The final aim is to make a perovskite QD LED with strong blue luminescence, fabricated through a dual-source evaporation technique that could be scalable to industry level, making this device a viable and cost-effective alternative to current commercial LEDs.

Keywords: material physics, perovskite, light emitting diode, quantum dots, high vacuum deposition, thin film processing

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44 Removal of VOCs from Gas Streams with Double Perovskite-Type Catalyst

Authors: Kuan Lun Pan, Moo Been Chang

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of major air contaminants, and they can react with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in atmosphere to form ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) with solar irradiation, leading to environmental hazards. In addition, some VOCs are toxic at low concentration levels and cause adverse effects on human health. How to effectively reduce VOCs emission has become an important issue. Thermal catalysis is regarded as an effective way for VOCs removal because it provides oxidation route to successfully convert VOCs into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O(g)). Single perovskite-type catalysts are promising for VOC removal, and they are of good potential to replace noble metals due to good activity and high thermal stability. Single perovskites can be generally described as ABO3 or A2BO4, where A-site is often a rare earth element or an alkaline. Typically, the B-site is transition metal cation (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, or Mn). Catalytic properties of perovskites mainly rely on nature, oxidation states and arrangement of B-site cation. Interestingly, single perovskites could be further synthesized to form double perovskite-type catalysts which can simply be represented by A2B’B”O6. Likewise, A-site stands for an alkaline metal or rare earth element, and the B′ and B′′ are transition metals. Double perovskites possess unique surface properties. In structure, three-dimensional of B-site with ordered arrangement of B’O6 and B”O6 is presented alternately, and they corner-share octahedral along three directions of the crystal lattice, while cations of A-site position between the void of octahedral. It has attracted considerable attention due to specific arrangement of alternating B-site structure. Therefore, double perovskites may have more variations than single perovskites, and this greater variation may promote catalytic performance. It is expected that activity of double perovskites is higher than that of single perovskites toward VOC removal. In this study, double perovskite-type catalyst (La2CoMnO6) is prepared and evaluated for VOC removal. Also, single perovskites including LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 are tested for the comparison purpose. Toluene (C7H8) is one of the important VOCs which are commonly applied in chemical processes. In addition to its wide application, C7H8 has high toxicity at a low concentration. Therefore, C7H8 is selected as the target compound in this study. Experimental results indicate that double perovskite (La2CoMnO6) has better activity if compared with single perovskites. Especially, C7H8 can be completely oxidized to CO2 at 300oC as La2CoMnO6 is applied. Characterization of catalysts indicates that double perovskite has unique surface properties and is of higher amounts of lattice oxygen, leading to higher activity. For durability test, La2CoMnO6 maintains high C7H8 removal efficiency of 100% at 300oC and 30,000 h-1, and it also shows good resistance to CO2 (5%) and H2O(g) (5%) of gas streams tested. For various VOCs including isopropyl alcohol (C3H8O), ethanal (C2H4O), and ethylene (C2H4) tested, as high as 100% efficiency could be achieved with double perovskite-type catalyst operated at 300℃, indicating that double perovskites are promising catalysts for VOCs removal, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, Toluene (C7H8), double perovskite-type catalyst, catalysis

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43 Studies on Structural and Electrical Properties of Lanthanum Doped Sr₂CoMoO₆₋δ System

Authors: Pravin Kumar, Rajendra K. Singh, Prabhakar Singh

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A widespread research work on Mo-based double perovskite systems has been reported as a potential application for electrode materials of solid oxide fuel cells. Mo-based double perovskites studied in form of B-site ordered double perovskite materials, with general formula A₂B′B″O₆ structured by alkaline earth element (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) and heterovalent transition metals (B′ = Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, etc. and B″ = Mo, W, etc.), are raising a significant interest as potential mixed ionic-electronic conductors in the temperature range of 500-800 °C. Such systems reveal higher electrical conductivity, particularly those assigned in form of Sr₂CoMoO₆₋δ (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn etc.) which were studied in different environments (air/H₂/H₂-Ar/CH₄) at an intermediate temperature. Among them, the Sr₂CoMoO₆₋δ system is a potential candidate as an anode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its better electrical conductivity. Therefore, Sr₂CoMoO₆₋δ (SCM) system with La-doped on Sr site has been studied to discover the structural and electrical properties. The double perovskite system Sr₂CoMoO₆₋δ (SCM) and doped system Sr₂-ₓLaₓCoMoO₆₋δ (SLCM, x=0.04) were synthesized by the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis route. Thermal studies were carried out by thermo-gravimetric analysis. Phase justification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) as a tetragonal structure with space group I4/m. A minor phase of SrMoO₄ (s.g. I41/a) was identified as a secondary phase using JCPDS card no. 85-0586. Micro-structural investigations revealed the formation of uniform grains. The average grain size of undoped (SCM) and doped (SLCM) compositions was calculated by a linear intercept method and found to be ⁓3.8 μm and 2.7 μm, respectively. The electrical conductivity of SLCM is found higher than SCM in the air within the temperature range of 200-600 °C. SLCM system was also measured in reducing atmosphere (pure H₂) in the temperature range 300-600 °C. SLCM has been showed the higher conductivity in the reducing atmosphere (H₂) than in air and therefore it could be a promising anode material for SOFCs.

Keywords: double perovskite, electrical conductivity, SEM, XRD

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42 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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41 Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Aluminate Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: Onkar Nath Verma, Nitish Kumar Singh, Raghvendra, Pravin Kumar, Prabhakar Singh

Abstract:

The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 was prepared by solution based auto-combustion method using Al (NO3)3.6H2O, La2O3 with dilute nitrate acid (HNO3) as precursors and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) as a fuel. The synthesis protocol gave an easy processing of the LaAlO3 nano-particles. The XRD measurement revealed that the material has single phase with space group R-3c (rhombohedral). Thermal behavior was measured by simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The compact pellet density was determined. Also, the surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of LaAlO3 was measured employing LCR meter and found to increase with increasing temperature. This increase in conductivity may be attributed to increased mobility of oxide ion.

Keywords: perovskite, LaAlO3, XRD, SEM, DTA-TGA, SOFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 363