Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Emil Gevorgyan

18 Mathematical Modeling of Bi-Substrate Enzymatic Reactions in the Presence of Different Types of Inhibitors

Authors: Rafayel Azizyan, Valeri Arakelyan, Aram Gevorgyan, Varduhi Balayan, Emil Gevorgyan

Abstract:

Currently, mathematical and computer modeling are widely used in different biological studies to predict or assess behavior of such complex systems as biological ones. This study deals with mathematical and computer modeling of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, which play an important role in different biochemical pathways. The main objective of this study is to represent the results from in silico investigation of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions in the presence of uncompetitive inhibitors, as well as to describe in details the inhibition effects. Four models of uncompetitive inhibition were designed using different software packages. Particularly, uncompetitive inhibitor to the first [ES1] and the second ([ES1S2]; [FS2]) enzyme-substrate complexes have been studied. The simulation, using the same kinetic parameters for all models allowed investigating the behavior of reactions as well as determined some interesting aspects concerning influence of different cases of uncompetitive inhibition. Besides that shown, that uncompetitive inhibitors exhibit specific selectivity depending on mechanism of bi-substrate enzymatic reaction.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, reversible inhibition

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17 Review, Analysis and Simulation of Advanced Technology Solutions of Selected Components in Power Electronics Systems (PES) of More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Lucjan Setlak, Emil Ruda

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is to review, comparative analysis and simulation of selected components of power electronic systems (PES), consistent with the concept of a more electric aircraft (MEA). Comparative analysis and simulation in software environment MATLAB / Simulink were carried out based on a group of representatives of civil aircraft (B-787, A-380) and military (F-22 Raptor, F-35) in the context of multi-pulse converters used in them (6- and 12-pulse, and 18- and 24-pulse), which are key components of high-tech electronics on-board power systems of autonomous power systems (ASE) of modern aircraft (airplanes of the future).

Keywords: converters, electric machines, MEA (more electric aircraft), PES (power electronics systems)

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16 Solution to Increase the Produced Power in Micro-Hydro Power Plant

Authors: Radu Pop, Adrian Bot, Vasile Rednic, Emil Bruj, Oana Raita, Liviu Vaida

Abstract:

Our research presents a study concerning optimization of water flow capture for micro-hydro power plants in order to increase the energy production. It is known that the fish ladder whole, were the water is capture is fix, and the water flow may vary with the river flow, this means that on the fish ladder we will have different servitude flows, sometimes more than needed. We propose to demonstrate that the ‘winter intake’ from micro-hydro power plant, could be automated with an intelligent system which is capable to read some imposed data and adjust the flow in to the needed value. With this automation concept, we demonstrate that the performance of the micro-hydro power plant could increase, in some flow operating regimes, with approx. 10%.

Keywords: energy, micro-hydro, water intake, fish ladder

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15 Maritime Transportation and Environmental Pollution: Emerging Trends and Challenges

Authors: Emil Mathew

Abstract:

Liberalisation policies adopted by a large number of countries, implementation of technological innovations with development in communication networks and continuous reduction in transport costs contributed towards the growth of international transportation of goods over the last 50 to 60 years. The present paper examines the environmental externalities of maritime transportation, that is, externalities associated with the movement of cargoes, as distinct from those emanate from production and consumption of goods. Though shipping is less polluting compared to other modes of transportation, considering the huge volume of goods transported and future growth prospects, it is important to examine environmental externalities of maritime transportation. It focuses on varied types of environmental externalities of maritime transportation and suggests that appropriate policies may be adopted by international agencies to address this issue without adversely affecting the course of international trade and also its possibility to get diverted to alternate modes of transportation.

Keywords: externalities of globalisation, maritime environment, maritime externality, transportation externality

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14 Heavy Metal Pollution of the Soils around the Mining Area near Shamlugh Town (Armenia) and Related Risks to the Environment

Authors: G. A. Gevorgyan, K. A. Ghazaryan, T. H. Derdzyan

Abstract:

The heavy metal pollution of the soils around the mining area near Shamlugh town and related risks to human health were assessed. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals that can be ranked by anthropogenic pollution degree as follows: Cu>Pb>As>Co>Ni>Zn. The main sources of the anthropogenic metal pollution of the soils were the copper mining area near Shamlugh town, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the trucks transferring are from the mining area. Copper pollution degree in some observation sites was unallowable for agricultural production. The total non-carcinogenic chronic hazard index (THI) values in some places, including observation sites in Shamlugh town, were above the safe level (THI<1) for children living in this territory. Although the highest heavy metal enrichment degree in the soils was registered in case of copper, the highest health risks to humans especially children were posed by cobalt which is explained by the fact that heavy metals have different toxicity levels and penetration characteristics.

Keywords: Armenia, copper mine, heavy metal pollution of soil, health risks

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13 The Investigation of Enzymatic Activity in the Soils Under the Impact of Metallurgical Industrial Activity in Lori Marz, Armenia

Authors: T. H. Derdzyan, K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan

Abstract:

Beta-glucosidase, chitinase, leucine-aminopeptidase, acid phosphomonoestearse and acetate-esterase enzyme activities in the soils under the impact of metallurgical industrial activity in Lori marz (district) were investigated. The results of the study showed that the activities of the investigated enzymes in the soils decreased with increasing distance from the Shamlugh copper mine, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the ore transportation road. Statistical analysis revealed that the activities of the enzymes were positively correlated (significant) to each other according to the observation sites which indicated that enzyme activities were affected by the same anthropogenic factor. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Ni, Zn) due to copper mining activity in this territory. The results of Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between heavy metal pollution degree (Nemerow integrated pollution index) and soil enzyme activity. All of this indicated that copper mining activity in this territory causing the heavy metal pollution of the soils resulted in the inhabitation of the activities of the enzymes which are considered as biological catalysts to decompose organic materials and facilitate the cycling of nutrients.

Keywords: Armenia, metallurgical industrial activity, heavy metal pollutionl, soil enzyme activity

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12 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan

Abstract:

The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

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11 Dynamic Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate from Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Wojciech Sas, Emil Soból, Katarzyna Gabryś, Andrzej Głuchowski, Alojzy Szymański

Abstract:

Depleting of natural resources is forcing the man to look for alternative construction materials. One of them is recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). RCA from the demolition of buildings and crushed to proper gradation can be a very good replacement for natural unbound granular aggregates, gravels or sands. Physical and the mechanical properties of RCA are well known in the field of basic civil engineering applications, but to proper roads and railways design dynamic characteristic is need as well. To know maximum shear modulus (GMAX) and the minimum damping ratio (DMIN) of the RCA dynamic loads in resonant column apparatus need to be performed. The paper will contain literature revive about alternative construction materials and dynamic laboratory research technique. The article will focus on dynamic properties of RCA, but early studies conducted by the authors on physical and mechanical properties of this material also will be presented. The authors will show maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Shear modulus and damping ratio degradation curves will be shown as well. From exhibited results conclusion will be drawn at the end of the article.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, shear modulus, damping ratio, resonant column

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10 Synthesis and Characterisation of Starch-PVP as Encapsulation Material for Drug Delivery System

Authors: Nungki Rositaningsih, Emil Budianto

Abstract:

Starch has been widely used as an encapsulation material for drug delivery system. However, starch hydrogel is very easily degraded during metabolism in human stomach. Modification of this material is needed to improve the encapsulation process in drug delivery system, especially for gastrointestinal drug. In this research, three modified starch-based hydrogels are synthesized i.e. Crosslinked starch hydrogel, Semi- and Full- Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) starch hydrogel using Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone). Non-modified starch hydrogel was also synthesized as a control. All of those samples were compared as biomaterials, floating drug delivery, and their ability in loading drug test. Biomaterial characterizations were swelling test, stereomicroscopy observation, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Buoyancy test and stereomicroscopy scanning were done for floating drug delivery characterizations. Lastly, amoxicillin was used as test drug, and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy for loading drug observation. Preliminary observation showed that Full-IPN has the most dense and elastic texture, followed by Semi-IPN, Crosslinked, and Non-modified in the last position. Semi-IPN and Crosslinked starch hydrogel have the most ideal properties and will not be degraded easily during metabolism. Therefore, both hydrogels could be considered as promising candidates for encapsulation material. Further analysis and issues will be discussed in the paper.

Keywords: biomaterial, drug delivery system, interpenetrating polymer network, poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone), starch hydrogel

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9 Changes in Serum Neopterin in Workers Exposed to Different Mineral Dust

Authors: Gospodinka Prakova, Pavlina Gidikova, Gergana Sandeva, Kamelia Haracherova, Emil Slavov

Abstract:

Neopterin was demonstrated to be a sensitive marker of cell-mediated immune reactions which plays a key role in the interaction of monocyte / macrophage activation. The purpose of this work was to investigate changes in serum neopterin in workers exposed to different composition of mineral dust. Material and Methods: Serum neopterin was studied in 193 exposed workers, divided into three groups, depending on the mineral dust and content of the quartz in the respirable fraction. The I-st group-coal dust containing less than 2% free crystalline silica (n=44), II-nd group-coal dust containing over 2% free crystalline silica (n=94) and the III-rd group-mixed dust with corundum and carborundum (n=55). The control group was composed of 21 individuals without exposure to dust. Serum neopterin was investigated by Elisa method in ng/ml according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results and Discussion: It was found significantly higher level of serum neopterin in exposed workers of mineral dust (2,10 ± 0,62 ng / ml), compared with that of the control group (1,10 ± 0,85 ng/ml; p < 0,05). Neopterin levels in workers exposed to coal dust (1,87 ± 0,42 ng / ml-I-st and 3,32 ± 0,77 ng / ml-II-nd group) were significantly higher compared with those exposed to a mixed dust (1,31±0,68 mg / ml-third) and control group (p < 0,05). No significant difference in serum neopterin when exposed to a mixed dust composed of corundum and carborundum (III-rd) and a control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate activates a cell-mediated immune response when exposed to a mineral dust. The level of that activation depends mainly on the composition of the dust and is significantly highest in workers exposed to coal dust.

Keywords: mineral dust, neopterin, occupational exposure, respirable crystalline silica

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8 RF Plasma Discharge Equipment for Conservation Treatments of Paper Supports

Authors: Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Viorica Frunză, Dorina Rusu, Ana Maria Vlad, Catalin Tanase, Simona Dunca

Abstract:

The application of cold radio-frequency (RF) plasma in the conservation of cultural heritage became important in the last decades due to the positive results obtained in decontamination treatments. This paper presents an equipment especially designed for RF cold plasma application on paper documents, developed within a research project. The equipment allows the application of decontamination and cleaning treatments on any type of paper support, as well as the coating with a protective polymer. The equipment consists in a Pyrex vessel, inside which are placed two plane-parallel electrodes, capacitively coupled to a radio-frequency generator. The operating parameters of the equipment are: 1.2 MHz frequency, 50V/cm electric field intensity, current intensity in the discharge 100 mA, 40 W power in the discharge, the pressure varying from 5∙10-1 mbar to 5.5∙10-1 mbar, depending on the fragility of the material, operating in gaseous nitrogen. In order to optimize the equipment treatments in nitrogen plasma have been performed on samples infested with microorganisms, then the decontamination and the changes in surface properties (color, pH) were assessed. The analyses results presented in the table revealed only minor modifications of surface pH the colorimetric analysis showing a slight change to yellow. The equipment offers the possibility of performing decontamination, cleaning and protective coating of paper-based documents in successive stages, thus avoiding the recontamination with harmful biological agents.

Keywords: nitrogen plasma, cultural heritage, paper support, radio-frequency

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7 Investigation of the Heavy Metal Pollution of the River Ecosystems in the Lake Sevan Basin, Armenia

Authors: G. Gevorgyan, S. Khudaverdyan, A. Vaseashta

Abstract:

The Lake Sevan basin is situated in the eastern part of the Republic of Armenia (Gegharquniq marz/district). The heavy metal pollution of the some tributaries of Lake Sevan was investigated. Water sampling was performed in August and December, 2014 from the 4 observation sites: 1) Sotq river upstream (about 600 meters upstream from the Sotq gold mine); 2) Sotq river mouth; 3) Masrik river mouth; 4) Dzknaget river mouth. Heavy metal (V, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Mo, Pb) concentrations in the water samples were determined by the standard methods using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the study showed that heavy metal content mainly increased from the upstream of the Sotq river to the mouth of the Masrik river which may have been conditioned by the influence of gold mining activity as the Masrik and its tributary-Sotq rivers passing through the gold mining area were exposed to heavy metal pollution. The observation sites can be ranked by pollution degree as follows: №3> №2> №1> №4. The highest heavy metal pollution degree was observed in the Masrik river mouth which may have been conditioned by the direct impact of gold mining activity and the pressure of its tributary–the Sotq river which flows through the gold mining area. The lowest heavy metal pollution degree was registered in the Dzknaget river mouth which flowing through rural areas wasn’t subject to significant heavy metal pollution. According to the observation sites of the Sotq and Masrik rivers, high positive correlation was mainly observed between the concentrations of the investigated heavy metals (except nickel) which indicated that all the heavy metals except the nickel had the same anthropogenic pollution source which was the activity of the Sotq gold mine. In general, it is possible to state that the activity of the Sotq gold mine in the Lake Sevan basin caused the heavy metal pollution of the Sotq and Masrik rivers which may have posed environmental hazards. Heavy metals are nondegradable substances, and heavy metal pollution of freshwater systems may pose risks to the environment and human health through accumulation in the tissues of aquatic organisms, water-food chain as well as oral ingestion and dermal contact.

Keywords: Armenia, Lake Sevan basin, gold mining activity, river ecosystems, heavy metal pollution

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6 Behavior of Printing Inks on Historical Documents Subjected to Cold RF Plasma Discharges

Authors: Dorina Rusu, Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Marta Ursescu, Ana Maria Vlad, Mihaela Popescu

Abstract:

During the last decades the cold plasma discharges made the subject of numerous studies concerning the applications in the cultural heritage field, especially concentrated on ecological and non-invasive aspect of these conservation procedures. The conservation treatment using cold plasma is based, on the one hand, on the well-known property of plasma discharges to inactivate the contaminant biological species and, on the other hand, on the surface cleaning effect. Moreover the plasma discharge produces the functionalization of the treated surface, allowing subsequent deposition of protective layers. The paper presents the behavior of printing inks on historical documents treated in cold RF plasma. Two types of printing inks were studied, namely red and black ink, used on a religious book published in 19 century. SEM-EDX analysis results in the identification of the two inks as carbon black ink (C presence in the EDX spectrum) and cinnabar based red ink (Hg and S lines in the spectrum), result confirmed by XRF analysis. The experiments have been performed on paper samples written with laboratory- made inks, of similar composition with the inks identified on historical documents. The samples were subjected to RF plasma discharge, operating in nitrogen gaseous medium, at 1.2 MHz frequency and low-pressure (0.5 mbar), performed in a self-designed equipment for the application of conservation treatments on naturally aged paper supports. The impact of plasma discharge on the inks has been evaluated by SEM, XRD and color analysis. The color analysis revealed a slight discoloration of cinnabar ink on the historical document. SEM and XRD analyses have been carried out in an attempt to elucidate the process responsable for color modification.

Keywords: RF plasma, printing inks, historical documents, surface cleaning effect

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5 Growth Rates of Planktonic Organisms in “Yerevanyan Lich” Reservoir and the Hrazdan River in Yerevan City, Armenia

Authors: G. A. Gevorgyan, A. S. Mamyan, L. G. Stepanyan, L. R. Hambaryan

Abstract:

Bacterio- and phytoplankton growth rates in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir and the Hrazdan river in Yerevan city, Armenia were investigated in April and June-August, 2015. Phytoplankton sampling and analysis were performed by the standard methods accepted in hydrobiological studies. The quantitative analysis of aerobic, coliform and E. coli bacteria is done by the 'RIDA COUNT' medium sheets (coated with ready-to-use culture medium). The investigations showed that the insufficient management of household discharges in Yerevan city caused the organic and fecal pollution of the Hrazdan river in this area which in turn resulted in an increase in bacterial count and increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health. During the investigation in April, the representatives of diatom algae prevailed quantitatively in the coastal area of 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir, nevertheless, a significant change in the phytoplankton community in June occurred: due to green algae bloom in the reservoir, the quantitative parameters of phytoplankton increased significantly. This was probably conditioned by a seasonal increase in the water temperature in the conditions of the sufficient concentration of nutrients. However, a succession in phytoplankton groups during July-August occurred, and a dominant group (according to quantitative parameters) in the phytoplankton community was changed as follows: green algae-diatom algae-blue-green algae. Rapid increase in the quantitative parameters of diatom and blue-green algae in the reservoir may have been conditioned by increased organic matter level resulted from green algae bloom. Algal bloom in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir caused changes in phytoplankton community and an increase in bacterioplankton count not only in the reservoir but also in the Hrazdan river sites located in the downstream from the reservoir. Thus, the insufficient management of urban discharges and aquatic ecosystems in Yerevan city led to unfavorable changes in water quality and microbial and phytoplankton communities in “Yerevanyan lich” reservoir and the Hrazdan river which in turn caused increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health.

Keywords: algal bloom, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, Hrazdan river, Yerevanyan lich reservoir

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4 Impact of Social Media in Shaping Perceptions on Filipino Muslim Identity

Authors: Anna Rhodora A. Solar, Jan Emil N. Langomez

Abstract:

Social Media plays a crucial role in influencing Philippine public opinion with regard to a variety of socio-political issues. This became evident in the massacre of 44 members of the Special Action Force (SAF 44) tasked by the Philippine government to capture one of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation’s most wanted terrorists. The incident was said to be perpetrated by members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters. Part of the online discourse within Philippine cyberspace sparked intense debates on Filipino Muslim identity, with several Facebook viral posts linking Islam as a factor to the tragic event. Facebook is considered to be the most popular social media platform in the Philippines. As such, this begs the question of the extent to which social media, specifically Facebook, shape the perceptions of Filipinos on Filipino Muslims. This study utilizes Habermas’ theory of communicative action as it offers an explanation on how public sphere such as social media could be a network for communicating information and points of view through free and open dialogue among equal citizens to come to an understanding or common perception. However, the paper argues that communicative action which is aimed at reaching understanding free from force, and strategic action which is aimed at convincing someone through argumentation may not necessarily be mutually exclusive since reaching an understanding can also be considered as a result of convincing someone through argumentation. Moreover, actors may clash one another in their ideas before reaching common understanding, hence the presence of force. Utilizing content analysis on the Facebook posts with Islamic component that went viral after the massacre of the SAF 44, this paper argues that framing the image of Filipino Muslims through Facebook reflects both communicative and strategic actions. Moreover, comment threads on viral posts manifest force albeit implicit.

Keywords: communication, Muslim, Philippines, social media

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3 Assessment of Fermentative Activity in Heavy Metal Polluted Soils in Alaverdi Region, Armenia

Authors: V. M. Varagyan, G. A. Gevorgyan, K. V. Grigoryan, A. L. Varagyan

Abstract:

Alaverdi region is situated in the northern part of the Republic of Armenia. Previous studies (1989) in Alaverdi region showed that due to soil irrigation with the highly polluted waters of the Debed and Shnogh rivers, the content of heavy metals in the brown forest steppe soils was significantly higher than the maximum permissible concentration as a result of which the fermentative activity in all the layers of the soils was stressed. Compared to the non-polluted soils, the activity of ferments in the plough layers of the highly polluted soils decreased by 44 - 68% (invertase – 60%, phosphatase – 44%, urease – 66%, catalase – 68%). In case of the soil irrigation with the polluted waters, a decrease in the intensity of fermentative reactions was conditioned by the high content of heavy metals in the soils and changes in chemical composition, physical and physicochemical properties. 20-year changes in the fermentative activity in the brown forest steppe soils in Alaverdi region were investigated. The activity of extracellular ferments in the soils was determined by the unification methods. The study has confirmed that self-recovery process occurs in soils previously polluted with heavy metals which can be revealed by fermentative activity. The investigations revealed that during 1989 – 2009, the activity of ferments in the plough layers of the medium and highly polluted soils increased by 31.2 – 52.6% (invertase – 31.2%, urease – 52.6%, phosphatase – 33.3%, catalase – 41.8%) and 24.1 – 87.0% (invertase – 40.4%, urease – 76.9%, phosphatase – 24.1%, catalase – 87.0%) respectively which indicated that the dynamic properties of the soils, which had been broken due to heavy metal pollution, were improved. In 1989, the activity of the Alaverdi copper smelting plant was temporarily stopped due to financial problems caused by the economic crisis and the absence of market, and the factory again started operation in 1997 and isn’t currently running at full capacity. As a result, the Debed river water has obtained a new chemical composition and comparatively good irrigation properties. Due to irrigation with this water, the gradually recovery of the soil dynamic properties, which had been broken due to irrigation with the waters polluted with heavy metals, was occurred. This is also explained by the fact that in case of irrigation with the partially cleaned water, the soil protective function against pollutants rose due to a content increase in humus and silt fractions. It is supposed that in case of the soil irrigation with the partially cleaned water, the intensity of fermentative reactions wasn’t directly affected by heavy metals.

Keywords: alaverdi region, heavy metal pollution, self-recovery, soil fermentative activity

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2 Improving Cleanability by Changing Fish Processing Equipment Design

Authors: Lars A. L. Giske, Ola J. Mork, Emil Bjoerlykhaug

Abstract:

The design of fish processing equipment greatly impacts how easy the cleaning process for the equipment is. This is a critical issue in fish processing, as cleaning of fish processing equipment is a task that is both costly and time consuming, in addition to being very important with regards to product quality. Even more, poorly cleaned equipment could in the worst case lead to contaminated product from which consumers could get ill. This paper will elucidate how equipment design changes could improve the work for the cleaners and saving money for the fish processing facilities by looking at a case for product design improvements. The design of fish processing equipment largely determines how easy it is to clean. “Design for cleaning” is the new hype in the industry and equipment where the ease of cleaning is prioritized gets a competitive advantage over equipment in which design for cleaning has not been prioritized. Design for cleaning is an important research area for equipment manufacturers. SeaSide AS is doing continuously improvements in the design of their products in order to gain a competitive advantage. The focus in this paper will be conveyors for internal logistic and a product called the “electro stunner” will be studied with regards to “Design for cleaning”. Often together with SeaSide’s customers, ideas for new products or product improvements are sketched out, 3D-modelled, discussed, revised, built and delivered. Feedback from the customers is taken into consideration, and the product design is revised once again. This loop was repeated multiple times, and led to new product designs. The new designs sometimes also cause the manufacturing processes to change (as in going from bolted to welded connections). Customers report back that the concrete changes applied to products by SeaSide has resulted in overall more easily cleaned equipment. These changes include, but are not limited to; welded connections (opposed to bolted connections), gaps between contact faces, opening up structures to allow cleaning “inside” equipment, and generally avoiding areas in which humidity and water may gather and build up. This is important, as there will always be bacteria in the water which will grow if the area never dries up. The work of creating more cleanable design is still ongoing, and will “never” be finished as new designs and new equipment will have their own challenges.

Keywords: cleaning, design, equipment, fish processing, innovation

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1 Simulation: A Tool for Stabilization of Welding Processes in Lean Production Concepts

Authors: Ola Jon Mork, Lars Andre Giske, Emil Bjørlykhaug

Abstract:

Stabilization of critical processes in order to have the right quality of the products, more efficient production and smoother flow is a key issue in lean production. This paper presents how simulation of key welding processes can stabilize complicated welding processes in small scale production, and how simulation can impact the entire production concept seen from the perspective of lean production. First, a field study was made to learn the production processes in the factory, and subsequently the field study was transformed into a value stream map to get insight into each operation, the quality issues, operation times, lead times and flow of materials. Valuable practical knowledge of how the welding operations were done by operators, appropriate tools and jigs, and type of robots that could be used, was collected. All available information was then implemented into a simulation environment for further elaboration and development. Three researchers, the management of the company and skilled operators at the work floor where working on the project over a period of eight months, and a detailed description of the process was made by the researchers. The simulation showed that simulation could solve a number of technical challenges, the robot program can be tuned in off line mode, and the design and testing of the robot cell could be made in the simulator. Further on the design of the product could be optimized for robot welding and the jigs could be designed and tested in simulation environment. This means that a key issue of lean production can be solved; the welding operation will work with almost 100% performance when it is put into real production. Stabilizing of one key process is critical to gain control of the entire value chain, then a Takt Time can be established and the focus can be directed towards the next process in the production which should be stabilized. Results show that industrial parameters like welding time, welding cost and welding quality can be defined on the simulation stage. Further on, this gives valuable information for calculation of the factories business performance, like manufacturing volume and manufacturing efficiency. Industrial impact from simulation is more efficient implementation of lean manufacturing, since the welding process can be stabilized. More research should be done to gain more knowledge about simulation as a tool for implementation of lean, especially where there complex processes.

Keywords: simulation, lean, stabilization, welding process

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