Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: rhamnolipids biosurfactants

29 Production of Rhamnolipids from Different Resources and Estimating the Kinetic Parameters for Bioreactor Design

Authors: Olfat A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Rhamnolipids biosurfactants have distinct properties given them importance in many industrial applications, especially their great new future applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These applications have encouraged the search for diverse and renewable resources to control the cost of production. The experimental results were then applied to find a suitable mathematical model for obtaining the design criteria of the batch bioreactor. This research aims to produce Rhamnolipids from different oily wastewater sources such as petroleum crude oil (PO) and vegetable oil (VO) by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Different concentrations of the PO and the VO are added to the media broth separately are in arrangement (0.5 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 % v/v) and (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%v/v). The effect of the initial concentration of oil residues and the addition of glycerol and palmitic acid was investigated as an inducer in the production of rhamnolipid and the surface tension of the broth. It was found that 2% of the waste (PO) and 6% of the waste (VO) was the best initial substrate concentration for the production of rhamnolipids (2.71, 5.01 g rhamnolipid/l) as arrangement. Addition of glycerol (10-20% v glycerol/v PO) to the 2% PO fermentation broth led to increase the rhamnolipid production (about 1.8-2 times fold). However, the addition of palmitic acid (5 and 10 g/l) to fermentation broth contained 6% VO rarely enhanced the production rate. The experimental data for 2% initially (PO) was used to estimate the various kinetic parameters. The following results were obtained, maximum rate or velocity of reaction (Vmax) = 0.06417 g/l.hr), yield of cell weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Yx/s = 0.324 g Cx/g Cs) maximum specific growth rate (μmax = 0.05791 hr⁻¹), yield of rhamnolipid weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Yp/s)=0.2571gCp/g Cs), maintenance coefficient (Ms =0.002419), Michaelis-Menten constant, (Km=6.1237 gmol/l), endogenous decay coefficient (Kd=0.002375 hr⁻¹). Predictive parameters and advanced mathematical models were applied to evaluate the time of the batch bioreactor. The results were as follows: 123.37, 129 and 139.3 hours in respect of microbial biomass, substrate and product concentration, respectively compared with experimental batch time of 120 hours in all cases. The expected mathematical models are compatible with the laboratory results and can, therefore, be considered as tools for expressing the actual system.

Keywords: batch bioreactor design, glycerol, kinetic parameters, petroleum crude oil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rhamnolipids biosurfactants, vegetable oil

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28 Statistical Optimization and Production of Rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa PAO1 Using Prickly Pear Peel as a Carbon Source

Authors: Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud, Heba I. Elkhouly, Nagwa M. Sidkey

Abstract:

Production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has attracted a growing interest during the last few decades due to its high productivity compared with other microorganisms. In the current work, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was statistically modeled using Taguchi orthogonal array, numerically optimized and validated. Prickly Pear Peel (Opuntia ficus-indica) has been used as a carbon source for production of rhamnolipid. Finally, the optimum conditions for rhamnolipid production were applied in 5L working volume bioreactors at different aerations, agitation and controlled pH for maximum rhamnolipid production. In addition, kinetic studies of rhamnolipids production have been reported. At the end of the batch bioreactor optimization process, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 has reached the worldwide levels and can be applied for its industrial production.

Keywords: rhamnolipids, pseudomonas aeruginosa, statistical optimization, tagushi, opuntia ficus-indica

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27 Biosurfactants Production by Bacillus Strain from an Environmental Sample in Egypt

Authors: Mervat Kassem, Nourhan Fanaki, F. Dabbous, Hamida Abou-Shleib, Y. R. Abdel-Fattah

Abstract:

With increasing environmental awareness and emphasis on a sustainable society in harmony with the global environment, biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses. They are produced by living organisms, for examples Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. The main goal of this work was to optimize biosurfactants production by an environmental Gram positive isolate for large scale production with maximum yield and low cost. After molecular characterization, phylogenetic tree was constructed where it was found to be B. subtilis, which close matches to B. subtilis subsp. subtilis strain CICC 10260. For optimizing its biosurfactants production, sequential statistical design using Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology, was applied where 11 variables were screened. When analyzing the regression coefficients for the 11 variables, pH, glucose, glycerol, yeast extract, ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate were found to have a positive effect on the biosurfactants production. Ammonium nitrate, pH and glucose were further studied as significant independent variables for Box-Behnken design and their optimal levels were estimated and were found to be 7.328 pH value, 3 g% glucose and 0.21g % ammonium nitrate yielding high biosurfactants concentration that reduced the surface tension of the culture medium from 72 to 18.16 mN/m. Next, kinetics of cell growth and biosurfactants production by the tested B. subtilis isolate, in bioreactor was compared with that of shake flask where the maximum growth and specific growth (µ) in the bioreactor was higher by about 25 and 53%, respectively, than in shake flask experiment, while the biosurfactants production kinetics was almost the same in both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

Keywords: biosurfactants, B. subtilis, molecular identification, phylogenetic trees, Plackett-Burman design, Box-Behnken design, 16S rRNA

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26 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, biodegradation, lagoon marchika, emulsification index

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25 Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by a variety of yeast, bacteria and filamentous fungi. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for various industrial applications, such as in food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combinations with enzymes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains: Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia ficaria were collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: biosurfactants, Mannheimia haemolytica, biodegradability, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia ficaria

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24 Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Biosurfactants on Residual-Oil Recovery

Authors: S. V. Ukwungwu, A. J. Abbas, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

The increasing high price of natural gas and oil with attendant increase in energy demand on world markets in recent years has stimulated interest in recovering residual oil saturation across the globe. In order to meet the energy security, efforts have been made in developing new technologies of enhancing the recovery of oil and gas, utilizing techniques like CO2 flooding, water injection, hydraulic fracturing, surfactant flooding etc. Surfactant flooding however optimizes production but poses risk to the environment due to their toxic nature. Amongst proven records that have utilized other type of bacterial in producing biosurfactants for enhancing oil recovery, this research uses a technique to combine biosurfactants that will achieve a scale of EOR through lowering interfacial tension/contact angle. In this study, three biosurfactants were produced from three Bacillus species from freeze dried cultures using sucrose 3 % (w/v) as their carbon source. Two of these produced biosurfactants were screened with the TEMCO Pendant Drop Image Analysis for reduction in IFT and contact angle. Interfacial tension was greatly reduced from 56.95 mN.m-1 to 1.41 mN.m-1 when biosurfactants in cell-free culture (Bacillus licheniformis) were used compared to 4. 83mN.m-1 cell-free culture of Bacillus subtilis. As a result, cell-free culture of (Bacillus licheniformis) changes the wettability of the biosurfactant treatment for contact angle measurement to more water-wet as the angle decreased from 130.75o to 65.17o. The influence of microbial treatment on crushed rock samples was also observed by qualitative wettability experiments. Treated samples with biosurfactants remained in the aqueous phase, indicating a water-wet system. These results could prove that biosurfactants can effectively change the chemistry of the wetting conditions against diverse surfaces, providing a desirable condition for efficient oil transport in this way serving as a mechanism for EOR. The environmental friendly effect of biosurfactants applications for industrial purposes play important advantages over chemically synthesized surfactants, with various possible structures, low toxicity, eco-friendly and biodegradability.

Keywords: bacillus, biosurfactant, enhanced oil recovery, residual oil, wettability

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23 Biosurfactants Produced by Antarctic Bacteria with Hydrocarbon Cleaning Activity

Authors: Claudio Lamilla, Misael Riquelme, Victoria Saez, Fernanda Sepulveda, Monica Pavez, Leticia Barrientos

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are compounds synthesized by microorganisms that show various chemical structures, including glycolipids, lipopeptides, polysaccharide-protein complex, phospholipids, and fatty acids. These molecules have attracted attention in recent years due to the amphipathic nature of these compounds, which allows their application in various activities related to emulsification, foaming, detergency, wetting, dispersion and solubilization of hydrophobic compounds. Microorganisms that produce biosurfactants are ubiquitous, not only present in water, soil, and sediments but in extreme conditions of pH, salinity or temperature such as those present in Antarctic ecosystems. Due to this, it is of interest to study biosurfactants producing bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic environments, with the potential to be used in various biotechnological processes. The objective of this research was to characterize biosurfactants produced by bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic environments, with potential use in biotechnological processes for the cleaning of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons. The samples were collected from soils and sediments in the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, during the Antarctic Research Expedition INACH 2016, from both pristine and human occupied areas (influenced). The bacteria isolation was performed from solid R2A, M1 and LB media. The selection of strains producing biosurfactants was done by hemolysis test on blood agar plates (5%) and blue agar (CTAB). From 280 isolates, it was determined that 10 bacterial strains produced biosurfactants after stimulation with different carbon sources. 16S rDNA taxonomic markers, using the universal primers 27F-1492R, were used to identify these bacterias. Biosurfactants production was carried out in 250 ml flasks using Bushnell Hass liquid culture medium enriched with different carbon sources (olive oil, glucose, glycerol, and hexadecane) during seven days under constant stirring at 20°C. Each cell-free supernatant was characterized by physicochemical parameters including drop collapse, emulsification and oil displacement, as well as stability at different temperatures, salinity, and pH. In addition, the surface tension of each supernatant was quantified using a tensiometer. The strains with the highest activity were selected, and the production of biosurfactants was stimulated in six liters of culture medium. Biosurfactants were extracted from the supernatants with chloroform methanol (2:1). These biosurfactants were tested against crude oil and motor oil, to evaluate their displacement activity (detergency). The characterization by physicochemical properties of 10 supernatants showed that 80% of them produced the drop collapse, 60% had stability at different temperatures, and 90% had detergency activity in motor and olive oil. The biosurfactants obtained from two bacterial strains showed a high activity of dispersion of crude oil and motor oil with halos superior to 10 cm. We can conclude that bacteria isolated from Antarctic soils and sediments provide biological material of high quality for the production of biosurfactants, with potential applications in the biotechnological industry, especially in hydrocarbons -contaminated areas such as petroleum.

Keywords: antarctic, bacteria, biosurfactants, hydrocarbons

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22 Potential Applications of Biosurfactants from Corn Steep Liquor in Cosmetic

Authors: J. M. Cruz, X. Vecıno, L. Rodrıguez-López, J. M. Dominguez, A. B. Moldes

Abstract:

The cosmetic and personal care industry are the fields where biosurfactants could have more possibilities of success because in this kind of products the replacement of synthetic detergents by natural surfactants will provide an additional added value to the product, at the same time that the harmful effects produced by some synthetic surfactants could be avoided or reduced. Therefore, nowadays, consumers are disposed to pay and additional cost if they obtain more natural products. In this work we provide data about the potential of biosurfactants in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, that is a fermented and condensed stream, have showed good surface-active properties, reducing substantially the surface tension of water. The bacteria that usually growth in corn steep liquor comprises Lactobacillus species, generally recognize as safe. The biosurfactant extracted from CSL consists of a lipopeptide, composed by fatty acids, which can reduce the surface tension of water in more than 30 units. It is a yellow and viscous liquid with a density of 1.053 mg/mL and pH=4. By these properties, they could be introduced in the formulation of cosmetic creams, hair conditioners or shampoos. Moreover this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor, have showed a potent antimicrobial effect on different strains of Streptococcus. Some species of Streptococcus are commonly found weakly living in the human respiratory and genitourinary systems, producing several diseases in humans, including skin diseases. For instance, Streptococcus pyogenes produces many toxins and enzymes that help to stabilize skin infections; probably biosurfactants from corn steep liquor can inhibit the mechanisms of the S. pyogenes enzymes. S. pyogenes is an important cause of pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. In this work it was observed that 50 mg/L of biosurfactant extract obtained from corn steep liquor is able to inhibit more than 50% the growth of S. pyogenes. Thus, cosmetic and personal care products, formulated with biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, could have prebiotic properties. The natural biosurfactant presented in this work and obtained from corn milling industry streams, have showed a high potential to provide an interesting and sustainable alternative to those, antibacterial and surfactant ingredients used in cosmetic and personal care manufacture, obtained by chemical synthesis, which can cause irritation, and often only show short time effects.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, biosurfactants, cosmetic, personal care

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21 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, bioremediation, rhamnolipid, surfactants

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20 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri

Abstract:

Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: oil contamination, remediation, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant, surface tension, interfacial tension

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19 Evaluation of Biosurfactant Production by a New Strain Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Pollution caused by petroleum hydrocarbons in terrestrial and aquatic environment is a common phenomenon that causes significant ecological and social problems. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactant, biodegradability, critical micelle concentration, lagoon Marchika

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18 Isolation and Identification of Biosurfactant Producing Microorganism for Bioaugmentation

Authors: Karthick Gopalan, Selvamohan Thankiah

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are lipid compounds produced by microbes, which are amphipathic molecules consisting of hydrophophic and hydrophilic domains. In the present investigation, ten bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites near petrol bunk. Oil collapsing test, haemolytic activity were used as a criteria for primary isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria. In this study, all the bacterial strains gave positive results. Among the ten strains, two were observed as good biosurfactant producers, they utilize the diesel as a sole carbon source. Optimization of biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites was carried out using different parameters such as, temperature (20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC, 37ºC and 45ºC), pH (5,6,7,8 & 9) and nitrogen sources (ammonium chloride, ammonium carbonate and sodium nitrate). Biosurfactants produced by bacteria were extracted, dried and quantified. As a result of optimization of parameters the suitable values for the production of more amount of biosurfactant by the isolated bacterial species was observed as 30ºC (0.543 gm/lt) in the pH 7 (0.537 gm/lt) with ammonium nitrate (0.431 gm/lt) as sole carbon source.

Keywords: isolation and identification, biosurfactant, microorganism, bioaugmentation

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17 Alternative Energy and Carbon Source for Biosurfactant Production

Authors: Akram Abi, Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh

Abstract:

Because of their several advantages over chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have given rise to a growing interest in the past decades. Advantages such as lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and applicable at extreme temperature and pH which enables them to be used in a variety of applications such as: enhanced oil recovery, environmental and pharmaceutical applications, etc. Bacillus subtilis produces a cyclic lipopeptide, called surfactin, which is one of the most powerful biosurfactants with ability to decrease surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 27 mN/m. In addition to its biosurfactant character, surfactin exhibits interesting biological activities such as: inhibition of fibrin clot formation, lyses of erythrocytes and several bacterial spheroplasts, antiviral, anti-tumoral and antibacterial properties. Surfactin is an antibiotic substance and has been shown recently to possess anti-HIV activity. However, application of biosurfactants is limited by their high production cost. The cost can be reduced by optimizing biosurfactant production using cheap feed stock. Utilization of inexpensive substrates and unconventional carbon sources like urban or agro-industrial wastes is a promising strategy to decrease the production cost of biosurfactants. With suitable engineering optimization and microbiological modifications, these wastes can be used as substrates for large-scale production of biosurfactants. As an effort to fulfill this purpose, in this work we have tried to utilize olive oil as second carbon source and also yeast extract as second nitrogen source to investigate the effect on both biomass and biosurfactant production improvement in Bacillus subtilis cultures. Since the turbidity of the culture was affected by presence of the oil, optical density was compromised and no longer could be used as an index of growth and biomass concentration. Therefore, cell Dry Weight measurements with applying necessary tactics for removing oil drops to prevent interference with biomass weight were carried out to monitor biomass concentration during the growth of the bacterium. The surface tension and critical micelle dilutions (CMD-1, CMD-2) were considered as an indirect measurement of biosurfactant production. Distinctive and promising results were obtained in the cultures containing olive oil compared to cultures without it: more than two fold increase in biomass production (from 2 g/l to 5 g/l) and considerable reduction in surface tension, down to 40 mN/m at surprisingly early hours of culture time (only 5hr after inoculation). This early onset of biosurfactant production in this culture is specially interesting when compared to the conventional cultures at which this reduction in surface tension is not obtained until 30 hour of culture time. Reducing the production time is a very prominent result to be considered for large scale process development. Furthermore, these results can be used to develop strategies for utilization of agro-industrial wastes (such as olive oil mill residue, molasses, etc.) as cheap and easily accessible feed stocks to decrease the high costs of biosurfactant production.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, bacillus subtilis, biosurfactant, fermentation, second carbon and nitrogen source, surfactin

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16 Different Tools and Complex Approach for Improving Phytoremediation Technology

Authors: T. Varazi, M. Pruidze, M. Kurashvili, N. Gagelidze, M. Sutton

Abstract:

The complex phytoremediation approach given in the presented work implies joint application of natural sorbents, microorganisms, natural biosurfactants and plants. The approach is based on using the natural mineral composites, microorganism strains with high detoxification abilities, plants-phytoremediators and natural biosurfactants for enhancing the uptake of intermediates of pollutants by plant roots. In this complex strategy of phytoremediation technology, the sorbent serves to uptake and trap the pollutants and thus restrain their emission in the environment. The role of microorganisms is to accomplish the first stage biodegradation of organic contaminants. This is followed by application of a phytoremediation technology through purposeful planting of selected plants. Thus, using of different tools will provide restoration of polluted environment and prevention of toxic compounds’ dissemination from hotbeds of pollution for a considerable length of time. The main idea and novelty of the carried out work is the development of a new approach for the ecological safety. The wide spectrum of contaminants: Organochlorine pesticide – DDT, heavy metal –Cu, oil hydrocarbon (hexadecane) and wax have been used in this work. The presented complex biotechnology is important from the viewpoint of prevention, providing total rehabilitation of soil. It is unique to chemical pollutants, ecologically friendly and provides the control of erosion of soils.

Keywords: bioremediation, phytoremediation, pollutants, soil contamination

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15 Enhanced PAHs' Biodegradation by Consortia Developed with Biofilm – Biosurfactant - Producing Microorganisms

Authors: Swapna Guntupalli, Leela Madhuri Chalasani, Kshatri Jyothi, C. V. Rao, Bondili J. S.

Abstract:

The study hypothesizes that enhanced biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is achievable with an assemblage of microorganisms that are capable of producing biofilm and biosurfactants. Accordingly, PAHs degrading microorganism’s (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and yeast) were screened and grouped into different consortia based on their capabilities to produce biofilm and biosurfactants. Among these, Consortium BTSN09 consisting of bacterial fungal cocultures showed highest degradation due to the synergistic action between them. Degradation effiencies were evaluated using HPLC and GC-MS. Within 7days, BTSN09 showed 51% and 50.7% degradation of Phenanthrene (PHE) and Pyrene (PYR) with 200mg/L and 100 mg/L concentrations respectively in a liquid medium. In addition, several degradative enzymes like laccases, 1hydroxy-2-naphthoicacid dioxygenase, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, catechol1,2 dioxygenase and catechol2,3 dioxygenase activity was observed during degradation. Degradation metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis and from the results it was confirmed that the metabolism of degradation proceeds via pthalic acid pathway for both PAHs. Besides, Microbial consortia also demonstrated good biosurfactant production capacity, achieving maximum oil displacement area and emulsification activity of 19.62 cm2, 65.5% in presence of PAHs as sole carbon source. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, micro and macrocolonies formation with different stages of biofim development in presence of PAHs during degradation.

Keywords: PAHs, biosurfactant, biofilm, biodegradation

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14 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati

Abstract:

Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, removal of heavy metals, sludge waste, paper industries

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13 Repeated Batch Production of Biosurfactant from Pseudomonas mendocina NK41 Using Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Wastes as Substate

Authors: Natcha Ruamyat, Nichakorn Khondee

Abstract:

The potential of an alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soil in Thailand to utilized agro-industrial and agricultural wastes for the production of biosurfactants was evaluated in this study. Among five isolates, Pseudomonas mendocina NK41 used soapstock as substrate showing a high biosurfactant concentration of 7.10 g/L, oil displacement of 97.8 %, and surface tension reduction to 29.45 mN/m. Various agricultural residues were applied as mixed substrates with soapstock to enhance the synthesis of biosurfactants. The production of biosurfactant and bacterial growth was found to be the highest with coconut oil cake as compared to Sacha inchi shell, coconut kernel cake, and durian shell. The biodegradability of agro-industrial wastes was better than agricultural wastes, which allowed higher bacterial growth. The pretreatment of coconut oil cake by combined alkaline and hydrothermal method increased the production of biosurfactant from 12.69 g/L to 13.82 g/L. The higher microbial accessibility was improved by the swelling of the alkali-hydrothermal pretreated coconut oil cake, which enhanced its porosity and surface area. The pretreated coconut oil cake was reused twice in the repeated batch production, showing higher biosurfactant concentration up to 16.94 g/L from the second cycle. These results demonstrated the capability of using lignocellulosic wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial activities to produce a highly valuable biosurfactant. High biosurfactant yield with low-cost substrate reveals its potential towards further commercialization of biosurfactant on large-scale production.

Keywords: alkaliphilic bacteria, agricultural/agro-industrial wastes, biosurfactant, combined alkaline-hydrothermal pretreatment

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12 LIFirr with an Indicator of Microbial Activity in Paraffinic Oil

Authors: M. P. Casiraghi, C. M. Quintella, P. Almeida

Abstract:

Paraffinic oils were submitted to microbial action. The microorganisms consisted of bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus lincheniforms. The alterations in interfacial tension were determined using a tensometer and applying the hanging drop technique at room temperature (299 K ±275 K). The alteration in the constitution of the paraffins was evaluated by means of gas chromatography. The microbial activity was observed to reduce interfacial tension by 54 to 78%, as well as consuming the paraffins C19 to C29 and producing paraffins C36 to C44. The LIFirr technique made it possible to determine the microbial action quickly.

Keywords: paraffins, biosurfactants, LIFirr, microbial activity

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11 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan

Abstract:

Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: bacteria, biosynthesis, silver-phosphate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
10 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
9 Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Spore-Forming Bacteria from Oman: Potential Applications in Bioremediation

Authors: Saif N. Al-Bahry, Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E. Elshafie, Ali S. Al-Bemani, Sanket J. Joshi

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is a global problem and best possible solution is identifying and utilizing native microorganisms. One possible application of microbial product -biosurfactant is in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We have screened forty two different petroleum contaminated sites from Oman, for biosurfactant producing spore-forming bacterial isolates. Initial screening showed that out of 42 soil samples, three showed reduction in surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) within 24h of incubation at 40°C. Out of those 3 soil samples, one was further selected for isolation of bacteria and 14 different bacteria were isolated in pure form. Of those 14 spore-forming, rod shaped bacteria, two showed highest reduction in ST and IFT in the range of 70mN/m to < 35mN/m and 26.69mN/m to < 9mN/m, respectively within 24h. These bacterial biosurfactants may be utilized for bioremediation of oil-spills.

Keywords: bioremediation, hydrocarbon pollution, spore-forming bacteria, bio-surfactant

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8 Different Methods of Producing Bioemulsifier by Bacillus licheniformis Strains

Authors: Saba Pajuhan, Afshin Farahbakhsh, S. M. M. Dastgheib

Abstract:

Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms, they are amphipathic molecules which reduce surface and interfacial tensions and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. In this paper, several methods of bioemulsifer synthesis and purification by Bacillus licheniformis strains (namely ACO1, PTCC 1595 and ACO4) were investigated. Strains were grown in nutrient broth with different conditions in order to get maximum production of bioemulsifer. The purification of bio emulsifier and the quality evaluation of the product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) (98%), Ethanol or HCl to the solution followed by centrifuging. To determine the optimal conditions yielding the highest bioemulsifier production, the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, O₂ levels, incubation time are indispensable and all of them were highly effective in bioemulsifiers production.

Keywords: biosurfactant, bioemulsifier, purification, surface tension, interfacial tension

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7 Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants

Authors: Samira Ferhat, Redha Alouaoui, Leila Trifi, Abdelmalek Badis

Abstract:

The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

Keywords: surfactants, biosurfactant, naphthalene, copper, critical micelle concentration, solubilization, desorption

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6 Potential Use of Spore-Forming Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria in Oil-Pollution Bioremediation

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. J. Joshi, E. A. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bimani

Abstract:

Oman is one of the oil producing countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf region. About 30-40 % of oil produced from the Gulf is transported globally along the seacoast of Oman. Oil pollution from normal tanker operations, ballast water, illegal discharges and accidental spills are always serious threats to terrestrial and marine habitats. Due to Oman’s geographical location at arid region where the temperature ranges between high 40s and low 50s Celsius in summers with low annual rainfall, the main source of fresh water is desalinated sea and brackish water. Oil pollution, therefore, pose a major threat to drinking water. Biosurfactants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms in hydrophobic environments to release nutrients from solid surfaces, such as oil. In this study, indigenous oil degrading thermophilic spore forming bacteria were isolated from oil fields contaminated soil. The isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF biotyper and 16s RNA. Their growth conditions were optimized for the production of biosurfactant. Surface tension, interfacial tensions and microbial oil biodegradation capabilities were tested. Some thermophilic bacteria degraded either completely or partially heavy crude oil (API 10-15) within 48h suggesting their high potential in oil spill bioremediation and avoiding the commonly used physical and chemical methods which usually lead to other environmental pollution.

Keywords: bacteria, bioremediation, biosurfactant, crude-oil-pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
5 Development of Biosurfactant-Based Adjuvant for Enhancing Biocontrol Efficiency

Authors: Kanyarat Sikhao, Nichakorn Khondee

Abstract:

Adjuvant is commonly mixed with agricultural spray solution during foliar application to improve the performance of microbial-based biological control, including better spreading, absorption, and penetration on a plant leaf. This research aims to replace chemical surfactants in adjuvant by biosurfactants for reducing a negative impact on antagonistic microorganisms and crops. Biosurfactant was produced from Brevibacterium casei NK8 and used as a cell-free broth solution containing a biosurfactant concentration of 3.7 g/L. The studies of microemulsion formation and phase behavior were applied to obtain the suitable composition of biosurfactant-based adjuvant, consisting of cell-free broth (70-80%), coconut oil-based fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate (1-7%), and sodium chloride (8-30%). The suitable formula, achieving Winsor Type III microemulsion (bicontinuous), was 80% of cell-free broth, 7% of fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate, and 8% sodium chloride. This formula reduced the contact angle of water on parafilm from 70 to 31 degrees. The non-phytotoxicity against plant seed of Oryza sativa and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis were obtained from biosurfactant-based adjuvant (germination index equal and above 80%), while sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80 showed phytotoxic effects to these plant seeds. The survival of Bacillus subtilis in biosurfactant-based adjuvant was higher than sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80. The mixing of biosurfactant and plant-based surfactant could be considered as a viable, safer, and acceptable alternative to chemical adjuvant for sustainable organic farming.

Keywords: biosurfactant, microemulsion, bio-adjuvant, antagonistic microorganisms

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4 Purification of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Diverse Applications

Authors: Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G. Clarke

Abstract:

Bacillus lipopeptides are biosurfactants with wide ranging applications in the medical, food, agricultural, environmental and cosmetic industries. They are produced as a mix of three families, surfactin, iturin and fengycin, each comprising a large number of homologues of varying functionalities. Consequently, the method and degree of purification of the lipopeptide cocktail becomes particularly important if the functionality of the lipopeptide end-product is to be maximized for the specific application. However, downstream processing of Bacillus lipopeptides is particularly challenging due to the subtle variations observed in the different lipopeptide homologues and isoforms. To date, the most frequently used lipopeptide purification operations have been acid precipitation, solvent extraction, membrane ultrafiltration, adsorption and size exclusion. RP-HPLC (reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography) also has potential for fractionation of the lipopeptide homologues. In the studies presented here, membrane ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC were evaluated for lipopeptide purification to different degrees of purities for maximum functionality. Batch membrane ultrafiltration using 50 kDa polyether sulphone (PES) membranes resulted in lipopeptide recovery of about 68% for surfactin and 82 % for fengycin. The recovery was further improved to 95% by using size-conditioned lipopeptide micelles. The conditioning of lipopeptides with Ca2+ ions resulted in uniformly sized micelles with average size of 96.4 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.18. The size conditioning also facilitated removal of impurities (molecular weight ranging between 2335-3500 Da) through operation of the system under dia-filtration mode, in a way similar to salt removal from protein by dialysis. The resultant purified lipopeptide was devoid of macromolecular impurities and could ideally suit applications in the cosmetic and food industries. Enhanced purification using RP-HPLC was carried out in an analytical C18 column, with the aim to fractionate lipopeptides into their constituent homologues. The column was eluted with mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and water over an acetonitrile gradient, 35% - 80%, over 70 minutes. The gradient elution program resulted in as many as 41 fractions of individual lipopeptide homologues. The efficacy test of these fractions against fungal phytopathogens showed that first 21 fractions, identified to be homologues of iturins and fengycins, displayed maximum antifungal activities, suitable for biocontrol in the agricultural industry. Thus, in the current study, the downstream processing of lipopeptides leading to tailor-made products for selective applications was demonstrated using two major downstream unit operations.

Keywords: bacillus lipopeptides, membrane ultrafiltration, purification, RP-HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
3 Contribution of the Corn Milling Industry to a Global and Circular Economy

Authors: A. B. Moldes, X. Vecino, L. Rodriguez-López, J. M. Dominguez, J. M. Cruz

Abstract:

The concept of the circular economy is focus on the importance of providing goods and services sustainably. Thus, in a future it will be necessary to respond to the environmental contamination and to the use of renewables substrates by moving to a more restorative economic system that drives towards the utilization and revalorization of residues to obtain valuable products. During its evolution our industrial economy has hardly moved through one major characteristic, established in the early days of industrialization, based on a linear model of resource consumption. However, this industrial consumption system will not be maintained during long time. On the other hand, there are many industries, like the corn milling industry, that although does not consume high amount of non renewable substrates, they produce valuable streams that treated accurately, they could provide additional, economical and environmental, benefits by the extraction of interesting commercial renewable products, that can replace some of the substances obtained by chemical synthesis, using non renewable substrates. From this point of view, the use of streams from corn milling industry to obtain surface-active compounds will decrease the utilization of non-renewables sources for obtaining this kind of compounds, contributing to a circular and global economy. However, the success of the circular economy depends on the interest of the industrial sectors in the revalorization of their streams by developing relevant and new business models. Thus, it is necessary to invest in the research of new alternatives that reduce the consumption of non-renewable substrates. In this study is proposed the utilization of a corn milling industry stream to obtain an extract with surfactant capacity. Once the biosurfactant is extracted, the corn milling stream can be commercialized as nutritional media in biotechnological process or as animal feed supplement. Usually this stream is combined with other ingredients obtaining a product namely corn gluten feed or may be sold separately as a liquid protein source for beef and dairy feeding, or as a nutritional pellet binder. Following the productive scheme proposed in this work, the corn milling industry will obtain a biosurfactant extract that could be incorporated in its productive process replacing those chemical detergents, used in some point of its productive chain, or it could be commercialized as a new product of the corn manufacture. The biosurfactants obtained from corn milling industry could replace the chemical surfactants in many formulations, and uses, and it supposes an example of the potential that many industrial streams could offer for obtaining valuable products when they are manage properly.

Keywords: biosurfactantes, circular economy, corn, sustainability

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2 Production of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Biocontrol of Postharvest Crops

Authors: Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G. Klarke

Abstract:

With overpopulation threatening the world’s ability to feed itself, food production and protection has become a major issue, especially in developing countries. Almost one-third of the food produced for human consumption, around 1.3 billion tonnes, is either wasted or lost annually. Postharvest decay in particular constitutes a major cause of crop loss with about 20% of fruits and vegetables produced lost during postharvest storage, mainly due to fungal disease. Some of the major phytopathogenic fungi affecting postharvest fruit crops in South Africa include Aspergillus, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp. To date control of fungal phytopathogens has primarily been dependent on synthetic chemical fungicides, but these chemicals pose a significant threat to the environment, mainly due to their xenobiotic properties and tendency to generate resistance in the phytopathogens. Here, an environmentally benign alternative approach to control postharvest fungal phytopathogens in perishable fruit crops has been presented, namely the application of a bio-fungicide in the form of lipopeptide molecules. Lipopeptides are biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. which have been established as green, nontoxic and biodegradable molecules with antimicrobial properties. However, since the Bacillus are capable of producing a large number of lipopeptide homologues with differing efficacies against distinct target organisms, the lipopeptide production conditions and strategy are critical to produce the maximum lipopeptide concentration with homologue ratios to specification for optimum bio-fungicide efficacy. Process conditions, and their impact on Bacillus lipopeptide production, were evaluated in fully instrumented laboratory scale bioreactors under well-regulated controlled and defined environments. Factors such as the oxygen availability and trace element and nitrate concentrations had profound influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity. Lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity were enhanced in cultures where the oxygen in the sparge gas was increased from 21 to 30 mole%. The addition of trace elements, particularly Fe2+, increased the total concentration of lipopeptides and a nitrate concentration equivalent to 8 g/L ammonium nitrate resulted in optimum lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity. Efficacy studies of the culture supernatant containing the crude lipopeptide mixture were conducted using phytopathogens isolated from fruit in the field, identified using genetic sequencing. The supernatant exhibited antifungal activity against all the test-isolates, namely Lewia, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp., even in this crude form. Thus the lipopeptide product efficacy has been confirmed to control the main diseases, even in the basic crude form. Future studies will be directed towards purification of the lipopeptide product and enhancement of efficacy.

Keywords: antifungal efficacy, biocontrol, lipopeptide production, perishable crops

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1 Soybean Lecithin Based Reverse Micellar Extraction of Pectinase from Synthetic Solution

Authors: Sivananth Murugesan, I. Regupathi, B. Vishwas Prabhu, Ankit Devatwal, Vishnu Sivan Pillai

Abstract:

Pectinase is an important enzyme which has a wide range of applications including textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, purification of plant viruses, oil extraction etc. Selective separation and purification of pectinase from fermentation broth and recover the enzyme form process stream for reuse are cost consuming process in most of the enzyme based industries. It is difficult to identify a suitable medium to enhance enzyme activity and retain its enzyme characteristics during such processes. The cost effective, selective separation of enzymes through the modified Liquid-liquid extraction is of current research interest worldwide. Reverse micellar extraction, globally acclaimed Liquid-liquid extraction technique is well known for its separation and purification of solutes from the feed which offers higher solute specificity and partitioning, ease of operation and recycling of extractants used. Surfactant concentrations above critical micelle concentration to an apolar solvent form micelles and addition of micellar phase to water in turn forms reverse micelles or water-in-oil emulsions. Since, electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the separation/purification of solutes using reverse micelles. These interaction parameters can be altered with the change in pH, addition of cosolvent, surfactant and electrolyte and non-electrolyte. Even though many chemical based commercial surfactant had been utilized for this purpose, the biosurfactants are more suitable for the purification of enzymes which are used in food application. The present work focused on the partitioning of pectinase from the synthetic aqueous solution within the reverse micelle phase formed by a biosurfactant, Soybean Lecithin dissolved in chloroform. The critical micelle concentration of soybean lecithin/chloroform solution was identified through refractive index and density measurements. Effect of surfactant concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration was considered to study its effect on enzyme activity, enzyme partitioning within the reverse micelle phase. The effect of pH and electrolyte salts on the partitioning behavior was studied by varying the system pH and concentration of different salts during forward and back extraction steps. It was observed that lower concentrations of soybean lecithin enhanced the enzyme activity within the water core of the reverse micelle with maximizing extraction efficiency. The maximum yield of pectinase of 85% with a partitioning coefficient of 5.7 was achieved at 4.8 pH during forward extraction and 88% yield with a partitioning coefficient of 7.1 was observed during backward extraction at a pH value of 5.0. However, addition of salt decreased the enzyme activity and especially at higher salt concentrations enzyme activity declined drastically during both forward and back extraction steps. The results proved that reverse micelles formed by Soybean Lecithin and chloroform may be used for the extraction of pectinase from aqueous solution. Further, the reverse micelles can be considered as nanoreactors to enhance enzyme activity and maximum utilization of substrate at optimized conditions, which are paving a way to process intensification and scale-down.

Keywords: pectinase, reverse micelles, soybean lecithin, selective partitioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 283