Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4858

Search results for: phenolic content

4858 Variation of Phenolic Compounds in Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Fredijs Dimins, Inta Krasnova, Daina Karklina

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples total phenolic compounds, tannins and individual phenolic compounds content were determined. The total phenolic content of different variety apple juices ranged from 650mg L-1 to 4265mg L-1. Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic compound in all juice samples and ranged from 143.99mg L-1 in ‘Quaker Beauty’ apple juice to 617.66mg L-1 in ‘Kerr’ juice. Some dessert and crab apple juices have similar phenolic composition, but in several varieties such as ‘Cornelie’, ‘Hyslop’ and ‘Riku’ it was significantly higher. For cider production it is better to blend different kinds of apple juices including apples rich in high phenol content ('Rick', 'Cornelie') and also, for successful fermentation, apples rich in sugars and soluble solids content should be used in blends.

Keywords: apple juice, phenolic compounds, hierarchical cluster analysis, cider production

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4857 Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried Spices and Vegetables

Authors: Liga Priecina, Daina Karklina

Abstract:

Antioxidants are became the most analyzed substances in last decades. Antioxidants act as in activator for free radicals. Spices and vegetables are one of major antioxidant sources. Most common antioxidants in vegetables and spices are vitamin C, E, phenolic compounds, carotenoids. Therefore, it is important to get some view about antioxidant changes in spices and vegetables during processing. In this article was analyzed nine fresh and dried spices and vegetables- celery (Apium graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa), celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), pumpkin (Curcubica maxima), carrot (Daucus carota)- grown in Latvia 2013. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds and their antiradical scavenging activity were determined for all samples. Dry matter content was calculated from moisture content. After drying process carotenoid content significantly decreases in all analyzed samples, except one -carotenoid content increases in parsley. Phenolic composition was different and depends on sample – fresh or dried. Total phenolic, flavonoid and phenolic acid content increases in dried spices. Flavan-3-ol content is not detected in fresh spice samples. For dried vegetables- phenolic acid content decreases significantly, but increases flavan-3-ols content. The higher antiradical scavenging activity was observed in samples with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid content.

Keywords: antiradical scavenging activity, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, spices, vegetables

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
4856 Comparison of Phenolic and Urushiol Contents of Different Parts of Rhus verniciflua and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Jae Young Jang, Jong Hoon Ahn, Jae-Woong Lim, So Young Kang, Mi Kyeong Lee

Abstract:

Rhus verniciflua is commonly known as a lacquer tree in Korea. Stem barks of R. verniciflua have been used as an immunostimulator in traditional medicine. It contains phenolic compounds and is known for diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, it also causes allergic dermatitis due to urushiols derivatives. For the development of active natural resources with less toxicity, the content of phenolic compounds and urushiols of different parts of R. verniciflua such as stem barks, lignum and leaves were quantitated by colorimetric assay and HPLC analysis. The urushiols content were the highest in stem barks, and followed by leaves. The lignum contained trace amount of urushiols. The phenolic contents, however, were the most abundant in lignum, and followed by leaves and stem barks. These results clear showed that the content of urushiols and phenolic differs depending on the parts of R. verniciflua. Antimicrobial activity of different parts of R. verniciflua against fish pathogenic bacteria was also investigated using Edwardsiella tarda. Lignum of R. verniciflua was the most effective in antimicrobial activity against E. tarda and phenolic constituents are suggested to be active constituents for activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds are responsible for antimicrobial activity of R. verniciflua. The lignum of R. verniciflua contains high content of phenolic compounds with less urushiols, which suggests efficient antimicrobial activity with less toxicity. Therefore, lignum of R. verniciflua are suggested as good sources for antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial diseases.

Keywords: different parts, phenolic compounds, Rhus verniciflua, urushiols

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
4855 Determination of Antioxidant Activities of Sumac (Rhus Coriaria) Extracts with Different Solvents

Authors: F. T. Senberber, N. Tugrul, E. Moroydor Derun

Abstract:

As a nutraceutical, sumac (Rhus Coriaria) was extracted by using different solvents of methanol, ethanol, and water. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) method of free radical scavenging capacity was used to determine the effects of solvent on antioxidant activities of the plant. The total phenolic content was studied by The Folin Ciocalteu Reagent method. The antioxidant activities of extracts exhibit minor changes in different solvents and varied in the range of 84.3–86.4 %. The total phenolic contents are affected by the selected solvent. The highest total phenolic content was determined at the liquid phase of water and it was estimated as 26.3 mg/g in gallic acid.

Keywords: DPPH, solvent, sumac, total phenolic content

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4854 Effect of Thermal Treatment on Phenolic Content, Antioxidant, and Alpha-Amylase Inhibition Activities of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

Authors: Daniel Assefa, Engeda Dessalegn, Chetan Chauhan

Abstract:

Moringa stenopetala is a socioeconomic valued tree that is widely available and cultivated in the Southern part of Ethiopia. The leaves have been traditionally used as a food source with high nutritional and medicinal values. The present work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the total phenolic content, antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibition activities of aqueous leaf extracts during maceration and different decoction time interval (5, 10 and 15 min). The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-ciocalteu methods whereas antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating assays and alpha-amylase inhibition activity was determined using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Total phenolic content ranged from 34.35 to 39.47 mgGAE/g. Decoction for 10 min extract showed ferrous ion chelating (92.52), DPPH radical scavenging (91.52%), alpha-amylase inhibition (69.06%) and ferric reducing power (0.765), respectively. DPPH, reducing power and alpha-amylase inhibition activities showed positive linear correlation (R2=0.853, R2= 0.857 and R2=0.930), respectively with total phenolic content but ferrous ion chelating activity was found to be weakly correlated (R2=0.481). Based on the present investigation, it could be concluded that major loss of total phenolic content, antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibition activities of the crude leaf extracts of Moringa stenopetala leaves were observed at decoction time for 15 min. Therefore, to maintain the total phenolic content, antioxidant, and alpha-amylase inhibition activities of leaves, cooking practice should be at the optimum decoction time (5-10 min).

Keywords: alpha-amylase inhibition, antioxidant, Moringa stenopetala, total phenolic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4853 Isolation, Preparation and Biological Properties of Soybean-Flaxseed Protein Co-Precipitates

Authors: Muhammad H. Alu’datt, Inteaz Alli

Abstract:

This study was conducted to prepare and evaluate the biological properties of protein co-precipitates from flaxseed and soybean. Protein was prepared by NaOH extraction through the mixing of soybean flour (Sf) and flaxseed flour (Ff) or mixtures of soybean extract (Se) and flaxseed extract (Fe). The protein co-precipitates were precipitated by isoelectric (IEP) and isoelectric-heating (IEPH) co-precipitation techniques. Effects of extraction and co-precipitation techniques on co-precipitate yield were investigated. Native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE were used to study the molecular characterization. Content and antioxidant activity of extracted free and bound phenolic compounds were evaluated for protein co-precipitates. Removal of free and bound phenolic compounds from protein co-precipitates showed little effects on the electrophoretic behavior of the proteins or the protein subunits of protein co-precipitates. Results showed that he highest protein contents and yield were obtained in for Sf-Ff/IEP co-precipitate with values of 53.28 and 25.58% respectively as compared to protein isolates and other co-precipitates. Results revealed that the Sf-Ff/IEP showed a higher content of bound phenolic compounds (53.49% from total phenolic content) as compared to free phenolic compounds (46.51% from total phenolic content). Antioxidant activities of extracted bound phenolic compounds with and without heat treatment from Sf-Ff/IEHP were higher as compared to free phenolic compounds extracted from other protein co-precipitates (29.68 and 22.84%, respectively).

Keywords: antioxidant, phenol, protein co-precipitate, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
4852 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Polyphenol Content in the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Flaczyk Ewa, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Kmiecik Dominik, Przeor Monika, Marcinkowska Agata

Abstract:

In recent years, proceed to the attractiveness of typical bakery products. Expanding the education and nutrition knowledge society will develop the production of functional foods, which has a positive impact on human health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of white mulberry fruit on the content of biologically active compounds in the new designed functional bread premixes designed for selected disease: anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. For flavonols and phenolic acids content UPLC was conducted, using an NovaPack C18 column and a gradient elution system. It was found that all attempts bread characterized by a high content of biologically active compounds: polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. The highest total content of polyphenolic compounds found in the samples of bread for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease both before and after storage. The analyzed sample differed in content of phenolic acids. The highest content of these compounds were found in samples of bread for anemia and diabetes. It was found that the analyzed sample contained phenolic acids that are derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid. The new designed bread contained significant amounts of flavonols, of which the dominant was routine.

Keywords: mulberry, antioxidant, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonols

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
4851 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Dehak Karima, Chabrouk Farid, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
4850 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
4849 Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibilities and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Pumpkin Flour

Authors: Emine Aydin, Duygu Gocmen

Abstract:

In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) were used to replace wheat flour in cookie formulation at three different levels (10%, 20% and 30% w/w). For this purpose PFs produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in freeze dryer. Control sample included no PFs. The total phenolic contents of the cookies supplemented with PFs were higher than that of control and gradually increased in total phenolic contents of cookies with increasing PF supplementation levels. Phenolic content makes also significant contribution on nutritional excellence of the developed cookies. Pre-treatment with metabisulfite (MS) had a positive effect on free, bound and total phenolics of cookies which are supplemented with various levels of MS-PF. This is due to a protective effect of metabisulfite pretreatment for phenolic compounds in the pumpkin flour. Phenolic antioxidants may act and absorb in a different way in humans and thus their antioxidant and health effects will be changed accordingly. In the present study phenolics’ bioavailability of cookies was investigated in order to assess PF as sources of accessible phenolics. The content of bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies supplemented with PFs had higher than those of control sample. Cookies enriched with 30% MS-PF had the highest bioaccessible phenolics (597.86 mg GAE 100g-1) and phenolic bioaccessibility (41.71%). MS application in PF production caused a significant increase in phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH), antioxidant activities of cookies with PFs higher than that of control cookie. It was also observed that the cookies supplemented with MS-PF had significantly higher antioxidant activities than those of cookies including PF. In presented study, antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies were also determined. The cookies with PFs had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidative bioaccessibilities than control ones. Increasing PFs levels enhanced antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies. As a result, PFs addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of cookie by causing increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibilities.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, dietary fiber, pumpkin, freeze drying, cookie

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
4848 Effect of Initial pH and Fermentation Duration on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Carob Kibble Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Haelee Fenton, Thi Huong Tra Nguyen, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

In the present study, a submerged fermentation of carob kibble with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was performed. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in fermented carob kibble were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study showed that S. cerevisiae improved total phenolic content by 45 % and 50 % in acetone and water extracts respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of water extracts increased by 25 % and 41%, while acetone extracts indicated by 70% and 80% in DPPH and ABTS respectively. It is also found that initial pH 7.0 was more effective in improvement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The efficiency of treatment was recorded at 15 h. This report suggested that submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae is a potential and cost effective manner to further increase bioactive compounds in carob kibble, which are in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total phenolics

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
4847 Improvement in Safety Profile of Semecarpus Anacardium Linn by Shodhana: An Ayurvedic Purification Method

Authors: Umang H. Gajjar, K. M. Khambholja, R. K. Patel

Abstract:

Semecarpus anacardium shows the presence of bioflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. Detoxified S. anacardium and its oils are considered to have anti-inflammatory properties and used in nervous debility, neuritis, rheumatism and leprous modules. S. anacardium if used without purification causes toxic skin inflammation problem because it contains toxic phenolic oil. During this Shodhana Process - An ayurvedic purification method, toxic phenolic oil was removed, have marked effect on the concentration of the phytoconstituent & antioxidant activity of S. anacardium. Total phenolic content decreased up to 70 % (from 28.9 %w/w to 8.94 %w/w), while there is a negligible effect on the concentration of total flavonoid (7.51 %w/w to 7.43 %w/w) and total carbohydrate (0.907 %w/w to 0.853 % w/w) content. IC50& EC50 value of extract of S. anacardium before and after purification are 171.7 & 314.3 while EC50values are 280.μg/ml & 304. μg/ml, shows that antioxidant activity of S. anacardium is decreased but the safety profile of the drug is increased as the toxic phenolic oil was removed during Shodhana - An ayurvedic purification method.

Keywords: Semecarpus anacardium, Shodhana process, safety profile, improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
4846 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder

Authors: Carolina Beres, Laurine Da Silva, Danielle Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Renata Tonon, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Karina Dos Santos, Flavia Gomes, Lourdes Cabral

Abstract:

The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.

Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçara

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
4845 Evaluation of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Amaranth Seeds Grown in Latvia

Authors: Alla Mariseva, Ilze Beitane

Abstract:

Daily intake of products rich in antioxidants that scavenge free radicals in cell membranes is an effective way to combat oxidative stress. Last year there was noticed higher interest towards the identification and utilization of plants rich in antioxidant compounds as they may behave as preventive medicine. Amaranth seeds due to polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and tocopherols are characterized by high antioxidant activity. The study aimed to evaluate the total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of amaranth seeds cultivated in 2020 in two farms in Latvia. One sample of amaranth seeds came from an organic farm, the other – from a conventional farm. The total phenol content of amaranth seed extracts was measured with the Folin-Ciocalte spectrophotometric method. The total phenols were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g dry weight (DW) of the samples. The antioxidant activity of amaranth seed extracts was calculated based on scavenging activities of the stable 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical, the radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) was demonstrated as Trolox mM equivalents (TE) per 100 g-1 dry weight. Three parallel measurements were performed on all samples. There were significant differences between organic and conventional amaranth seeds in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Organic amaranth seeds showed higher total phenolic content compared to conventional amaranth seeds, 65.4±6.0 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW and 43.4±7.8 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW respectively. Organic amaranth seeds were also characterized by higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (7.9±0.4 mM TE 100 g⁻¹ of dry matter) and ABTS radical scavenging capacity (13.2±1.5 mM TE 100 g⁻¹ of dry matter). The results obtained on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of amaranth seeds grown in Latvia confirmed that the samples have a high biological value; therefore, it would be necessary to promote their consumption by including them in various food products, including vegan products, increasing their nutritional value.

Keywords: ABTS, amaranth seeds, antioxidant activity, DPPH, total phenolic content

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4844 Effects of Cooking and Drying on the Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Cleome gynandra (Spider Plant)

Authors: E. Kayitesi, S. Moyo, V. Mavumengwana

Abstract:

Cleome gynandra (spider plant) is an African green leafy vegetable categorized as an indigenous, underutilized and has been reported to contain essential phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds play a significant role in human diets due to their proposed health benefits. These compounds however may be affected by different processing methods such as cooking and drying. Cleome gynandra was subjected to boiling, steam blanching, and drying processes and analysed for Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), antioxidant activity and flavonoid composition. Cooking and drying significantly (p < 0.05) increased the levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the vegetable. The boiled sample filtrate exhibited the lowest TPC followed by the raw sample while the steamed sample depicted the highest TPC levels. Antioxidant activity results showed that steamed sample showed the highest DPPH, FRAP and ABTS with mean values of 499.38 ± 2.44, 578.68 ± 5.19, and 214.39 ± 12.33 μM Trolox Equivalent/g respectively. An increase in quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-rutinoside occurred after all the cooking and drying methods employed. Cooking and drying exerted positive effects on the vegetable’s phenolic content, antioxidant activity as a whole, but with varied effects on the individual flavonoid molecules. The results obtained help in defining the importance of African green leafy vegetable and resultant processed products as functional foods and their potential to exert health promoting properties.

Keywords: Cleome gynandra, phenolic compounds, cooking, drying, health promoting properties

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4843 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi

Abstract:

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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4842 Comparison of Polyphonic Profile of a Berry from Two Different Sources, Using an Optimized Extraction Method

Authors: G. Torabian, A. Fathi, P. Valtchev, F. Dehghani

Abstract:

The superior polyphenol content of Sambucus nigra berries has high health potentials for the production of nutraceutical products. Numerous factors influence the polyphenol content of the final products including the berries’ source and the subsequent processing production steps. The aim of this study is to compare the polyphenol content of berries from two different sources and also to optimise the polyphenol extraction process from elderberries. Berries from source B obtained more acceptable physical properties than source A; a single berry from source B was double in size and weight (both wet and dry weight) compared with a source A berry. Despite the appropriate physical characteristics of source B berries, their polyphenolic profile was inferior; as source A berries had 2.3 fold higher total anthocyanin content, and nearly two times greater total phenolic content and total flavonoid content compared to source B. Moreover, the result of this study showed that almost 50 percent of the phenolic content of berries are entrapped within their skin and pulp that potentially cannot be extracted by press juicing. To address this challenge and to increase the total polyphenol yield of the extract, we used cold-shock blade grinding method to break the cell walls. The result of this study showed that using cultivars with higher phenolic content as well as using the whole fruit including juice, skin and pulp can increase polyphenol yield significantly; and thus, may boost the potential of using elderberries as therapeutic products.

Keywords: different sources, elderberry, grinding, juicing, polyphenols

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4841 Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect

Authors: Abhijit Das, Runu Chakraborty

Abstract:

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, decaffeination, green tea, flavonoid content, phenolic content, plant extract

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4840 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
4839 Antioxidant Activity Of Gracilaria Fisheri Extract

Authors: Paam Bidaya

Abstract:

The red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri, widely distributed along Thailand's southern coastlines, has been discovered to be edible. Sulfated polysaccharides from G. fisheri were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water. Seaweed polysaccharides (SPs) have been shown to have various advantageous biological effects. This study aims to investigate total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of G. fisheri extract. The total phenolic content of G. fisheri extract was determined using Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant activity of G. fisheri extract was performed via 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, DPPH and ABTS assays showed that G. fisheri extract showed antioxidant activities as a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values of G. fisheri extract were 902.19 μg/mL ± 0.785 and 727.98 μg/mL ± 0.822 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in ABTS assay. To conclude, G. fisheri extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibit a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity should be performed in order to identify the mechanism of Gracilaria fisheri action.

Keywords: ABTS assay, DPPH assay, sulfated polysaccharides, total phenolic content

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4838 The Effects of Blanching, Boiling and Steaming on Ascorbic Acid Content, Total Phenolic Content, and Colour in Cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis)

Authors: Huei Lin Lee, Wee Sim Choo

Abstract:

The effects of blanching, boiling and steaming on the ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content and colour in cauliflower (Brassica oleraceavar. Botrytis) was investigated. It was found that blanching was the best thermal processing to be applied on cauliflower compared to boiling and steaming processes. Blanching and steaming processes on cauliflower retained most of the ascorbic acid content (AAC) compared to those of boiling. As for the total phenolic content (TPC), blanching process retained a higher TPC in cauliflower compared to those of boiling and steaming processes. There were no significant differences between the TPC of boiled and steamed cauliflowers. As for the colour measurement, there were no significant differences in the colour of the cauliflower at different lead time (after processing to the point of consumption) of 30 minutes interval up to 3 hours but there were slight variations in L*, a*, and b* values among the thermal processed cauliflowers (blanched, boiled and steamed). The cauliflowers in this study were found to give a desirable white colour (L* value in the range of 77-83) in all the three thermal processes (blanching, boiling and steaming). There was no significant difference on the effect of lead time (30-minutes interval up to 3 hours) in raw and all the three thermal processed (blanched, boiled and steamed) cauliflowers.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, cauliflower, colour, phenolics

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4837 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Caesalpinia sappan Extract

Authors: Monthon Tangjitmungman

Abstract:

Numerous diseases have been linked to oxidative stress, in which a disproportion of free radicals in the body leads to tissue or cell damage. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants found in plants, and they are highly effective at scavenging oxidative free radicals. Due to the presence of phenolic compounds in Caesalpinia sappan has been discovered to have antioxidant activity. It has several health benefits, the most important of which is preventing cardiovascular and cancer diseases. This study aimed to determine the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract using a variety of antioxidant assays. The extract of C. sappan was made using a mixture of solvents (ethyl alcohol: water in ratio 8:2). The total phenolic content of C. sappan extract was determined and expressed as gallic acid equivalents using the Folin-Cioucalteu method (GAE). The antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. An association was found between antioxidant activity and total phenol content. The antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. The IC50 values for C. sappan extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 54.48 μg/mL ± 0.545 and 25.46 μg/mL ± 0.790, respectively, in the DPPH assay. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. sappan extract contains a high level of total phenolics and exhibits significant antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, more research should be done on the antioxidant activity, such as SOD and ROS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments, to determine whether the compound has antioxidant activity.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Caesalpinia sappan, DPPH assays, total phenolic content

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4836 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, Acorn, Lupin, Chestnut, Flour, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate

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4835 Comparison of Oven and Microwave Drying on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Gokcen Izli

Abstract:

Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food. Drying is one of the oldest methods known for the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Drying of agricultural products enhances their storage life, minimizes losses during storage, and save shipping and transportation costs. Apples are considered excellent candidates for drying. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of microwave and oven processing on the quality of selected apple products. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were washed, peeled, and sliced. Drying experiments were performed in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C and in a microwave at 140 W and 210 W. Quality attributes such as color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried samples with different methods were compared with the fresh sample. A Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter was used to examine color changes in the apples. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It was found that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of dried samples under all drying conditions were decreased compared to the fresh samples. The phenolic contents of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W for both red and golden delicious apples were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C. Similarly, the antioxidant activities of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C for both types of apples. All color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were changed significantly depending on the drying methods and temperatures. The closest color values to the fresh sample were found for the microwave dried samples at 140 W. Microwave drying was proven to be more effective than oven drying.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, color, golden delicious, microwave, red delicious, total phenolic content

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4834 Management Prospects of Winery By-Products Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skins: The Case of Greek Ionian Islands

Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Iliada K. Lappa, Charalambos Kanakis, Dimitra Daferera, Christina Papadopoulou, Georgios Sourounis, Charilaos Giotis, Pavlos Bouchagier, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis, Efstathia Skotti

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to recover phenolic compounds from grape skins produced in Greek varieties of the Ionian Islands in order to form the basis of calculations for their further utilization in the context of the circular economy. Isolation and further utilization of phenolic compounds is an important issue in winery by-products. For this purpose, 37 samples were collected, extracted, and analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for their sustainable exploitation. Extraction of the bioactive compounds was held using an eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly effective water-glycerol solvent system. Then, extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. Also, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured. LC-MS chromatography showed qualitative differences between different varieties. Peaks were attributed to monomeric 3-flavanols as well as monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins. The FT-IR and Raman spectra agreed with the chromatographic data and contributed to identifying phenolic compounds. Grape skins exhibited high total phenolic content (TPC), and it was proved that during vinification, a large number of polyphenols remained in the pomace. This study confirmed that grape skins from Ionian Islands are a promising source of bioactive compounds, suggesting their utilization under a bio-economic and environmental strategic framework.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, grape skin, phenolic compounds, waste recovery

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4833 Biological Activities of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. Herba from Turkey

Authors: Hulya Tuba Kiyan, Nilgun Ozturk

Abstract:

Gentiana, a member of Gentianaceae, is represented by approximately 400 species in the world and 12 species in Turkey. Flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids and also xanthones are the major compounds of this genus, have been previously reported to have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, DNA repair and immunomodulatory properties. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. from Turkey was evaluated for its biological activities and its total phenolic content in the present study. According to the antioxidant activity results, G. brachyphylla methanolic extract showed very strong anti-DNA damage antioxidant activity with an inhibition of 81.82%. It showed weak ferric-reducing power with a EC50 value of 0.65 when compared to BHT (EC50 = 0.2). Also, at 0.5 mg/ml concentration, the methanolic extract inhibited ABTS radical cation activity with an inhibition of 20.13% when compared to Trolox (79.01%). Chelating ability of G. brachyphylla was 44.71% whereas EDTA showed 78.87% chelating activity at 0.2 mg/ml. Also G. brachyphylla showed weak 27.21% AChE, 20.23% BChE, strong 67.86% MAO-A and moderate 50.06% MAO-B, weak 19.14% COX-1, 29.11% COX-2 inhibitory activities at 0.25 mg/ml. The total phenolic content of G. brachyphylla was 156.23 ± 2.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, Gentiana brachyphylla Vill., total phenolic content

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4832 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

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4831 Evaluation of the Phenolic Composition of Curcumin from Different Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Extracts: A Comprehensive Study Based on Chemical Turmeric Extract, Turmeric Tea and Fresh Turmeric Juice

Authors: Beyza Sukran Isik, Gokce Altin, Ipek Yalcinkaya, Evren Demircan, Asli Can Karaca, Beraat Ozcelik

Abstract:

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), is used as a food additive (spice), preservative and coloring agent in Asian countries, including China and South East Asia. It is also considered as a medicinal plant. Traditional Indian medicine evaluates turmeric powder for the treatment of biliary disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. It has rich polyphenol content. Turmeric has yellow color mainly because of the presence of three major pigments; curcumin 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1, 6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), demethoxy-curcumin and bis demothoxy-curcumin. These curcuminoids are recognized to have high antioxidant activities. Curcumin is the major constituent of Curcuma species. Method: To prepare turmeric tea, 0.5 gram of turmeric powder was brewed with 250 ml of water at 90°C, 10 minutes. 500 grams of fresh turmeric washed and shelled prior to squeezing. Both turmeric tea and turmeric juice pass through 45 lm filters and stored at -20°C in the dark for further analyses. Curcumin was extracted from 20 grams of turmeric powder by 70 ml ethanol solution (95:5 ethanol/water v/v) in a water bath at 80°C, 6 hours. Extraction was contributed for 2 hours at the end of 6 hours by addition of 30 ml ethanol. Ethanol was removed by rotary evaporator. Remained extract stored at -20°C in the dark. Total phenolic content and phenolic profile were determined by spectrophotometric analysis and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC), respectively. Results: The total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea were determined 50.72, 31.76 and 29.68 ppt, respectively. The ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea have been injected into UFLC and analyzed for curcumin contents. The curcumin content in ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea were 4067.4, 156.7 ppm and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Significance: Turmeric is known as a good source of curcumin. According to the results, it can be stated that its tea is not sufficient way for curcumin consumption. Turmeric juice can be preferred to turmeric tea for higher curcumin content. Ethanolic extract of turmeric showed the highest content of turmeric in both spectrophotometric and chromatographic analyses. Nonpolar solvents and carriers which have polar binding sites have to be considered for curcumin consumption due to its nonpolar nature.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, spectrophotometry, turmeric, UFLC

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4830 The Effect of Different Concentrations of Extracting Solvent on the Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Gynura procumbens Leaves

Authors: Kam Wen Hang, Tan Kee Teng, Huang Poh Ching, Chia Kai Xiang, H. V. Annegowda, H. S. Naveen Kumar

Abstract:

Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) leaves, commonly known as ‘sambung nyawa’ in Malaysia is a well-known medicinal plant commonly used as folk medicines in controlling blood glucose, cholesterol level as well as treating cancer. These medicinal properties were believed to be related to the polyphenolic content present in G. procumbens extract, therefore optimization of its extraction process is vital to obtain highest possible antioxidant activities. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of extracting solvent (ethanol) on the amount of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of G. procumbens leaf extract. The concentrations of ethanol used were 30-70%, with the temperature and time kept constant at 50°C and 30 minutes, respectively using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The polyphenolic content of these extracts were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and results were expressed as milligram gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g. Phosphomolybdenum method and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays were used to investigate the antioxidant properties of the extract and the results were expressed as milligram ascorbic acid equivalent (mg AAE)/g and effective concentration (EC50) respectively. Among the three different (30%, 50% and 70%) concentrations of ethanol studied, the 50% ethanolic extract showed total phenolic content of 31.565 ± 0.344 mg GAE/g and total antioxidant activity of 78.839 ± 0.199 mg AAE/g while 30% ethanolic extract showed 29.214 ± 0.645 mg GAE/g and 70.701 ± 1.394 mg AAE/g, respectively. With respect to DPPH radical scavenging assay, 50% ethanolic extract had exhibited slightly lower EC50 (314.3 ± 4.0 μg/ml) values compared to 30% ethanol extract (340.4 ± 5.3 μg/ml). Out of all the tested extracts, 70% ethanolic extract exhibited significantly (p< 0.05) highest total phenolic content (38.000 ± 1.009 mg GAE/g), total antioxidant capacity (95.874 ± 2.422 mg AAE/g) and demonstrated the lowest EC50 in DPPH assay (244.2 ± 5.9 μg/ml). An excellent correlations were drawn between total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R2 = 0.949 and R2 = 0.978, respectively). It was concluded from this study that, 70% ethanol should be used as the optimal polarity solvent to obtain G. procumbens leaf extract with maximum polyphenolic content with antioxidant properties.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, DPPH assay, Gynura procumbens, phenolic compounds

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4829 Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Peels

Authors: E. Chiam, E. Koh, W. Teh, M. Prabhakaran

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Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are widely eaten for their nutritional value and associated health benefits being an immense source of bioactive compounds. However, F&V peels are often discarded, and it accounts for a higher proportion of food waste. Incorporation of F&V peels as functional ingredients can add more value to food due to the higher amounts of phytochemicals present in them. In this research, methanolic extracts of different F&V peels, namely apple, orange, kiwi, grapefruit, dragon fruit, pomelo, and pumpkin are investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) assay and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assay using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out during this study to determine the antidiabetic potential of F&V peels. Results of our study showed that grapefruit peels contained the highest total phenolic content of 477.81 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight of the sample, and kiwi peel had the highest antioxidant capacity (90.51 ± 0.10 % inhibition of DPPH radical) among the different F&V peels studied. Fruit peels exhibited high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Comparing fruit peels with vegetable peels, it was found that fruit peels had high total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and anti-diabetic potential compared to vegetable peels.

Keywords: polyphenolics, fruit peels, antioxidant, antidiabetic

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