Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 98

Search results for: sunflower oil

98 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi

Abstract:

Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
97 Hairy Beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. - Asteraceae) Control in Sunflower Fields Using Pre-Emergence Herbicides

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti

Abstract:

One of the most damaging species in sunflower crops in Brazil is the hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.). The large number of seeds, the various vegetative cycles during the year, the staggered germination and the scarcity of selective and effective herbicides to control this weed in sunflower are some of attributes that hinder the effectiveness in controlling hairy beggarticks populations. The experiment was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the control of hairy beggarticks plants in sunflower crops, and to assess sunflower tolerance to residual herbicides. The treatments were as follows: S-metolachlor (1,200 and 2,400 g ai ha-1), flumioxazin (60 and 120 g ai ha-1), sulfentrazone (150 and 300 g ai ha-1) and two controls (weedy and weed-free check). Phytotoxicity on sunflower plants, percentage of control and density of hairy beggarticks plants, sunflower stand and plant height, head diameter, oil content and sunflower yield were evaluated. The herbicides flumioxazin and sulfentrazone were the most efficient in hairy beggarticks control. S-metolachlor provided acceptable control levels. S-metolachlor (1,200 g ha-1), flumioxazin (60 g ha-1) and sulfentrazone (150 g ha-1) were the most selective doses for sunflower crop.

Keywords: flumioxazin, Helianthus annuus, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, weeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
96 Biological Studies on Producing Samoli Bread Supplement with Irradiated Sunflower Flour by Gamma Rays

Authors: Amal. N. Al-Kuraieef

Abstract:

Smoli bread was made by supplementation sunflower flour which was prepared from sunflower (Dahr-EL-Haea) gray after hilling and milling, flour was irradiated by two doses (5 and 10 kGy). After that, the ratios of irradiated sunflower flour were 5 and 10%. All samples of samoli bread were examined for organoleptic and biological evaluation. Biological assay (PER, NPU, FE, DC and BV) was carried out on rats fed 5 and 10% irradiated and non-irradiated sunflower Samoli bread. Results obtained showed that, total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable, to that of casein. Also, figures of the biological evaluations were higher than those of the control samoli bread and improved its nutritive values.

Keywords: gamma rays, sunflower, samoli bread, cholesterol, lipids, triglycerides

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
95 Optochemical and Electrochemical Method to Study of Vegetable Oil Deterioration

Authors: A. V. Shelke, P. S. More

Abstract:

This research aimed to study the kinetic reaction of reused cooking oil and to find the optimum condition of its process. The feedstock was collected from the street sellers and also prepared at laboratory. From this research, it is found that the kinetic reaction of reused sunflower oil (auto-oxidation) is obtained in terms of variation of the absorption coefficient of unexposed sunflower oil as 0.05 which is very close to that of exposed sunflower oil 0.075. At room temperature, the optimum intensity obtained from optical absorption spectroscopy study is 0.267 for unexposed sunflower oil and 0.194 for exposed sunflower oil. However, results indicated that FTIR spectroscopy is accurate and precise enough for such determination. Free Fatty Acid (FFA% = 026), acid ~53% and safonication ~%192 get reduce in exposed oil was investigated.

Keywords: friction, oxidation, sunflower oil, vegetable oils

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
94 Effect of Arsenic Treatment on Element Contents of Sunflower, Growing in Nutrient Solution

Authors: Szilvia Várallyay, Szilvia Veres, Éva Bódi, Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács

Abstract:

The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic. Consequences of arsenic toxicity in the plant organism is decreases the weight of the roots, and causes discoloration and necrosis of leaves. The toxicity of arsenic depends on the quality and quantity of the arsenic specialization. The arsenic in the soil and in the plant presents as a most hazardous specialization. A dicotyledon plant were chosen for the experiment, namely sunflower. The sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solution in different As(III) levels. The content of As, P, Fe were measured from experimental plants, using by ICP-MS.Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of As(V) and As(III) in the nutrition solution and the content of P in the sunflower tissue. The amount of Fe was decreasing if we used a higher concentration of arsenic (30 mg kg-1). We can tell the conclusion that the arsenic had a negative effect on the sunflower tissue P and Fe content.

Keywords: arsenic, sunflower, ICP-MS, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
93 Managing Sunflower Price Risk from a South African Oil Crushing Company’s Perspective

Authors: Daniel Mokatsanyane, Johnny Jansen Van Rensburg

Abstract:

The integral role oil-crushing companies play in sunflower oil production is often overlooked to offer high-quality oil to refineries and end consumers. Sunflower oil crushing companies in South Africa are exposed to price fluctuations resulting from the local and international markets. Hedging instruments enable these companies to hedge themselves against unexpected prices spikes and to ensure sustained profitability. A crushing company is a necessary middleman, and as such, these companies have exposure to the purchasing and selling sides of sunflower. Sunflower oil crushing companies purchase sunflower seeds from farmers or agricultural companies that provide storage facilities. The purchasing price is determined by the supply and demand of sunflower seed, both national and international. When the price of sunflower seeds in South Africa is high but still below import parity, then the crush margins realised by these companies are reduced or even negative at times. There are three main products made by sunflower oil crushing companies, oil, meal, and shells. Profits are realised from selling three products, namely, sunflower oil, meal and shells. However, when selling sunflower oil to refineries, sunflower oil crushing companies needs to hedge themselves against a reduction in vegetable oil prices. Hedging oil prices is often done via futures and is subject to specific volume commitments before a hedge position can be taken in. Furthermore, South African oil-crushing companies hedge sunflower oil with international, Over-the-counter contracts as South Africa is a price taker of sunflower oil and not a price maker. As such, South Africa provides a fraction of the world’s sunflower oil supply and, therefore, has minimal influence on price changes. The advantage of hedging using futures ensures that the sunflower crushing company will know the profits they will realise, but the downside is that they can no longer benefit from a price increase. Alternative hedging instruments like options might pose a solution to the opportunity cost does not go missing and that profit margins are locked in at the best possible prices for the oil crushing company. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of employing options alongside futures to simulate different scenarios to determine if options can bridge the opportunity cost gap.

Keywords: derivatives, hedging, price risk, sunflower, sunflower oil, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
92 Effects of Molybdenum Treatments on Maize and Sunflower Seedlings

Authors: Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Varallay, Bela Kovacs

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to examine whether increasing molybdenum (Mo) concentration affects on the growth and Mo concentration of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Arena PR) seedlings within laboratory conditions. In this experiment calcareous chernozem soil was used and Mo was supplemented into the soil as ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] in four different concentrations as follow: 0 (control), 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg. In this study we found that molybdenum in small amount (30 mg/kg) affects positively on growth of maize and sunflower seedlings, however, higher concentration of Mo reduces the dry weights of shoots and roots. In the case of maize the highest Mo treatment (270 mg/kg) and in sunflower 90 mg/kg treatment caused significant reduction in plant growth. In addition, we observed that molybdenum contents in the roots and shoots were very low in case of control soil but were significantly elevated with increasing concentration of Mo treatment. Only in case of sunflower the highest 270 mg/kg Mo treatment caused decrease in Mo concentration.

Keywords: dry weight, maize, molybdenum, sunflower

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
91 Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower Genotypes Under Drip Irrigation

Authors: Adel M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This Investigation was conducted to determine the productivity and water use efficiency for new sunflower genotypes. Ten sunflower genotypes were evaluated under drip irrigation using two treatments of. Results indicate that decreasing the amount of irrigation water from 1500 to 1130 mm/hectar significantly reduced all studied traits. Mutation (M1-63) surpassed all the other one genotypes in seed yield and WUE. Lines which gave the highest yield of the seed have water use efficiency under drought conditions higher than water use efficiency under normal irrigation. The lowest depression in seed yield due to drought conditions has been registered for Line 20, Line M1-63 and Sakha 53 genotypes (11 , 18 and 16 %, respectively). Genotypes (Line 20 , Line M1-63 and Sakha 53) are more tolerant to drought than others and we can used its in breeding program to develop sunflower hybrids suitable for cultivation under drought condition.

Keywords: sunflower genotypes, water use efficiency, mutation, inbred lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
90 Tomato Peels Prevented Margarine and Soya/Sunflower Oils Oxidation

Authors: S. Zidani, A. Benakmoum, A. Mansouri, A. Ammouche

Abstract:

In this research paper, we studied the oxidative stability of table margarine and soya/sunflower oils rich in lycopene with tomato peel powder (TPP). For this 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) of TPP was added to oil used in margarine manufacture. Chromatic characteristics of margarine and soya/sunflower oil have been studied using 'Tristimulus Colorimetry' method. The main point of the research was to determine the antioxidant activity and the oxidative resistance of soya/sunflower and margarine with TPP (peroxide index, TBA index, and rancimat test). The sensory and textural properties, overall acceptability of margarine and oil were good, indicating that TPP could be added to oil to produce a margarine enriched in lycopene with excellent stability oxidative.

Keywords: tomato peel powder, lycopene, table margarine, soya/sunflower oils, antioxidant activity, stability oxidative

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
89 Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Huu Q. Lee

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals in the sunflower plant and the quality of the sunflower oil (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) were determined. The tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the sunflower plant. The incorporation of 40 t/decare of compost and 20 t/decare of vermicompost to the soil led to an increase in the ability of the sunflower to take up and accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn. Sunflower can be subjected to the accumulators of Pb, Zn and Cd and can be successfully used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils with heavy metals. The 40 t/daa compost treatment led to a decrease in heavy metal content in sunflower oil to below the regulated limits. Oil content and fatty acids composition were affected by compost and vermicompost amendment treatments. Adding compost and vermicompost increased the oil content in the seeds. Adding organic amendments increased the content of stearic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, and reduced the content of palmitic and gadoleic acids in sunflower oil. The possibility of further industrial processing of seeds to oil and use of the obtained oil will make sunflowers economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, sunflower

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
88 Quantification and Thermal Behavior of Rice Bran Oil, Sunflower Oil and Their Model Blends

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma, Garima Sengar

Abstract:

Rice bran oil is considered comparatively nutritionally superior than different fats/oils. Therefore, model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were explored for changes in the different physicochemical parameters. Repeated deep fat frying process was carried out by using dried potato in order to study the thermal behaviour of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil had shown good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although, the model blends constituting 60% RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils, physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): SnF (sunflower oil) was carried by different methods. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition and iodine value can be used for the quantification. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification.

Keywords: rice bran oil, sunflower oil, frying, quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
87 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
86 Effect of Different Arsenic Treatments on Root Growth of Sunflower Seedlings in Rhizobox Experiment

Authors: Szilvia Várallyay, Béla Kovács, Éva Bódi, Farzeneh Garousi, Szilvia Veres

Abstract:

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring substance that can be present in soil, water and air. Vegetables, fruits, and other plants that grow in contaminated soils which are able to accumulate arsenic. Arsenic when presents in plant cells, has various negative physiological effects and when presents in soil will be inorgaic form, namely arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)). These two forms of arsenic disrupt plant metabolism by inhibiting its growth and these arsenic species has negative effect on nutrient uptake. A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of arsenite and arsenate on root growth of sunflower seedlings. Sunflower plants were grown in climatic room under irradiance of 300 µmol m-2 s-1, 16-h day and 8-h night photoperiod, day/night temperature of 25/20°C and relative humidity of 65-75%. We applied arsenic in form of arsenite (NaAsO2) and arsenate (KH2AsO4), respectively. The applied arsenic treatments was 0, 10, 30, 90 mg.kg-1. After disinfection, seeds were germinated between moist filter papers. Seedlings with 2-3 cm coleoptils were placed into rhizoboxes. In the rhizoboxes the growing and daily growing rhythm of roots of sunflower can be followed up, moreover possible phytotoxic symptoms of roots resulting from increasing arsenic can be seen. Weights of rhizoboxes were measured daily and also evaporated water added each day. The lengths of roots were measured daily until seedlings roots get at the end of the rhizoboxes. Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of arsenic in the soil and the growth of sunflower seedlings roots. The effect of arsenic toxicity was more considerable in 90 mg.kg-1 arsenic treatment than lower concentration. The same arsenite concentration causes slower growth in case of sunflower plant than the same arsenate concentration produced.

Keywords: arsenic, rhizobox experiment, sunflower, root growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
85 Biodegradation Study of a Biocomposite Material Based on Sunflower Oil and Alfa Fibers as Natural Resources

Authors: Sihem Kadem, Ratiba Irinislimane, Naima Belhaneche

Abstract:

The natural resistance to biodegradation of polymeric materials prepared from petroleum-based source and the management of their wastes in the environment are the driving forces to replace them by other biodegradable materials from renewable resources. For that, in this work new biocomposites materials have been synthesis from sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and alfa plants (Stipatenacissima) as natural based resources. The sunflower oil (SFO) was chemically modified via epoxidation then acrylation reactions to obtain acrylated epoxidized sunflower oil resin (AESFO). The AESFO resin was then copolymerized with styrene as co-monomer in the presence of boron trifluoride (BF3) as cationic initiator and cobalt octoate (Co) as catalyst. The alfa fibers were treated with alkali treatment (5% NaOH) before been used as bio-reinforcement. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing the resin with untreated and treated alfa fibers at different percentages. A biodegradation study was carried out for the synthesized biocomposites in a solid medium (burial in the soil) by evaluated, first, the loss of mass, the results obtained were reached between 7.8% and 11% during one year. Then an observation under an optical microscope was carried out, after one year of burial in the soil, microcracks, brown and black spots were appeared on the samples surface. This results shows that the synthesized biocomposites have a great aptitude for biodegradation.

Keywords: alfa fiber, biocomposite, biodegradation, soil, sunflower oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
84 Influence of Magnetic Bio-Stimulation Effects on Pre-Sown Hybrid Sunflower Seeds Germination, Growth, and on the Percentage of Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Nighat Zia-ud-Den, Shazia Anwer Bukhari

Abstract:

In the present study, sunflower seeds were exposed to magnetic bio-stimulation at different milli Tesla, and their effects were studied. The present study addressed to establish the effectiveness of magnetic bio-stimulation on seed germination, growth, and other dynamics of crop growth. The changes in physiological characters, i.e. the growth parameters of seedlings (biomass, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root shoot leaf and fruit, leaf area, the height of plants, number of leaves, and number of fruits per plant) and antioxidant activities were measured. The parameters related to germination and growth were measured under controlled conditions while they changed significantly compared with that of the control. These changes suggested that magnetic seed stimulator enhanced the inner energy of seeds, which contributed to the acceleration of the growth and development of seedlings. Moreover, pretreatment with a magnetic field was found to be a positive impact on sunflower seeds germination, growth, and other biochemical parameters.

Keywords: sunflower seeds, physical priming method, biochemical parameters, antioxidant activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
83 Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala Fingerlings Fed on Sunflower Meal Based Diet Supplemented with Phytase

Authors: Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal, Farhat Jabeen, Arshad Javid, Tasneem Hameed

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted with Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings to study the effects of microbial phytase with graded levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 FTUkg-1) by sunflower meal based diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. The chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average wt 5.98 g fish-1) were fed once a day and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth and feed performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was obtained by the fish fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 phytase level. Similarly, nutrient digestibility was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by phytase supplementation. Digestibility coefficients for sunflower meal based diet increased 15.76%, 17.70%, and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Again, maximum response of nutrient digestibility was recorded at the phytase level of 1000 FTU kg-1 diet. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 level is optimum to release adequate chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Our results also suggested that phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet can help in the development of sustainable aquaculture by reducing the feed cost and nutrient discharge through feces in the aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: sunflower meal, Cirrhinus mrigala, growth, nutrient digestibility, phytase

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
82 Screening of the Sunflower Genotypes for Drought Stress at Seedling Stage by Polyethylene Glycol under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Uzma Ayaz, Sanam Bashir, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Fareed Khan

Abstract:

Drought stress directly affects growth along with the productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to characterize the genetic variability for seedling and morpho-physiological parameters in different sunflower genotypes under water-stressed conditions. A total of twenty-seven genotypes, including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested against drought stress at Seedling stages by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Significant means were calculated among traits using analysis of variance (ANOVA) whereas, correlation and principal component analysis also confirmed that germination percentage, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency are positively linked with each other hence, these traits were responsible for most of the variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-3, line-2, and 17578, line-1, line-7, line-6 and 17562 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of drought-tolerant inbreed lines which could be subsequently used in future heterosis breeding programs.

Keywords: sunflower, drought, stress, polyethylene- glycol, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
81 Heamatological and Biochemical Changes in Cockerels Fed Graded Levels of Wild Sunflower Leaf Meal

Authors: Siyanbola Mojisola Funmilayo, Amao Emmanuel Ayodele

Abstract:

The poultry industry in Nigeria has been played by a variety of problems, which include the search for feed ingredients that are not competed for by man. This has resulted in a reduced interest of farmers in the industry leading to a reduction in animal protein availability for human consumption as a consequence of a high cost of production. The incorporation of wild sunflower meal (Tithonia diversfolia, Hemsl A. Gray) (WSF Meal) and some others in poultry diets have been reported to result in compounded feed with nutrient profiles that compare favourable with feeds of conventional feedstuff and reduce feed cost as they reduce competition with humans. A 98-day feeding trial was used to evaluate the effect of Wild sunflower leaf (WSL) at varying levels on the hematology and biochemistry of cockerels. A total of one hundred and twenty(120) cockerel birds were randomly allotted into four experimental diets with three replicates per experimental diet (ten birds per replicate). Wild sunflower leaf was included in four graded levels ; 0, 5, 10, and 15%. Packed cell volume, Red blood cell count, White blood cell count, Hemoglobin count, Lymphocyte count, Neutrophil count, Platelets, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Glucose, Urea, Chloride, Sodium, and Potassium ion values were significantly different (p<0.05) among the treatments. Mean values obtained for Creatinine, Total Protein, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Albumin, and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the treatment. WSL could be included up to 15% in the diet of cockerel without any deleterious effect on the birds. Based on the results, up to 15% Wild sunflower meal (WSL) can be included in the diet of cockerel without any adverse effect on the hematology and biochemical indices of birds.

Keywords: biochemical changes, cockerels, hematology, wild sunflower leaf

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
80 Sunflower Irrigation with Two Different Types of Soil Moisture Sensors

Authors: C. D. Papanikolaou, V. A. Giouvanis, E. A. Karatasiou, D. S. Dimakas, M. A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki

Abstract:

Irrigation is one of the most important cultivation practices for each crop, especially in areas where rainfall is enough to cover the crop water needs. In such areas, the farmers must irrigate in order to achieve high economical results. The precise irrigation scheduling contributes to irrigation water saving and thus a valuable natural resource is protected. Under this point of view, in the experimental field of the Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics of the University of Thessaly, a research was conducted during the growing season of 2012 in order to evaluate the growth, seed and oil production of sunflower as well as the water saving, by applying different methods of irrigation scheduling. Three treatments in four replications were organized. These were: a) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method (control); b) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil moisture sensor (SMS); and c) surface drip irrigation, where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil potential sensor (WM).

Keywords: irrigation, energy production, soil moisture sensor, sunflower, water saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
79 Automated Irrigation System with Programmable Logic Controller and Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: J. P. Reges, L. C. S. Mazza, E. J. Braga, J. A. Bessa, A. R. Alexandria

Abstract:

This paper proposes the development of control and automation of irrigation system located sunflower harvest in the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension (UEPE), the Apodi Plateau in Limoeiro do Norte. The sunflower extraction, which in turn serves to get the produced oil from its seeds, animal feed, and is widely used in human food. Its nutritional potential is quite high what makes of foods produced from vegetal, very rich and healthy. The focus of research is to make the autonomous irrigation system sunflower crop from programmable logic control energized with alternative energy sources, solar photovoltaics. The application of automated irrigation system becomes interesting when it provides convenience and implements new forms of managements of the implementation of irrigated cropping systems. The intended use of automated addition to irrigation quality and consequently brings enormous improvement for production of small samples. Addition to applying the necessary and sufficient features of water management in irrigation systems, the system (PLC + actuators + Renewable Energy) will enable to manage the quantitative water required for each crop, and at the same time, insert the use of sources alternative energy. The entry of the automated collection will bring a new format, and in previous years, used the process of irrigation water wastage base and being the whole manual irrigation process.

Keywords: automation, control, sunflower, irrigation, programming, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
78 The Study of the Mutual Effect of Genotype in Environment by Percent of Oil Criterion in Sunflower

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Pasha Hejazi, Maryam Ebrahimian Dehkordi

Abstract:

In order to study the Mutual effect of genotype × environment for the percent of oil index in sunflower items, an experiment was accomplished in form of complete random block designs in four iteration in four diverse researching station comprising Esfahan, Birjand, Sari, and Karaj. Complex variance analysis showed that there is an important diversity between the items under investigation. The results pertaining the coefficient variation of items Azargol and Vidoc has respectively allocated the minimum coefficient of variations. According to the results extrapolated from Shokla stability variance, the Items Brocar, Allison and Fabiola, are among the stable genotypes for oil percent respectively. in the biplot GGE, the location under investigations divided in two super-environment, first one comprised of locations naming Esfahan, Karaj, and Birjand, and second one were such a location as Sari. By this point of view, in the first super-environment, the Item Fabiola and in the second Almanzor item was among the best items and crops.

Keywords: sunflower, stability, GGE bipilot, super-environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
77 Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Edible Oil by Microencapsulation Using Plant Proteins

Authors: L. Le Priol, A. Nesterenko, K. El Kirat, K. Saleh

Abstract:

Introduction and objectives: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 are widely recognized as being beneficial to the health and normal growth. Unfortunately, due to their highly unsaturated nature, these molecules are sensitive to oxidation and thermic degradation leading to the production of toxic compounds and unpleasant flavors and smells. Hence, it is necessary to find out a suitable way to protect them. Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a low-cost encapsulation technology and most commonly used in the food industry. Many compounds can be used as wall materials, but there is a growing interest in the use of biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, over the last years. The objective of this study is to increase the oxidative stability of sunflower oil by microencapsulation in plant protein matrices using spray-drying technique. Material and methods: Sunflower oil was used as a model substance for oxidable food oils. Proteins from brown rice, hemp, pea, soy and sunflower seeds were used as emulsifiers and microencapsulation wall materials. First, the proteins were solubilized in distilled water. Then, the emulsions were pre-homogenized using a high-speed homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) and stabilized by using a high-pressure homogenizer (HHP). Drying of the emulsion was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer. The oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil was determined by performing accelerated oxidation tests with a Rancimat. The size of the microparticles was measured using a laser diffraction analyzer. The morphology of the spray-dried microparticles was acquired using environmental scanning microscopy. Results: Pure sunflower oil was used as a reference material. Its induction time was 9.5 ± 0.1 h. The microencapsulation of sunflower oil in pea and soy protein matrices significantly improved its oxidative stability with induction times of 21.3 ± 0.4 h and 12.5 ± 0.4 h respectively. The encapsulation with hemp proteins did not significantly change the oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil. Sunflower and brown rice proteins were ineffective materials for this application, with induction times of 7.2 ± 0.2 h and 7.0 ± 0.1 h respectively. The volume mean diameter of the microparticles formulated with soy and pea proteins were 8.9 ± 0.1 µm and 16.3 ± 1.2 µm respectively. The values for hemp, sunflower and brown rice proteins could not be obtained due to the agglomeration of the microparticles. ESEM images showed smooth and round microparticles with soy and pea proteins. The surfaces of the microparticles obtained with sunflower and hemp proteins were porous. The surface was rough when brown rice proteins were used as the encapsulating agent. Conclusion: Soy and pea proteins appeared to be efficient wall materials for the microencapsulation of sunflower oil by spray drying. These results were partly explained by the higher solubility of soy and pea proteins in water compared to hemp, sunflower, and brown rice proteins. Acknowledgment: This work has been performed, in partnership with the SAS PIVERT, within the frame of the French Institute for the Energy Transition (Institut pour la Transition Energétique (ITE)) P.I.V.E.R.T. (www.institut-pivert.com) selected as an Investments for the Future (Investissements d’Avenir). This work was supported, as part of the Investments for the Future, by the French Government under the reference ANR-001-01.

Keywords: biopolymer, edible oil, microencapsulation, oxidative stability, release, spray-drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
76 Crop Water Productivity for Sunflower under Different Irrigation Regimes and Plant Spacing, at Gezira Clay Soil, Sudan

Authors: R. A. Eman Elsheikh, Bart Schultz, Abraham Mehari Haile, Hussein S. Adam

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Gezira research station farm during the winter season in the third week of November 2012, in WadMedani, Sudan (Lat 14.23 W, Long 33.39 E and altitude 405 m above sea level, in deep cracking alkaline heavy clay Vertisols). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three different irrigation for 10 days (W1), 15 days (W2) and 20 days (W3) and for two rows of 30 cm (S1) and 40 cm (S2), respectively. The experimental design was split plot with three replicates. The sunflower test variety was Hysun 33 cultivar. The seasonal water applied during the study was 6898, 6647, 5256, 5435, 5214, 5416 m3/ha for W1S1, W1S2, W2S1, W2S2, W3S1 and W3S2 respectively. The seed yield obtained for the above treatment in that sequence was 4208, 5542, 5167, 4579, 2931, 2936 kg/ha. The corresponding computed water productivity was 0.61, 0.82, 0.87, 0.95, 0.54, 0.56 kg/m3. The study clearly indicated that the highest seed yield was obtained when the crop was sown at 40 cm row spacing and was irrigated every 10 days (W1S2), followed by W2S1.

Keywords: water productivity, water deficit, sunflower, plant spacing

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
75 S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato

Authors: Fazal Said, Mian Inayatullah

Abstract:

Various insect visitors in common and honeybees in particular are considered to be accountable for 80-85% of pollination services for numerous crops worldwide. Pollinators not only increase crop yield but also improve quality of produce as well. The present investigation is therefore, an endeavor to assess the visitation pattern of honeybees, Apis florea (Hymenopterae: Apidae) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The current research trial was carried out at New Developmental Farm (NDF), The University of Agriculture Peshawar, (34.01° N, 71.53° E) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan during 2012 and 2013. Different observations on the foraging behavior of A. florea’s individuals were made from 0800 hr in the morning and continued until 1800 hr in the evening. Hence, total duration of foraging activity of A. florea individuals was comprised of 10 hours. It was found that two peaks of visitation/foraging occurred between 1400 to 1600 hr of the day. First peak of foraging was recorded at 1600hr, where 15 individuals of honeybees/3 m2 were counted to be engaged in foraging sunflower blooms. Second peak visitation was recorded with a total of 12 bees/3 m2 at 1400 hrs of the day. Visitations of A. florea were observed to its minimum intensity of only 07 individuals during late hours of the day as evening approached after 1800 hrs. Similarly, due to more number of pollens and nectars on flowers, high frequency of A. florea were found engaged in foraging during 20th and 25th day after initiation of blooms on sunflower. Minimum numbers of honeybees were recorded during initial and very last days of flowering due to less number of plants with blooms and less availability of pollen and nectar on flowers.

Keywords: apis florea, days after flowering, daily hours, sunflower, visitation pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
74 The Effect of Sowing Time on Phytopathogenic Characteristics and Yield of Sunflower Hybrids

Authors: Adrienn Novák

Abstract:

The field research was carried out at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen in Eastern-Hungary, on the area of the aeolain loess of the Hajdúság. We examined the effects of the sowing time on the phytopathogenic characteristics and yield production by applying various fertilizer treatments on two different sunflower genotypes (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We applied three different sowing times (early, optimal, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control = no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection). During our investigations, the studied cropyears were of different sowing time optimum in terms of yield amount (2012: early, 2013: average). By Pearson’s correlation analysis, we have found that delaying the sowing time pronouncedly decreased the extent of infection in both crop years (Diaporthe: r=0.663**, r=0.681**, Sclerotinia: r=0.465**, r=0.622**). The fungicide treatment not only decreased the extent of infection, but had yield increasing effect too (2012: r=0.498**, 2013: r=0.603**). In 2012, delaying of the sowing time increased (r=0.600**), but in 2013, it decreased (r= 0.356*) the yield amount.

Keywords: fungicide treatment, genotypes, sowing time, yield, sunflower

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
73 Physicochemical and Antioxidative Characteristics of Black Bean Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Different Enzymes

Authors: Zhaojun Zheng, Yuanfa Liu, Jiaxin Li, Jinwei Li, Yong-jiang Xu, Chen Cao

Abstract:

Black bean is an excellent protein source for preparing hydrolysates, which attract much attention due to their biological activity. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black bean protein, hydrolyzed by ficin, bromelain or alcalase until 300 min of hydrolysis. Results showed that bromelain and alcalase hydrolysates possessed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than that of ficin, thereby presenting different ultraviolet absorption, fluorescence intensity, and circular dichroism. Moreover, all hydrolysates possessed the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical with the lowest IC₅₀ of 21.11 µg/mL, as well as to chelate ferrous ion (Fe²⁺) with the IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.82 to 30.68 µg/mL. Intriguingly, the oxidation of linoleic acid, sunflower oil, and sunflower oil-in-water emulsion was remarkedly retarded by the three selected protein hydrolysates, especially by bromelain-treated protein hydrolysate, which might attribute to their high hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties. These findings can provide strong support for black bean protein hydrolysates to be employed in food products acting as natural antioxidant alternatives.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, black bean protein hydrolysate, emulsion physicochemical properties, sunflower oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
72 Assessment of the Quality of a Mixture of Vegetable Oils from Kazakhstan Origin

Authors: Almas Mukhametov, Dina Dautkanova, Moldir Yerbulekova, Gulim Tuyakova, Raziya Zhakudaeva, Makpal Seisenaly, Asemay Kazhymurat

Abstract:

The composition of samples of mixtures of vegetable oils of Kazakhstan origin, consisting of sunflower, safflower and linseed oils, has been experimentally substantiated. With an approximate optimal ratio of w-6:w-3 fatty acids in 80:15:05 triacylglycerols, providing its therapeutic and prophylactic properties. The resulting mixture can be used in the development of functional products. The result was also identified and evaluated by physical and chemical quality indicators, the content of vitamin E, and the concentration of ions of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), as well as mercury (Hg).

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower, safflower, linseed, mixture, fatty acid composition, heavy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
71 In vitro Analysis of the Effect of Supplementation Oils on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyvibrio Fibrisolvense

Authors: B. D. Ravindra, A. K. Tyagi, C. Kathirvelan

Abstract:

Some micronutrients in food (milk and meat), called ‘functional food components’ exert beneficial effects other than their routine nutrient function and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an unsaturated fatty acid of ruminant origin, an example of this category. However, recently the fear of hypercholesterolemia due to saturated fats has led to the avoidance of dietary fat especially of animal origin despite its advantages such as lowering blood cholesterol, immuno-modulation and anticarcinogenic property due to the presence of CLA. The dietary increase of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) is one of the feeding strategies for increasing the CLA concentration in milk. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is the one potential rumen bacteria, which has high potential to isomerize LA to CLA. The study was conducted to screen the different oils for CLA production, selected based on their LA concentration. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens culture (strain 49, MZ3, 30/10) were isolated from the rumen liquor of fistulated Buffalo (age ≈ 3 years; weight ≈ 250 kg) were used in in-vitro experiments, further work was carried out with three oils viz., sunflower, mustard and soybean oil at different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 g/L of media) to study the growth of bacteria and CLA production at different incubation period (0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 h). In the present study, growth of the bacteria was decreased linearly with increase in concentration of three oils. However, highest decrease in growth was recorded at the concentration of 0.30 g of three oils per litre of the media. Highest CLA production was 51.96, 42.08 and 25.60 µg/ml at 0.25 g and it decreased to 48.19, 39.35 and 23.41 µg/ml at 0.3 g supplementation of sunflower, soybean, and mustard oil per litre of the media, respectively at 18 h incubation period. The present study indicates the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria involves in the biohydrogenation process, and LA rich sunflower meal can be used to improve the CLA production in rumen and thereby increasing the CLA concentration of milk.

Keywords: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, CLA, fatty acids, sunflower oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
70 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: coating, fresh-cut, gum, papaya, psylllium

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
69 Influence of Lecithin from Different Sources on Crystallization Properties of Non-Trans Fat

Authors: Ivana Lončarević, Biljana Pajin, Radovan Omorjan, Aleksandra Torbica, Danica Zarić, Jovana Maksimović

Abstract:

Soybean seeds are the main source of lecithin in confectionery industry in Serbia and elsewhere. The extensive production of sunflower and rapeseed oil opens the possibility of using lecithin from these sources, as an alternative. Also, the development of functional foods dictates the use of edible fats with no undesirable trans fatty acids, obtained by fractionation and transesterification instead of common hydrogenation process. Crystallization properties of nontrans vegetable fat with the addition of soybean, sunflower and rapeseed lecithin were investigated in this paper. NMR technique was used for measuring the solid fat content (SFC) of fats at different temperatures, as well as for crystallization rate under static conditions. Also, the possibility of applying Gompertz function to define kinetics of crystallization was investigated.

Keywords: non-trans fat, lecithin, fatty acids, SFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 313