Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 332

Search results for: translanguaging pedagogy

332 Enabling Translanguaging in the EFL Classroom, Affordances of Learning and Reflections

Authors: Nada Alghali

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Translanguaging pedagogy suggests a new perspective in language education relating to multilingualism; multilingual learners have one linguistic repertoire and not two or more separate language systems (García and Wei, 2014). When learners translanguage, they are able to draw on all their language features in a flexible and integrated way (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). In the Foreign Language Classroom, however, the tendency to use the target language only is still advocated as a pedagogy. This study attempts to enable learners in the English as a foreign language classroom to draw on their full linguistic repertoire through collaborative reading lessons. In observations prior to this study, in a classroom where English only policy prevails, learners still used their first language in group discussions yet were constrained at times by the teacher’s language policies. Through strategically enabling translanguaging in reading lessons (Celic and Seltzer, 2011), this study has revealed that learners showed creative ways of language use for learning and reflected positively on thisexperience. This case study enabled two groups in two different proficiency level classrooms who are learning English as a foreign language in their first year at University in Saudi Arabia. Learners in the two groups wereobserved over six weeks and wereasked to reflect their learning every week. The same learners were also interviewed at the end of translanguaging weeks after completing a modified model of the learning reflection (Ash and Clayton, 2009). This study positions translanguaging as collaborative and agentive within a sociocultural framework of learning, positioning translanguaging as a resource for learning as well as a process of learning. Translanguaging learning episodes are elicited from classroom observations, artefacts, interviews, reflections, and focus groups, where they are analysed qualitatively following the sociocultural discourse analysis (Fairclough &Wodak, 1997; Mercer, 2004). Initial outcomes suggest functions of translanguaging in collaborative reading tasks and recommendations for a collaborative translanguaging pedagogy approach in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: translanguaging, EFL, sociocultural theory, discourse analysis

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331 Translanguaging and Cross-languages Analyses in Writing and Oral Production with Multilinguals: a Systematic Review

Authors: Maryvone Cunha de Morais, Lilian Cristine Hübner

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Based on a translanguaging theoretical approach, which considers language not as separate entities but as an entire repertoire available to bilingual individuals, this systematic review aimed at analyzing the methods (aims, samples investigated, type of stimuli, and analyses) adopted by studies on translanguaging practices associated with written and oral tasks (separately or integrated) in bilingual education. The PRISMA criteria for systematic reviews were adopted, with the descriptors "translanguaging", "bilingual education" and/or “written and oral tasks" to search in Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs, Eric, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for articles published between 2017 and 2021. 280 registers were found, and after following the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 24 articles were considered for this analysis. The results showed that translanguaging practices were investigated on four studies focused on written production analyses, ten focused on oral production analysis, whereas ten studies focused on both written and oral production analyses. The majority of the studies followed a qualitative approach, while five studies have attempted to study translanguaging with quantitative statistical measures. Several types of methods were used to investigate translanguaging practices in written and oral production, with different approaches and tools indicating that the methods are still in development. Moreover, the findings showed that students’ interactions have received significant attention, and studies have been developed not just in language classes in bilingual education, but also including diverse educational and theoretical contexts such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, task repetition, Science classes, collaborative writing, storytelling, peer feedback, Speech Act theory and collective thinking, language ideologies, conversational analysis, and discourse analyses. The studies, whether focused either on writing or oral tasks or in both, have portrayed significant research and pedagogical implications, grounded on the view of integrated languages in bi-and multilinguals.

Keywords: bilingual education, oral production, translanguaging, written production

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330 Translanguaging as a Decolonial Move in South African Bilingual Classrooms

Authors: Malephole Philomena Sefotho

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Nowadays, it is a fact that the majority of people, worldwide, are bilingual rather than monolingual due to the surge of globalisation and mobility. Consequently, bilingual education is a topical issue of discussion among researchers. Several studies that have focussed on it have highlighted the importance and need for incorporating learners’ linguistic repertoires in multilingual classrooms and move away from the colonial approach which is a monolingual bias – one language at a time. Researchers pointed out that a systematic approach that involves the concurrent use of languages and not a separation of languages must be implemented in bilingual classroom settings. Translanguaging emerged as a systematic approach that assists learners to make meaning of their world and it involves allowing learners to utilize all their linguistic resources in their classrooms. The South African language policy also room for diverse languages use in bi/multilingual classrooms. This study, therefore, sought to explore how teachers apply translanguaging in bilingual classrooms in incorporating learners’ linguistic repertoires. It further establishes teachers’ perspectives in the use of more than one language in teaching and learning. The participants for this study were language teachers who teach at bilingual primary schools in Johannesburg in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to establish their perceptions on the concurrent use of languages. Qualitative research design was followed in analysing data. The findings showed that teachers were reluctant to allow translanguaging to take place in their classrooms even though they realise the importance thereof. Not allowing bilingual learners to use their linguistic repertoires has resulted in learners’ negative attitude towards their languages and contributed in learners’ loss of their identity. This article, thus recommends a drastic change to decolonised approaches in teaching and learning in multilingual settings and translanguaging as a decolonial move where learners are allowed to translanguage freely in their classroom settings for better comprehension and making meaning of concepts and/or related ideas. It further proposes continuous conversations be encouraged to bring eminent cultural and linguistic genocide to a halt.

Keywords: bilingualism, decolonisation, linguistic repertoires, translanguaging

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329 The Dilemma of Translanguaging Pedagogy in a Multilingual University in South Africa

Authors: Zakhile Somlata

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In the context of international linguistic and cultural diversity, all languages can be used for all purposes. Africa in general and South Africa, in particular, is not an exception to multilingual and multicultural society. The multilingual and multicultural nature of South African society has a direct bearing to the heterogeneity of South African Universities in general. Universities as the centers of research, innovation, and transformation of the entire society should be at the forefront in leading multilingualism. The universities in South Africa had been using English and to a certain extent Afrikaans as the only academic languages during colonialism and apartheid regime. The democratic breakthrough of 1994 brought linguistic relief in South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa recognizes 11 official languages that should enjoy parity of esteem for the realization of multilingualism. The elevation of the nine previously marginalized indigenous African languages as academic languages in higher education is central to multilingualism. It is high time that Afrocentric model instead of Eurocentric model should be the one which underpins education system in South Africa at all levels. Almost all South African universities have their language policies that seek to promote access and success of students through multilingualism, but the main dilemma is the implementation of language policies. This study is significant to respond to two objectives: (i) To evaluate how selected institutions use language policies for accessibility and success of students. (ii) To study how selected universities integrate African languages for both academic and administrative purposes. This paper reflects the language policy practices in one selected University of Technology (UoT) in South Africa. The UoT has its own language policy which depicts linguistic diversity of the institution and its commitment to promote multilingualism. Translanguaging pedagogy which accommodates minority languages' usage in the teaching and learning process plays a pivotal role in promoting multilingualism. This research paper employs mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative research) approach. Qualitative data has been collected from the key informants (insiders and experts), while quantitative data has been collected from a cohort of third-year students. A mixed methods approach with its convergent parallel design allows the data to be collected separately, analysed separately but with the comparison of the results. Language development initiatives have been discussed within the framework of language policy and policy implementation strategies. Theoretically, this paper is rooted in language as a problem, language as a right and language as a resource. The findings demonstrate that despite being a multilingual institution, there is a perpetuation of marginalization of African languages to be used as academic languages. Findings further display the hegemony of English. The promotion of status quo compromises the promotion of multilingualism, Africanization of Higher Education and intellectualization of indigenous African languages in South Africa under a democratic dispensation.

Keywords: afro-centric model, hegemony of English, language as a resource, translanguaging pedagogy

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328 Critical Pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Grade 8 Values Education Curriculum and Textbook

Authors: Raymon Maac, Michael Arthus Muega, Joyce Ann Calingasan, Elva Maureen Gorospe

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Critical pedagogy is known for its advocacy of humanistic and liberating education. Its far-reaching approach helps students to understand and analyze their own situations and the realities happening in their society. However, this pedagogy together with its promising features is not well-known in the Philippines. This paper determines the place of critical pedagogy in the new values education curriculum and analyzes its features in the K-12 Values Education curriculum and textbook. The study examines the position of critical pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Values Education curriculum by closely studying and comparing their features; and scrutinizes the Grade 8 Values Education textbook specifically modules 4, 8, 10 and 13 which comprises 25% of the total 16 modules. The said modules are concerned with the role of the family in the preservation of social justice, which is one of the objectives of critical pedagogy. The findings in this research were based on the pieces of evidence gathered from the curriculum and textbook itself. Based on the evaluation done, the study found out that the ideas of critical pedagogy were the same with that of the objectives of K-12 Values Education Curriculum. Due to this, values education teachers can utilize critical pedagogy in their subject. In addition, the K-12 Values Education curriculum exhibits some of the features of critical pedagogy such as authentic student empowerment and critical thinking. Lastly, some features of critical pedagogy are also evident in some of the general parts and recommended activities in the K-12 Values Education textbook while other activities need to be fully developed by both teacher and students to reflect the genuine critical pedagogy.

Keywords: authentic student empowerment, critical pedagogy, critical thinking, liberating education

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327 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal

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This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

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326 Understanding the Multilingualism of the Mauritian Multilingual Primary School Learner and Translanguaging: A Linguistic Ethnographic Study

Authors: Yesha Devi Mahadeo-Doorgakant

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The Mauritian landscape is well-known for its multilingualism with the daily interaction of the number of languages that are used in the island; namely Kreol Morisien, the European languages (English and French) and the Oriental/Asian languages (Hindi, Arabic/Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi, Mandarin, etc.). However, within Mauritius’ multilingual educational system, English is the official medium of instruction while French is taught as compulsory subject till upper secondary and oriental languages are offered as optional languages at primary level. Usually, Mauritians choose one oriental language based on their ethnic/religious identity, when they start their primary schooling as an additional language to learn. In January 2012, Kreol Morisien, which is the considered the language of daily interaction of the majority of Mauritians, was introduced as an optional subject at primary level, taught at the same time as the oriental languages. The introduction of Kreol Morisien has spurred linguistic debates about the issue of multilingualism within the curriculum. Taking this into account, researchers have started pondering on the multilingual educational system of the country and questioning whether the current language curriculum caters for the complex everyday linguistic reality of the multilingual Mauritian learner, given most learners are embedded within an environment where the different languages interact with each other daily. This paper, therefore, proposes translanguaging as being a more befitting theoretical lens through which the multilingualism and the linguistic repertoire of Mauritian learners’ can best be understood.

Keywords: multilingualism, translanguaging, multilingual learner, linguistic ethnography

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325 The Antrophological Determination of Pedagogy

Authors: Sara Kakuk

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Pedagogy has always been open to other disciplines that reflect about the educational process (philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, technology, etc.). Its interdisciplinary openness puts education, as the subject of pedagogy within a broader context of the community, enabling the knowledge of other disciplines to contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental pedagogical notion of education. The purpose of pedagogy as a science serves humans, strives towards humans, must be for humans, and this is its ultimate goal. Humans are essentially dependent on education, which is also considered as a category of humans’ being, because through education an entire world develops in humans. Anthropological assumptions of humans as "deficient beings" see the solution in education, but they also indicate a wealth of shortcomings, because they provide an opportunity for enrichment and formation of culture, living and the self. In that context, this paper illustrates the determination of pedagogy through an anthropological conception of humans and the phenomenon of education. It presents a review of anthropological ideas about education, by providing an analysis of relevant literature dealing with the anthropological notion of humans, which provides fruitful conditions for a pedagogical reconsideration of education.

Keywords: pedagogy, education, humans, anthropology, culture

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324 Developing Learning in Organizations with Innovation Pedagogy Methods

Authors: T. Konst

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Most jobs include training and communication tasks, but often the people in these jobs lack pedagogical competences to plan, implement and assess learning. This paper aims to discuss how a learning approach called innovation pedagogy developed in higher education can be utilized for learning development in various organizations. The methods presented how to implement innovation pedagogy such as process consultation and train the trainer model can provide added value to develop pedagogical knowhow in organizations and thus support their internal learning and development.

Keywords: innovation pedagogy, learning, organizational development, process consultation

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323 Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice

Authors: Alicia Curtin, Kathy Hall

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This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.

Keywords: non traditional, pedagogy, practice, sociocultural

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322 Pedagogical Variation with Computers in Mathematics Classrooms: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis

Authors: Joanne Hardman

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South Africa’s crisis in mathematics attainment is well documented. To meet the need to develop students’ mathematical performance in schools the government has launched various initiatives using computers to impact on mathematical attainment. While it is clear that computers can change pedagogical practices, there is a dearth of qualitative studies indicating exactly how pedagogy is transformed with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in a teaching activity. Consequently, this paper addresses the following question: how, along which dimensions in an activity, does pedagogy alter with the use of computer drill and practice software in four disadvantaged grade 6 mathematics classrooms in the Western Cape province of South Africa? The paper draws on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) to develop a view of pedagogy as socially situated. Four ideal pedagogical types are identified: Reinforcement pedagogy, which has the reinforcement of specialised knowledge as its object; Collaborative pedagogy, which has the development of metacognitive engagement with specialised knowledge as its object; Directive pedagogy, which has the development of technical task skills as its object, and finally, Defensive pedagogy, which has student regulation as its object. Face-to-face lessons were characterised as predominantly Reinforcement and Collaborative pedagogy and most computer lessons were characterised as mainly either Defensive or Directive.

Keywords: computers, cultural historical activity theory, mathematics, pedagogy

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321 A Study of Faculty Development Programs in India to Assist Pedagogy and Curriculum Development

Authors: Chhavi Rana, Sanjay K Jain

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All sides of every education debate agree that quality learning happens when knowledgeable, caring teachers use sound pedagogy. Many deliberations of pedagogy make the fault of considering it as principally being about teaching. There has been lot of research about how to build a positive climate for learning, improve student curiosity, and enhance classroom association. However, these things can only be facilitated when teachers are equipped with better teaching techniques that use sound and accurate pedagogy. Pedagogy is the science and art of education. Its aims range from the full development of the human being to skills acquisition. In India, a project named Mission 10 x has been started by an esteemed IT Corporation Wipro as a faculty development programme (FDP) that particularly focus on elements that facilitated teachers in developing curriculum and new pedagogies that can lead to improvement in student engagement. This paper presents a study of these FDPs and examines (1) the parameters that help teachers in building new pedagogies (2) the extent to which appropriate usage of pedagogy is improved after the conduct of Mission 10 x FDPs, and (3) whether institutions differ in terms of their ability to convert usage of improved pedagogy into academic performance via these FDPs. The sample consisted of 2,236 students at 6 four-year engineering colleges and universities that completed several FDPs during 2012-2014. Many measures of usage of better pedagogy were linked positively with such FDPs, although some of the relationships were weak in strength. The results suggest that the usage of pedagogy were more benefited after conducting these FDPs and application of novel approaches in conducting classes.

Keywords: student engagement, critical thinking; achievement, student learning, pedagogy

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320 Innovative Business Education Pedagogy: A Case Study of Action Learning at NITIE, Mumbai

Authors: Sudheer Dhume, T. Prasad

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There are distinct signs of Business Education losing its sheen. It is more so in developing countries. One of the reasons is the value addition at the end of 2 year MBA program is not matching with the requirements of present times and expectations of the students. In this backdrop, Pedagogy Innovation has become prerequisite for making our MBA programs relevant and useful. This paper is the description and analysis of innovative Action Learning pedagogical approach adopted by a group of faculty members at NITIE Mumbai. It not only promotes multidisciplinary research but also enhances integration of the functional areas skillsets in the students. The paper discusses the theoretical bases of this pedagogy and evaluates the effectiveness of it vis-à-vis conventional pedagogical tools. The evaluation research using Bloom’s taxonomy framework showed that this blended method of Business Education is much superior as compared to conventional pedagogy.

Keywords: action learning, blooms taxonomy, business education, innovation, pedagogy

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319 Communicating Meaning through Translanguaging: The Case of Multilingual Interactions of Algerians on Facebook

Authors: F. Abdelhamid

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Algeria is a multilingual speech community where individuals constantly mix between codes in spoken discourse. Code is used as a cover term to refer to the existing languages and language varieties which include, among others, the mother tongue of the majority Algerian Arabic, the official language Modern Standard Arabic and the foreign languages French and English. The present study explores whether Algerians mix between these codes in online communication as well. Facebook is the selected platform from which data is collected because it is the preferred social media site for most Algerians and it is the most used one. Adopting the notion of translanguaging, this study attempts explaining how users of Facebook use multilingual messages to communicate meaning. Accordingly, multilingual interactions are not approached from a pejorative perspective but rather as a creative linguistic behavior that multilingual utilize to achieve intended meanings. The study is intended as a contribution to the research on multilingualism online because although an extensive literature has investigated multilingualism in spoken discourse, limited research investigated it in the online one. Its aim is two-fold. First, it aims at ensuring that the selected platform for analysis, namely Facebook, could be a source for multilingual data to enable the qualitative analysis. This is done by measuring frequency rates of multilingual instances. Second, when enough multilingual instances are encountered, it aims at describing and interpreting some selected ones. 120 posts and 16335 comments were collected from two Facebook pages. Analysis revealed that third of the collected data are multilingual messages. Users of Facebook mixed between the four mentioned codes in writing their messages. The most frequent cases are mixing between Algerian Arabic and French and between Algerian Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. A focused qualitative analysis followed where some examples are interpreted and explained. It seems that Algerians mix between codes when communicating online despite the fact that it is a conscious type of communication. This suggests that such behavior is not a random and corrupted way of communicating but rather an intentional and natural one.

Keywords: Algerian speech community, computer mediated communication, languages in contact, multilingualism, translanguaging

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318 A Study of The STEAM Toy Pedagogy Plan Evaluation for Elementary School

Authors: Wen-Te Chang, Yun-Hsin Pai

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Purpose: Based on the interdisciplinary of lower grade Elementary School with the integration of STEAM concept, related wooden toy and pedagogy plans were developed and evaluated. The research goal was to benefit elementary school education. Design/methodology/approach: The subjects were teachers from two primary school teachers and students from the department of design of universities in Taipei. Amount of 103participants (Male: 34, Female: 69) were invited to participate in the research. The research tools are “STEAM toy design” and “questionnaire of STEAM toy Pedagogy plan.” The STEAM toy pedagogy plans were evaluated after the activity of “The interdisciplinary literacy discipline guiding study program--STEAM wooden workshop,” Finding/results: The study results: (1) As factors analyzing of the questionnaire indicated the percentage on the major factors were cognition teaching 68.61%, affection 80.18% and technique 80.14%, with α=.936 of validity. The assessment tools were proved to be valid for STEAM pedagogy plan evaluation; (2) The analysis of the questionnaires investigation confirmed that the main effect of the teaching factors was not significant (affection = technique = cognition); however, the interaction between STEAM factors revealed to be significant (F (8, 1164) =5.51, p < .01); (3) The main effect of the six pedagogy plans was significant (climbing toy > bird toy = gondola toy > frog castanets > train toy > balancing toy), and an interactive effect between STEAM factors also reached a significant level, (F (8, 1164) =5.51, p < .01), especially on the artistic (A/ Art) aspect. Originality/value: The main achievement of research: (1) A pedagogy plan evaluation was successfully developed. (2) The interactive effect between the STEAM and the teaching factors reached a significant level. (3) An interactive effect between the STEAM factors and the pedagogy plans reached a significant level too.

Keywords: STEAM, toy design, pedagogy plans, evaluation

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317 Developing and Enacting a Model for Institutional Implementation of the Humanizing Pedagogy: Case Study of Nelson Mandela University

Authors: Mukhtar Raban

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As part of Nelson Mandela University’s journey of repositioning its learning and teaching agenda, the university adopted and foregrounded a humanizing pedagogy-aligning with institutional goals of critically transforming the academic project. The university established the Humanizing Pedagogy Praxis and Research Niche (HPPRN) as a centralized hub for coordinating institutional work exploring and advancing humanizing pedagogies and tasked the unit with developing and enacting a model for humanizing pedagogy exploration. This investigation endeavored to report on the development and enactment of a model that sought to institutionalize a humanizing pedagogy at a South African university. Having followed a qualitative approach, the investigation presents the case study of Nelson Mandela University’s HPPRN and the model it subsequently established and enacted for the advancement towards a more common institutional understanding, interpretation and application of the humanizing pedagogy. The study adopted an interpretive lens for analysis, complementing the qualitative approach of the investigation. The primary challenge that confronted the HPPRN was the development of a ‘living model’ that had to complement existing institutional initiatives while accommodating a renewed spirit of critical reflection, innovation and research of continued and new humanizing pedagogical exploration and applications. The study found that the explicit consideration of tenets of humanizing and critical pedagogies in underpinning and framing the HPPRN Model contributed to the sense of ‘lived’ humanizing pedagogy experiences during enactment. The multi-leveled inclusion of critical reflection in the development and enactment stages was found to further the processes of praxis employed at the university, which is integral to the advancement of humanizing and critical pedagogies. The development and implementation of a model that seeks to institutionalize the humanizing pedagogy at a university rely not only on sound theoretical conceptualization but also on the ‘richness of becoming more human’ explicitly expressed and encountered in praxes and application.

Keywords: humanizing pedagogy, critical pedagogy, institutional implementation, praxis

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316 Creating a Critical Digital Pedagogy Context: Challenges and Potential of Designing and Implementing a Blended Learning Intervention for Adult Refugees in Greece

Authors: Roula Kitsiou, Sofia Tsioli, Eleni Gana

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The current sociopolitical realities (displacement, encampment, and resettlement) refugees experience in Greece are a quite complex issue. Their educational and social ‘integration’ is characterized by transition, insecurity, and constantly changing needs. Based on the current research data, technology and more specifically mobile phones are one of the most important resources for refugees, regardless of their levels of conventional literacy. The proposed paper discusses the challenges encountered during the design and implementation of the educational Action 16 ‘Language Education for Adult Refugees’. Action 16 is one of the 24 Actions of the Project PRESS (Provision of Refugee Education and Support Scheme), funded by the Hellenic Open University (2016-2017). Project PRESS had two main objectives: a) to address the educational and integration needs of refugees in transit, who currently reside in Greece, and b) implement research-based educational interventions in online and offline sites. In the present paper, the focus is on reflection and discussion about the challenges and the potential of integrating technology in language learning for a target-group with many specific needs, which have been recorded in field notes among other research tools (ethnographic data) used in the context of PRESS. Action 16, explores if and how technology enhanced language activities in real-time and place mediated through teachers, as well as an autonomous computer-mediated learning space (moodle platform and application) builds on and expands the linguistic, cultural and digital resources and repertoires of the students by creating collaborative face-to-face and digital learning spaces. A broader view on language as a dynamic puzzle of semiotic resources and processes based on the concept of translanguaging is adopted. Specifically, designing the blended learning environment we draw on the construct of translanguaging a) as a symbolic means to valorize students’ repertoires and practices, b) as a method to reach to specific applications of a target-language that the context brings forward (Greek useful to them), and c) as a means to expand refugees’ repertoires. This has led to the creation of a learning space where students' linguistic and cultural resources can find paths to expression. In this context, communication and learning are realized by mutually investing multiple aspects of the team members' identities as educational material designers, teachers, and students on the teaching and learning processes. Therefore, creativity, humour, code-switching, translation, transference etc. are all possible means that can be employed in order to promote multilingual communication and language learning towards raising intercultural awareness in a critical digital pedagogy context. The qualitative analysis includes critical reflection on the developed educational material, team-based reflexive discussions, teachers’ reports data, and photographs from the interventions. The endeavor to involve women and men with a refugee background into a blended learning experience was quite innovative especially for the Greek context. It reflects a pragmatist ethos of the choices made in order to respond to the here-and-now needs of the refugees, and finally it was a very challenging task that has led all actors involved into Action 16 to (re)negotiations of subjectivities and products in a creative and hopeful way.

Keywords: blended learning, integration, language education, refugees

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315 Understanding Rural Teachers’ Perceived Intention of Using Play in ECCE Mathematics Classroom: Strength-Based Approach

Authors: Nyamela M. ‘Masekhohola, Khanare P. Fumane

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The Lesotho downward trend in mathematics attainment at all levels is compounded by the absence of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in Early Childhood. However, studies have shown that play pedagogy can be used to mitigate the challenges of mathematics education. Despite the benefits of play pedagogy to rural learners, its full potential has not been realized in early childhood care and education classrooms to improve children’s performance in mathematics because the adoption of play pedagogy depends on a strength-based approach. The study explores the potential of play pedagogy to improve mathematics education in early childhood care and education in Lesotho. Strength-based approach is known for its advocacy of recognizing and utilizing children’s strengths, capacities and interests. However, this approach and its promisingattributes is not well-known in Lesotho. In particular, little is known about the attributes of play pedagogy that are essential to improve mathematic education in ECCE programs in Lesotho. To identify such attributes and strengthen mathematics education, this systematic review examines evidence published on the strengths of play pedagogy that supports the teaching and learning of mathematics education in ECCE. The purpose of this review is, therefore, to identify and define the strengths of play pedagogy that supports mathematics education. Moreover, the study intends to understand the rural teachers’ perceived intention of using play in ECCE math classrooms through a strength-based approach. Eight key strengths were found (cues for reflection, edutainment, mathematics language development, creativity and imagination, cognitive promotion, exploration, classification, and skills development). This study is the first to identify and define the strength-based attributes of play pedagogy to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics in ECCE centers in Lesotho. The findings reveal which opportunities teachers find important for improving the teaching of mathematics as early as in ECCE programs. We conclude by discussing the implications of the literature for stimulating dialogues towards formulating strength-based approaches to teaching mathematics, as well as reflecting on the broader contributions of play pedagogy as an asset to improve mathematics in Lesotho and beyond.

Keywords: early childhood education, mathematics education, lesotho, play pedagogy, strength-based approach.

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314 Bringing Feminist Critical Pedagogy to the ESP Higher Education Classes: Feasibility and Challenges

Authors: Samira Essabari

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What, unfortunately, governs the Moroccan educational philosophy and policy today is a concerning neoliberal discourse with its obsession with market logics and individualism. Critical education has been advocated to resist the neoliberal hegemony since it holds the promise to reclaim the social function of education. Significantly, the mounting forms of sexism and discrimination against women combined with hegemonic educational practices are jeopardizing the social function of teaching and learning, hence the relevance of feminist critical pedagogy. A substantial body of research worldwide has explored the ways in which feminist pedagogy can develop feminist consciousness and examine power relations in different educational contexts. In Morocco, however, the feasibility of feminist pedagogy has not been researched despite the overwhelming interest in gender issues in different educational settings. The research on critical pedagogies in Morocco remains very promising. Yet, most studies were conducted in contexts which are already engaged with issues of theory, discourse, and discourse analysis. The field of ESP ( English for Specific Purposes) is pragmatic by nature, and priority in research has been given to questions that adhere to the mainstream concerns of need analysis and study skills and ignore issues of power, gender power relations, and intersectional forms of oppression. To address these gaps in the existing literature, this participatory action research seeks to investigate the feasibility of Feminist pedagogy in ESP higher education and how it can foster feminist critical consciousness among ESP students without compromising their language learning needs. The findings of this research will contribute to research on critical applied linguistics and critical ESP more specifically and add to the practice of critical pedagogies in Moroccan higher education by providing in-depth insights into the enablers and barriers to the implementation of feminist critical pedagogy, which is still feeling its way into the educational scene in Morocco.

Keywords: feminist pedagogy, critical pedagogy, power relations, gender, ESP, intersectionality

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313 The Effectiveness of Genre-Based Pedagogy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Hong Kong

Authors: Mark Shiu-kee Shum, Dan Shi

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This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based pedagogy in teaching Chinese as a foreign language to South Asian ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. South Asian ethnic minority students, as a disadvantaged group of foreign language learners, lack sufficient parental and institutional support in Chinese language learning. The genre-based “Reading to Learn, Learning to Write, R2L” pedagogy derived from Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is applied in this study to improve Chinese language performance of South Asian ethnic minority students for better chance to participate in mainstream society. In this study, the R2L pedagogy is applied to teach students Chinese writing of different genres in junior secondary level for a year. To determine the effectiveness of the R2L pedagogy, the pre-test and post-test writings were evaluated by R2L assessment criteria and analyzed using Systemic Functional Linguistics framework from the whole-text level, sentence level, and the word level. Besides, semi-structured interviews were conducted to perceive students’ learning expectations via experiencing with R2L pedagogy. The finding shows that after the pedagogic interventions, students are equipped with an increased meta-linguistic awareness of genre-specific writing in improving and facilitating their writing performance. It is hoped that the findings can provide a reference for language teachers in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong and beyond.

Keywords: ethnic minority, genre-based approach, reading to learn pedagogy, foreign language education

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312 Disrupting Certainties: Reimagined History Curriculum as Critical Pedagogy in Secondary Teacher Education

Authors: Philippa Hunter

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How might history education support teachers and students to see the past as a provocation, be open to possible futures, and act differently? As teacher educators in an age of diversity and uncertainty, we need to question history’s curriculum nature, pedagogy, and policy intent. The cultural politics of history’s identity in the senior secondary curriculum influences educational socialization (disciplinary, professional, research) and engagement with curriculum decision-making. This paper reflects on curriculum disturbance that shaped a critical pedagogy stance to problematize school history’s certainties. The context is situated in an Aotearoa New Zealand university-based initial teacher education programme. A pedagogic innovation was activated whereby problematized history pedagogy [PHP] was conceptualized as the phenomenon and method of inquiry and storied in doctoral work. The PHP was a reciprocal research process involving history class’ participants and the teacher as researcher, in fashioning teaching identities, identifying with, and thinking critically about history pedagogy. PHP findings revealed evocative discourses of embodiment, nostalgia, and connectedness about living ‘inside the past’. Participants expressed certainty about their abilities as teachers living ‘outside the past’ to interpret historical perspectives. However, discomfort was evident in relation to ‘difficult knowledge’ or unfamiliar contexts of the past that exposed exclusion, powerlessness, or silenced voices. Participants identified history programmes as strongly masculine and conflict-focused. A normalized inquiry-transmission approach to history pedagogy was identified and critiqued. Individuals’ reflexive accounts of PHP implemented whilst on practicum indicate possibilities of history pedagogy as; inclusive and democratic, social and ethical reconstruction, and as a critical project. The PHP sought to reimagine history curriculum and identify spaces of possibility in secondary postgraduate teacher education.

Keywords: curriculum, pedagogy, problematise, reciprocal

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311 Newly-Rediscovered Manuscripts Talking about Seventeenth-Century French Harpsichord Pedagogy

Authors: David Chung

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The development of seventeenth-century French harpsichord music is enigmatic in several respects. Although little is known about the formation of this style before 1650 (we have names of composers, but no surviving music), the style has attained a high degree of refinement and sophistication in the music of the earliest known masters (e.g. Chambonnières, Louis Couperin and D’Anglebert). In fact, how the seventeenth-century musicians acquired the skills of their art remains largely steeped in mystery, as the earliest major treatise on French keyboard pedagogy was not published until 1702 by Saint Lambert. This study fills this lacuna by surveying some twenty recently-rediscovered manuscripts, which offer ample materials for revisiting key issues pertaining to seventeenth-century harpsichord pedagogy. By analyzing the musical contents, the verbal information and explicit notation (such as written-out ornaments and rhythmic effects), this study provides a rich picture of the process of learning at the time, with engaging details of performance nuances often lacking in tutors and treatises. Of even greater significance, that creative skills (such as continuo and ornamentation) were taught alongside fundamental knowledge (solfèges, note values, etc.) at the earliest stage of learning offers fresh challenge for modern pedagogues to rethink how harpsichord pedagogy can be revamped to cater for our own pedagogical and aesthetic needs.

Keywords: French, harpsichord, pedagogy, seventeenth century

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310 If You Can't Teach Yourself, No One Can

Authors: Timna Mayer

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This paper explores the vast potential of self-directed learning in violin pedagogy. Based in practice and drawing on concepts from neuropsychology, the author, a violinist and teacher, outlines five learning principles. Self-directed learning is defined as an ongoing process based on problem detection, definition, and resolution. The traditional roles of teacher and student are reimagined within this context. A step-by-step guide to applied self-directed learning suggests a model for both teachers and students that realizes student independence in the classroom, leading to higher-level understanding and more robust performance. While the value of self-directed learning is well-known in general pedagogy, this paper is novel in applying the approach to the study of musical performance, a field which is currently dominated by habit and folklore, rather than informed by science.

Keywords: neuropsychology and musical performance, self-directed learning, strategic problem solving, violin pedagogy

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309 Cognitive Theory and the Design of Integrate Curriculum

Authors: Bijan Gillani, Roya Gillani

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The purpose of this paper is to propose a pedagogical model where engineering provides the interconnection to integrate the other topics of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The author(s) will first present a brief discussion of cognitive theory and then derive an integrated pedagogy to use engineering and technology, such as drones, sensors, camera, iPhone, radio waves as the nexus to an integrated curriculum development for the other topics of STEM. Based on this pedagogy, one example developed by the author(s) called “Drones and Environmental Science,” will be presented that uses a drone and related technology as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget’s cognitive theory to create environments that promote the integration of different STEM subjects that relate to environmental science.

Keywords: cogntive theories, drone, environmental science, pedagogy

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308 Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

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Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.

Keywords: DC Motor, field control, pedagogy techniques, speed control, virtual environment, voltage control

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307 Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study

Authors: Mengping Cheng, John Everatt, Alison Arrow, Amanda Denston

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Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.

Keywords: Chinese heritage language, experimental research, Reading to Learn pedagogy, vocabulary acquisition

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306 Impacts of International Training Program in Pedagogy in Higher Education in the United States on Visiting Scholars in China

Authors: Yuliang Liu, Thomas Lavallee, Mary Weishaar, Gretchen Fricke, Huaibo Xin

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The longitudinal study was designed to investigate the impacts of the International Training Program in Pedagogy (ITPP) at a midwestern institution in the United States on the visiting scholars from China from 2012-18. The study used the survey research method and involved 48 visiting scholars from Northwest Normal University in China in those eight ITPP cohorts. The results of both quantitative and qualitative data were critically examined and indicated both types of data sources revealed similar findings. It was found that the ITPP has significantly affected all scholars' instruction in China. International implications resulted from the study.

Keywords: international training program in pedagogy, visiting scholars, survey research method, International implications

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305 Re-Thinking and Practicing Critical Pedagogy in Education through Art

Authors: Dalya Markovich

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In the last decade art-educators strive to integrate critical pedagogy within the art classroom. Critical pedagogy aims to deconstruct the oppressive social reality and the false consciousness in which learners from both privileged and underprivileged groups are caught. Understanding oppression as a product of socio-political conditions seeks to instigate processes of change anchored in the student's views. Yet, growing empirical evidence show that these efforts often has resulted in art projects in which art teachers play an active role in the process of critical teaching, while the students remain passive listeners. In this common scenario, the teachers/artists become authoritarian moral guides of critical thinking and acting, while the students are often found to be indifferent or play along to satisfy the teachers'/artists aspirations. These responses indicate that the message of critical pedagogy – transforming the students' way of thinking and acting – mostly do not fulfill its emancipation goals. The study analyses the critical praxis embedded in new art projects and their influence on the participants. This type of projects replaces the individual producer with a collaborative work; switch the finite work with an ongoing project; and transforms the passive learner to an engaged co-producer. The research delves into the pedagogical framework of two of these art projects by using qualitative methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 of the projects' initiator and managers, in order to access understandings of the art projects goals and pedagogical methods. Field work included 4 participant observation (two in each project) during social encounters in the project's settings, focusing on how critical thinking is enacted (or not) by the participants. The analysis exposes how the new art projects avoid the prepackaged "critical" assumptions and praxis, thus turning the participants from passive carriers of critical thinking to agents that actively use criticism. Findings invite researchers to explore new avenues for understanding critical pedagogy and developing various ways to implement critical pedagogy during art education, in view of the growing need of critical thinking and acting in school/society.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, education through art, collaborative work, agency

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304 Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness

Authors: Eunice H. Li

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This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.

Keywords: open, pedagogy, e-learning technologies, autonomy, knowledge

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303 Literary Imagination and Leadership: Lessons From the Classroom

Authors: Naor Cohen

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In recent years, business schools made teaching ethical leadership a higher priority. Greater attention to moral and ethical concepts and reasoning processes may prove beneficial to future business leaders. But with a shift in focus, there is a need for a shift in pedagogy. This paper explores an imaginative literature-based pedagogy in the teaching of ethical leadership. An imaginative literature-based pedagogy uses works of fiction to help students build moral analysis and moral judgment capabilities through a rigorous assessment of the moral soundness of actions, motivations, rationales, and consequences portrayed in works of fiction. Business students enrolled in 4 leadership senior-level courses were assigned the White Tiger: A Novel by Aravind Adiga as their main course reading. Students' engagement was measured as a three-factor construct exploring cognitive engagement, behavioural engagement and emotional engagement. In addition, students' final papers were analyzed using thematic content analysis. This paper will present the results of this analysis and argue that incorporating fiction into the leadership curriculum allows students to explore the dire consequences of avoiding countervailing interests, engaging in dishonesty and engaging in moral puffery-based leadership.

Keywords: ethical leadership, empathetic imagination, business education, pedagogy, fiction

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