Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5534

Search results for: computer mediated communication

5534 Language Use in Computer-Mediated Communication and Users’ Social Identity

Authors: Miramar Damanhouri

Abstract:

This study examines the relationship between language use in computer-mediated communication and the social identity of the user. The data were collected by surveying 298 Saudi bilingual speakers who are familiar with Arabizi, a blend of Latin characters and Arabic numerals to transliterate Arabic sounds, and then analyzed quantitatively by running tests for statistical confidence in order to determine differences in perceptions between young adults (ages 15-25 years) and middle-aged adults (ages 26-50 years). According to the findings of this study, English is the dominant language among most of the young adults surveyed, and when they do use Arabic, they use Arabizi because of its flexibility, compatibility with modern technology, and its acceptance among people of their age and sociocultural backgrounds. On the other hand, most middle-aged adults surveyed here tend to use Arabic, as they believe that they should show their loyalty to their origin. The results of the study demonstrate a mutual relationship between language use in computer-mediated communication and the user’s social identity, as language is used both to reflect and construct that identity.

Keywords: Arabizi, computer mediated communication, digital communication, language use

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5533 Communication Experience and the Perception of Media Richness among Parents Working Overseas and Their Children Left-behind in the Philippines

Authors: Dennis Caasi

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This study analyzed four knowledge-building elements of channel expansion theory namely: communication media, communication content, communication partner, and communication influence vis-à- vis media richness dimensions among parents working overseas and their left-behind children in the Philippines. Results reveal that both parents and children consumed four out of six mediated communications tested in this research, spent one to four days a week connecting, between 30 minutes to 3 hours per engagement, and media consumption is dependent on the message content and media literacy of parents. Family, academic, household, and health were the common communication topics and parents dictate which channel to use. All six medium tested received high ratings based on the media richness constructs.

Keywords: channel expansion theory, computer-mediated communication, media richness theory, overseas Filipino worker

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5532 Distorted Digital Mediated Communication: An Analysis of the Effect of Smartphone on Family Communication in Nigeria

Authors: Peter E. Egielewa

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Communication through the smartphone connects people globally. However, since the last 10 years, there has been an increasing shift from the social engagement in the family to the digital mediated communication aided by the smartphone. The traditional family communication had largely been oral and relational, which the smartphone is now digitally mediating. The study employs mixed research method of quantitative and qualitative research design and deploys questionnaire to elicit responses from both parents and children of 50 purposively selected families from five villages in Southern Nigeria that are very active with smartphone use. Based on the Theory of Family Systems, preliminary findings show that the smartphone is becoming an addiction among Nigerian family members and has shifted the dynamics of family communication from relational to digital culture. The research concludes that smartphone use affects family communication negatively and recommends the moderation of smartphone use in the family and the search for alternative platforms for family communication that minimises smartphone addiction.

Keywords: digital, distorted communication, family, Nigeria, smartphone

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5531 Religion and Politeness: An Exploratory Study for the Integration of Religious Expressions with Politeness Strategies in Iraqi Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: Rasha Alsabbah

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This study explores the relationship between polite language use and religion in the Iraqi culture in computer mediated communication. It tackles the speech acts where these expressions are employed, the frequency of their occurrence and the aims behind them. It also investigates if they have equivalent expressions in English and the possibility of translating them in intercultural communication. Despite the wide assumption that language is a reflection of culture and religion, it started to grant the attention sociologists during the recent 40 years when scholars have questioned the possible interconnection between religion and language in which religion is used as a mean of producing language and performing pragmatic functions. It is presumed that Arabs in general, and Iraqis in particular, have an inclination to use religious vocabulary in showing politeness in their greeting and other speech acts. Due to Islamic religion and culture’s influences, it is observed that Iraqis are very much concerned of maintaining social solidarity and harmonious relationships which make religion a politeness strategy that operates as the key point of their social behaviours. In addition, religion has found to influence almost all their interactions in which they have a tendency of invoking religious expressions, the lexicon of Allah (God), and Qur’anic verses in their daily politeness discourse. This aspect of Islamic culture may look strange, especially to people who come from individualist societies, such as England. Data collection in this study is based on messaging applications like Viber, WhatsApp, and Facebook. After gaining the approval of the participants, there was an investigation for the different aims behind these expressions and the pragmatic function that they perform. It is found that Iraqis tend to incorporate the lexicon of Allah in most of their communication. Such employment is not only by religious people but also by individuals who do not show strong commitment to religion. Furthermore, the social distance and social power between people do not play a significant role in increasing or reducing the rate of using these expressions. A number of these expressions, though can be translated into English, do not have one to one counterpart or reflect religious feeling. In addition, they might sound odd upon being translated or transliterated in oral and written communication in intercultural communication.

Keywords: computer mediated communication (CMC), intercultural communication, politeness, religion, situation bound utterances rituals, speech acts

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5530 Peer-Mediated Intervention for Social Communication Difficulties in Adolescents with Autism: Literature Review and Research Recommendations

Authors: Christine L. Cole

Abstract:

Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often experience social-communication difficulties that negatively impact their social interactions with typical peers. However, unlike other age and disability groups, there is little intervention research to inform best practice for these students. One evidence-based strategy for younger students with ASD is peer-mediated intervention (PMI). PMI may be particularly promising for use with adolescents, as peers are readily available and natural experts for encouraging authentic high school conversations. This paper provides a review of previous research that evaluated the use of PMI to improve the social-communication skills of students with ASD. Specific intervention features associated with positive student outcomes are identified and recommendations for future research are provided. Adolescents with ASD are targeted due to the critical importance of social conversation at the high school level.

Keywords: autism, peer-mediation, social communication, adolescents

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5529 Internet Memes: A Mirror of Culture and Society

Authors: Alexandra-Monica Toma

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As the internet became a ruling force of society, computer-mediated communication has enriched its methods to convey meaning by combining linguistic means to visual means of expressivity. One of the elements of cyberspace is what we call a meme, a succinct, visually engaging tool used to communicate ideas or emotions, usually in a funny or ironic manner. Coined by Richard Dawkings in the late 1970s to refer to cultural genes, this term now denominates a special type of vernacular language used to share content on the internet. This research aims to analyse the basic mechanism that stands at the basis of meme creation as a blend of innovation and imitation and will approach some of the most widely used image macros remixed to generate new content while also pointing out success strategies. Moreover, this paper discusses whether memes can transcend the light-hearted and playful mood they mirror and become biting and sharp cultural comments. The study also uses the concept of multimodality and stresses how the text interacts with image, discussing three types of relations between the two: symmetry, amplification, and contradiction. We will furthermore show that memes are cultural artifacts and virtual tropes highly dependent on context and societal issues by using a corpus of memes created related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: context, computer-mediated communication, memes, multimodality

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5528 Pragmatic Development of Chinese Sentence Final Particles via Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: Qiong Li

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This study investigated in which condition computer-mediated communication (CMC) could promote pragmatic development. The focal feature included four Chinese sentence final particles (SFPs), a, ya, ba, and ne. They occur frequently in Chinese, and function as mitigators to soften the tone of speech. However, L2 acquisition of SFPs is difficult, suggesting the necessity of additional exposure to or explicit instruction on Chinese SFPs. This study follows this line and aims to explore two research questions: (1) Is CMC combined with data-driven instruction more effective than CMC alone in promoting L2 Chinese learners’ SFP use? (2) How does L2 Chinese learners’ SFP use change over time, as compared to the production of native Chinese speakers? The study involved 19 intermediate-level learners of Chinese enrolled at a private American university. They were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) the control group (N = 10), which was exposed to SFPs through CMC alone, (2) the treatment group (N = 9), which was exposed to SFPs via CMC and data-driven instruction. Learners interacted with native speakers on given topics through text-based CMC over Skype. Both groups went through six 30-minute CMC sessions on a weekly basis, with a one-week interval after the first two CMC sessions and a two-week interval after the second two CMC sessions (nine weeks in total). The treatment group additionally received a data-driven instruction after the first two sessions. Data analysis focused on three indices: token frequency, type frequency, and acceptability of SFP use. Token frequency was operationalized as the raw occurrence of SFPs per clause. Type frequency was the range of SFPs. Acceptability was rated by two native speakers using a rating rubric. The results showed that the treatment group made noticeable progress over time on the three indices. The production of SFPs approximated the native-like level. In contrast, the control group only slightly improved on token frequency. Only certain SFPs (a and ya) reached the native-like use. Potential explanations for the group differences were discussed in two aspects: the property of Chinese SFPs and the role of CMC and data-driven instruction. Though CMC provided the learners with opportunities to notice and observe SFP use, as a feature with low saliency, SFPs were not easily noticed in input. Data-driven instruction in the treatment group directed the learners’ attention to these particles, which facilitated the development.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, data-driven instruction, pragmatic development, second language Chinese, sentence final particles

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5527 A Documentary Review of Theoretical and Practical Elements for a Genre Analysis of Thailand Travel Listicles

Authors: Pinyada Santisarun, Yaowaret Tharawoot, Songyut Akkakoson

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This paper reports on a literature review sub-study of a larger research project which has been designed to identify the rhetorical organization of a travel writing genre, together with the use of lexical choices, syntactical structures, and graphological features, based on a randomly-selected corpus of Thailand travel listicles. Conducted as a library-based overview, this study aims to specify theoretical and practical elements for the said larger study. The materials for the review have been retrieved from various Internet sources, covering both public search engines and library databases. Generally, the article focuses on answering questions about the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of such background elements widely discussed in the literature as the meaning of listicles, how the travel listicles’ patterns and regularities can be categorized to form a new genre, the effect of computer-mediated communication on the travel world, the travel language, and the current situation concerning the importance of travel listicles. The theoretical and practical data derived from this study provide valuable insights into the way in which the genre analysis and lexico-syntactical examination of Thailand travel listicles in the present authors’ larger research project can be properly conducted. The data gained can be added to the expanding body of knowledge in the field of the ESP genre.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, digital writing, genre-based analysis, online travel writing, tourism language

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5526 Electronic Mentoring: How Can It Be Used with Teachers?

Authors: Roberta Gentry

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Electronic mentoring is defined as a relationship between a mentor and a mentee using computer mediated communication (CMC) that is intended to develop and improve mentee’s skills, confidence, and cultural understanding. This session will increase knowledge about electronic mentoring, its uses, and outcomes. The research behind electronic mentoring and descriptions of existing programs will also be shared.

Keywords: electronic mentoring, mentoring, beginning special educators, education

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5525 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.

Keywords: MHC, cell-mediated immunity, broiler, chicken

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5524 The Paralinguistic Function of Emojis in Twitter Communication

Authors: Yasmin Tantawi, Mary Beth Rosson

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In response to the dearth of information about emoji use for different purposes in different settings, this paper investigates the paralinguistic function of emojis within Twitter communication in the United States. To conduct this investigation, the Twitter feeds from 16 population centers spread throughout the United States were collected from the Twitter public API. One hundred tweets were collected from each population center, totaling to 1,600 tweets. Tweets containing emojis were next extracted using the “emot” Python package; these were then analyzed via the IBM Watson API Natural Language Understanding module to identify the topics discussed. A manual content analysis was then conducted to ascertain the paralinguistic and emotional features of the emojis used in these tweets. We present our characterization of emoji usage in Twitter and discuss implications for the design of Twitter and other text-based communication tools.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, content analysis, paralinguistics, sociology

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5523 Effects of Computer-Mediated Dictionaries on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition

Authors: Mohamed Amin Mekheimer

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This study aimed to investigate the effects of paper-based monolingual, pop-up and type-in electronic dictionaries on improving reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention in an EFL context. It tapped into how computer-mediated dictionaries may have facilitated/impeded reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Findings showed differential effects produced by the three treatments compared with the control group. Specifically, it revealed that the pop-up dictionary condition had the shortest average vocabulary searching time, vocabulary and text reading time, yet with less than the type-in dictionary group but more than the book dictionary group in terms of frequent dictionary 'look-ups' (p<.0001). In addition, ANOVA analyses also showed that text reading time differed significantly across all four treatments, and so did reading comprehension. Vocabulary acquisition was reported as enhanced in the three treatments rather than in the control group, but still with insignificant differences across the three treatments, yet with more differential effects in favour of the pop-up condition. Data also assert that participants preferred the pop-up e-dictionary more than the type-in and paper-based groups. Explanations of the findings vis-à-vis the cognitive load theory were presented. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research were forwarded at the end.

Keywords: computer-mediated dictionaries, type-in dictionaries, pop-up dictionaries, reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition

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5522 Efficacy of Computer Mediated Power Point Presentations on Students' Learning Outcomes in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The lingering poor performance of students in basic science spells doom for a vibrant scientific and technological development which pivoted the economic, social and physical upliftment of any nation. This calls for identifying appropriate strategies for imparting basic science knowledge and attitudes to the teaming youths in secondary schools. This study, therefore, determined the impact of computer mediated power point presentations on students’ achievement in basic science in Oyo State, Nigeria. A pre-test, posttest, control group quazi-experimental design adopted for the study. Two hundred and five junior secondary two students selected using stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Two evaluative instruments – Students’ Basic Science Attitudes Scale (SBSAS, r = 0.91); Students’ Knowledge of Basic Science Test (SKBST, r = 0.82) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of ANCOVA, scheffe post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. The results indicated significant main effect of treatment on students cognitive (F(1,200)= 171.680; p < 0.05) and attitudinal (F(1,200)= 34.466; p < 0.05) achievement in Basic science with the experimental group having higher mean gain than the control group. Gender has significant main effect (F(1,200)= 23.382; p < 0.05) on students cognitive outcomes but not significant for attitudinal achievement in Basic science. The study therefore recommended among others that computer mediated power point presentations should be incorporated into curriculum methodology of Basic science in secondary schools.

Keywords: basic science, computer mediated power point presentations, gender, students’ achievement

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5521 Peer Corrective Feedback on Written Errors in Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: S. H. J. Liu

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the role of peer Corrective Feedback (CF) in improving written productions by English-as-a- foreign-language (EFL) learners who work together via Wikispaces. It attempted to determine the effect of peer CF on form accuracy in English, such as grammar and lexis. Thirty-four EFL learners at the tertiary level were randomly assigned into the experimental (with peer feedback) or the control (without peer feedback) group; each group was subdivided into small groups of two or three. This resulted in six and seven small groups in the experimental and control groups, respectively. In the experimental group, each learner played a role as an assessor (providing feedback to others), as well as an assessee (receiving feedback from others). Each participant was asked to compose his/her written work and revise it based on the feedback. In the control group, on the other hand, learners neither provided nor received feedback but composed and revised their written work on their own. Data collected from learners’ compositions and post-task interviews were analyzed and reported in this study. Following the completeness of three writing tasks, 10 participants were selected and interviewed individually regarding their perception of collaborative learning in the Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment. Language aspects to be analyzed included lexis (e.g., appropriate use of words), verb tenses (e.g., present and past simple), prepositions (e.g., in, on, and between), nouns, and articles (e.g., a/an). Feedback types consisted of CF, affective, suggestive, and didactic. Frequencies of feedback types and the accuracy of the language aspects were calculated. The results first suggested that accurate items were found more in the experimental group than in the control group. Such results entail that those who worked collaboratively outperformed those who worked non-collaboratively on the accuracy of linguistic aspects. Furthermore, the first type of CF (e.g., corrections directly related to linguistic errors) was found to be the most frequently employed type, whereas affective and didactic were the least used by the experimental group. The results further indicated that most participants perceived that peer CF was helpful in improving the language accuracy, and they demonstrated a favorable attitude toward working with others in the CMC environment. Moreover, some participants stated that when they provided feedback to their peers, they tended to pay attention to linguistic errors in their peers’ work but overlook their own errors (e.g., past simple tense) when writing. Finally, L2 or FL teachers or practitioners are encouraged to employ CMC technologies to train their students to give each other feedback in writing to improve the accuracy of the language and to motivate them to attend to the language system.

Keywords: peer corrective feedback, computer-mediated communication (CMC), second or foreign language (L2 or FL) learning, Wikispaces

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5520 “I” on the Web: Social Penetration Theory Revised

Authors: Dr. Dionysis Panos Dpt. Communication, Internet Studies Cyprus University of Technology

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The widespread use of New Media and particularly Social Media, through fixed or mobile devices, has changed in a staggering way our perception about what is “intimate" and "safe" and what is not, in interpersonal communication and social relationships. The distribution of self and identity-related information in communication now evolves under new and different conditions and contexts. Consequently, this new framework forces us to rethink processes and mechanisms, such as what "exposure" means in interpersonal communication contexts, how the distinction between the "private" and the "public" nature of information is being negotiated online, how the "audiences" we interact with are understood and constructed. Drawing from an interdisciplinary perspective that combines sociology, communication psychology, media theory, new media and social networks research, as well as from the empirical findings of a longitudinal comparative research, this work proposes an integrative model for comprehending mechanisms of personal information management in interpersonal communication, which can be applied to both types of online (Computer-Mediated) and offline (Face-To-Face) communication. The presentation is based on conclusions drawn from a longitudinal qualitative research study with 458 new media users from 24 countries for almost over a decade. Some of these main conclusions include: (1) There is a clear and evidenced shift in users’ perception about the degree of "security" and "familiarity" of the Web, between the pre- and the post- Web 2.0 era. The role of Social Media in this shift was catalytic. (2) Basic Web 2.0 applications changed dramatically the nature of the Internet itself, transforming it from a place reserved for “elite users / technical knowledge keepers" into a place of "open sociability” for anyone. (3) Web 2.0 and Social Media brought about a significant change in the concept of “audience” we address in interpersonal communication. The previous "general and unknown audience" of personal home pages, converted into an "individual & personal" audience chosen by the user under various criteria. (4) The way we negotiate the nature of 'private' and 'public' of the Personal Information, has changed in a fundamental way. (5) The different features of the mediated environment of online communication and the critical changes occurred since the Web 2.0 advance, lead to the need of reconsideration and updating the theoretical models and analysis tools we use in our effort to comprehend the mechanisms of interpersonal communication and personal information management. Therefore, is proposed here a new model for understanding the way interpersonal communication evolves, based on a revision of social penetration theory.

Keywords: new media, interpersonal communication, social penetration theory, communication exposure, private information, public information

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5519 The Integration of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of French Language in Some Selected Schools in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Oluyomi A. Abioye

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The 21st century has been witnessing a lot of technological advancements and innovations, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) happens to be one of them. Education is the cornerstone of any nation and the language in which it is delivered is the bedrock of any development. The French language is our choice in this study. French is a language of reference on the national and international scenes; however its teaching is clouded with myriads of problems. The output of students’ academic performance depends on to a large extent on the teaching and learning the process. The methodology employed goes a long way in contributing to the effectiveness of the teaching and learning the process. Therefore, with the integration of ICT, French teaching has to align with and adapt to this new digital era. An attempt is made to define the concept of ICT. Some of the challenges encountered in the teaching of French language are highlighted. Then it discusses the existing methods of French teaching and the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of the same language. Then some prospects and challenges of ICT in the teaching and learning of French are discussed. Data collected from questionnaires administered among some students of some selected schools are analysed. Our findings revealed that only very few schools in Nigeria have the electronic and computer-mediated facilities to teach the French language. The paper concludes by encouraging 'savoir-faire' of ICT by the French teachers, an openness of students to this digital technology and adequate provision of electronic and computer-mediated gadgets by the Nigerian government to its educational institutions.

Keywords: French language in Nigeria, integration of ICT, prospects and challenges, teaching and learning

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5518 The Use of the Mediated Learning Experience in Response of Special Needs Education

Authors: Maria Luisa Boninelli

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This study wants to explore the effects of a mediated intervention program in a primary school. The participants where 120 students aged 8-9, half of them Italian and half immigrants of first or second generation. The activities consisted on the cognitive enhancement of the participants through Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment, (IE) and on an activity centred on body awareness and mediated learning experience. Given that there are limited studied on learners in remedial schools, the current study intented to hypothesized that participants exposed to mediation would yiel a significant improvement in cognitive functioning. Hypothesis One proposed that, following the intervention, improved Q1vata scores of the participants would occur in each of the groups. Hypothesis two postulated that participants within the Mediated Learning Experience would perform significantly better than those group of control. For the intervention a group of 60 participants constituted a group of Mediation sample and were exposed to Mediated Learning Experience through Enrichment Programm. Similiary the other 60 were control group. Both the groups have students with special needs and were exposed to the same learning goals. A pre-experimental research design, in particular a one-group pretest-posttest approach was adopted. All the participants in this study underwent pretest and post test phases whereby they completed measures according to the standard instructions. During the pretest phase, all the participants were simultaneously exposed to Q1vata test for logical and linguistic evaluation skill. During the mediation intervention, significant improvement was demonstrated with the group of mediation. This supports Feuerstein's Theory that initial poor performance was a result of a lack of mediated learning experience rather than inherent difference or deficiencies. Furthermore the use of an appropriate mediated learning enabled the participants to function adequately.

Keywords: cognitive structural modifiability, learning to learn, mediated learning experience, Reuven Feuerstein, special needs

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5517 A Comprehensive Theory of Communication with Biological and Non-Biological Intelligence for a 21st Century Curriculum

Authors: Thomas Schalow

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It is commonly recognized that our present curriculum is not preparing students to function in the 21st century. This is particularly true in regard to communication needs across cultures - both human and non-human. In this paper, a comprehensive theory of communication-based on communication with non-human cultures and intelligences is presented to meet the following three imminent contingencies: communicating with sentient biological intelligences, communicating with extraterrestrial intelligences, and communicating with artificial super-intelligences. The paper begins with the argument that we need to become much more serious about communicating with the non-human, intelligent life forms that already exists around us here on Earth. We need to broaden our definition of communication and reach out to other sentient life forms in order to provide humanity with a better perspective of its place within our ecosystem. The paper next examines the science and philosophy behind CETI (communication with extraterrestrial intelligences) and how it could prove useful even in the absence of contact with alien life. However, CETI’s assumptions and methodology need to be revised in accordance with the communication theory being proposed in this paper if we are truly serious about finding and communicating with life beyond Earth. The final theme explored in this paper is communication with non-biological super-intelligences. Humanity has never been truly compelled to converse with other species, and our failure to seriously consider such intercourse has left us largely unprepared to deal with communication in a future that will be mediated and controlled by computer algorithms. Fortunately, our experience dealing with other cultures can provide us with a framework for this communication. The basic concepts behind intercultural communication can be applied to the three types of communication envisioned in this paper if we are willing to recognize that we are in fact dealing with other cultures when we interact with other species, alien life, and artificial super-intelligence. The ideas considered in this paper will require a new mindset for humanity, but a new disposition will yield substantial gains. A curriculum that is truly ready for the 21st century needs to be aligned with this new theory of communication.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, CETI, communication, language

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5516 A Longitudinal Exploration into Computer-Mediated Communication Use (CMC) and Relationship Change between 2005-2018

Authors: Laurie Dempsey

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Relationships are considered to be beneficial for emotional wellbeing, happiness and physical health. However, they are also complicated: individuals engage in a multitude of complex and volatile relationships during their lifetime, where the change to or ending of these dynamics can be deeply disruptive. As the internet is further integrated into everyday life and relationships are increasingly mediated, Media Studies’ and Sociology’s research interests intersect and converge. This study longitudinally explores how relationship change over time corresponds with the developing UK technological landscape between 2005-2018. Since the early 2000s, the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in the UK has dramatically reshaped interaction. Its use has compelled individuals to renegotiate how they consider their relationships: some argue it has allowed for vast networks to be accumulated and strengthened; others contend that it has eradicated the core values and norms associated with communication, damaging relationships. This research collaborated with UK media regulator Ofcom, utilising the longitudinal dataset from their Adult Media Lives study to explore how relationships and CMC use developed over time. This is a unique qualitative dataset covering 2005-2018, where the same 18 participants partook in annual in-home filmed depth interviews. The interviews’ raw video footage was examined year-on-year to consider how the same people changed their reported behaviour and outlooks towards their relationships, and how this coincided with CMC featuring more prominently in their everyday lives. Each interview was transcribed, thematically analysed and coded using NVivo 11 software. This study allowed for a comprehensive exploration into these individuals’ changing relationships over time, as participants grew older, experienced marriages or divorces, conceived and raised children, or lost loved ones. It found that as technology developed between 2005-2018, everyday CMC use was increasingly normalised and incorporated into relationship maintenance. It played a crucial role in altering relationship dynamics, even factoring in the breakdown of several ties. Three key relationships were identified as being shaped by CMC use: parent-child; extended family; and friendships. Over the years there were substantial instances of relationship conflict: for parents renegotiating their dynamic with their child as they tried to both restrict and encourage their child’s technology use; for estranged family members ‘forced’ together in the online sphere; and for friendships compelled to publicly display their relationship on social media, for fear of social exclusion. However, it was also evident that CMC acted as a crucial lifeline for these participants, providing opportunities to strengthen and maintain their bonds via previously unachievable means, both over time and distance. A longitudinal study of this length and nature utilising the same participants does not currently exist, thus provides crucial insight into how and why relationship dynamics alter over time. This unique and topical piece of research draws together Sociology and Media Studies, illustrating how the UK’s changing technological landscape can reshape one of the most basic human compulsions. This collaboration with Ofcom allows for insight that can be utilised in both academia and policymaking alike, making this research relevant and impactful across a range of academic fields and industries.

Keywords: computer mediated communication, longitudinal research, personal relationships, qualitative data

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5515 The Effect of Change Communication towards Commitment to Change through the Role of Organizational Trust

Authors: Enno R. Farahzehan, Wustari L. Mangundjaya

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Organizational change is necessary to develop innovation and to compete with other competitors. Organizational changes were also made to defend the existence of the organization itself. Success in implementing organizational change consists of a variety of factors, one of which is individual (employee) who run changes. The employee must have the willingness and ability in carrying out the changes. Besides, employees must also have a commitment to change for creation of the successful organizational change. This study aims to execute the effect of change communication towards commitment to change through the role of organizational trust. The respondents of this study were employees who work in organizations, which have been or are currently running organizational changes. The data were collected using Change Communication, Commitment to Change, and Organizational Trust Inventory. The data were analyzed using regression. The result showed that there is an effect among change communication towards commitment to change which is higher when mediated by organizational trust. This paper will contribute to the knowledge and implications of organizational change, that shows change communication can affect commitment to change among employee if there is trust in the organization.

Keywords: change communication, commitment to change, organizational trust, organizational change

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5514 The Interplay between Technology and Culture in Inbound Call Center Industry

Authors: Joseph Reylan Viray, Kriztine R. Viray

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Call center conversations, more than the business dimensions that they normally manifest, are interactions between human beings. These are communication exchanges that are packed with psychological, cultural and social dimensions that affect the specific experience of the parties. The increasing development of information and communication technology over the past decades brought about important advantages and corresponding disadvantages in the process of communicational transactions in call center industry. It has been established that the technology is so powerful that it strongly affects, among others, call center business. In the present study, the author explores the interplay between the technology being utilized by the industry and the cultural orientations of both the call center agents and their customers in the process of communication exchanges. Specifically, the paper seeks to (1) describe the interplay between culture and technology in inbound call center industry as it affects the communication exchange of the agents and customers; (2) understand the nature and the dynamics of the call center industry as regards the cultural dimensions of Hofstede; and (3) come up with a simple study where the cross-cultural aspect of the call center industry could be highlighted and could provide necessary knowledge to the stakeholders. Cognizant of the complexity of the topic, the researchers employed Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Likewise, another theory that was used in this study is the Computer Mediated Communication Theory.

Keywords: call center industry, culture, Hofstede, CMT, technology

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5513 A Cross-Cultural Approach for Communication with Biological and Non-Biological Intelligences

Authors: Thomas Schalow

Abstract:

This paper posits the need to take a cross-cultural approach to communication with non-human cultures and intelligences in order to meet the following three imminent contingencies: communicating with sentient biological intelligences, communicating with extraterrestrial intelligences, and communicating with artificial super-intelligences. The paper begins with a discussion of how intelligence emerges. It disputes some common assumptions we maintain about consciousness, intention, and language. The paper next explores cross-cultural communication among humans, including non-sapiens species. The next argument made is that we need to become much more serious about communicating with the non-human, intelligent life forms that already exist around us here on Earth. There is an urgent need to broaden our definition of communication and reach out to the other sentient life forms that inhabit our world. The paper next examines the science and philosophy behind CETI (communication with extraterrestrial intelligences) and how it has proven useful, even in the absence of contact with alien life. However, CETI’s assumptions and methodology need to be revised and based on the cross-cultural approach to communication proposed in this paper if we are truly serious about finding and communicating with life beyond Earth. The final theme explored in this paper is communication with non-biological super-intelligences using a cross-cultural communication approach. This will present a serious challenge for humanity, as we have never been truly compelled to converse with other species, and our failure to seriously consider such intercourse has left us largely unprepared to deal with communication in a future that will be mediated and controlled by computer algorithms. Fortunately, our experience dealing with other human cultures can provide us with a framework for this communication. The basic assumptions behind intercultural communication can be applied to the many types of communication envisioned in this paper if we are willing to recognize that we are in fact dealing with other cultures when we interact with other species, alien life, and artificial super-intelligence. The ideas considered in this paper will require a new mindset for humanity, but a new disposition will prepare us to face the challenges posed by a future dominated by artificial intelligence.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, CETI, communication, culture, language

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5512 The Interethnic Communication Apprehension Experiences of Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines

Authors: Christine Alvarez, Rio Gojar, Hannah Jimala

Abstract:

The Philippines is a large country composed of geographic islands and distinct cultural groups. But what makes such a diverse country connect and communicate with one another? This case study examines the narrative of lived experiences expressed by the selected indigenous peoples through an in-depth interview. Based on the results, some indigenous peoples feel that they are motivated to engage in interethnic discussions that concern their ethnic identity and such cultural misconceptions about them. Their experiences in being involved in indigenous people centered and community/academic organizations helped them in every interethnic communication. After all, some indigenous peoples expressed that they find their own communities as a safe space. Although indigenous peoples present less interethnic communication apprehension, its existence is still manifested in their experiences in verbal communication, non-verbal communication, and mediated communication. Lastly, their Interethnic Communication Apprehension manifested on their innate and learned personality whenever there is a large crowd, and is affected by their socioeconomic status. This study mainly focuses on what are the interethnic communication apprehension experiences of indigenous peoples in the country. Concepts are applied from the Contextual Theory of Interethnic Communication theory, Interethnic Communication Apprehension, and other types of communication. Meanwhile, the participants are determined through a purposive sampling with the criteria as indigenous people who stays in Manila in pursuit of higher education.

Keywords: ethnic identity, interethnic relation, intercultural communication, indigenous people community

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5511 The New Economy: A Pedagogy for Vocational and Technical Education Programmes in Nigeria

Authors: Sunny Nwakanma

Abstract:

The emergence of the new economy has created a new world order for skill acquisition, economic activities and employment. It has dramatically changed the way we live, learn, work and even think about work. It has also created new opportunities as well as challenges and uncertainty. This paper will not only demystify the new economy and present its instrumentality in the acceleration of skill acquisition in technical education, but will also highlight industrial and occupational changes brought about by the synergy between information and communication technology revolution and the global economic system. It advocates among other things, the use of information and communication technology mediated instruction in technical education as it provides the flexibility to meet diverse learners’ need anytime and anywhere and facilitate skill acquisition.

Keywords: new economy, technical education, skill acquisition, information and communication technology

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5510 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu

Abstract:

Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

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5509 The Art of Looking (Back): The Female Gaze in Portrait de la Jeune Fille en Feu and Little Women

Authors: Louisa Browne Kirk

Abstract:

In recent press interviews to promote Portrait de la jeune fille en feu (2019, translated to Portrait of a Lady on Fire in English), director and screenwriter Céline Sciamma and actors Adèle Haenel and Noémie Merlant repeatedly state that they understand the film as (if not uniquely, then unusually) produced via and supportive of ‘the female gaze’. Such a way of seeing stands in opposition to ‘the male gaze’, first theorised by Laura Mulvey as the way in which the female figure is a bearer, not maker, of meaning, a silent signifier through and against whom the male creator/viewer produces his fantasies and obsessions. What, then, is the female gaze? How does a woman produce meaning in and through film? Portrait de la jeune fille en feu and another very recent film, Little Women (2019, directed by Greta Gerwig), are unlikely companion films that understand the female gaze to be the act of one woman looking at another woman, a looking that is mediated through the production of art. In Sciamma’s film this looking is sexual and mediated through painting and in Gerwig’s film looking is familial and mediated through writing. In the schema of these films, art, love, looking and meaning are produced through collaboration. The painted and the painter, the written and the writer, are no longer rendered as subject and object but as dual creators, both always seeing and seen. The gaze of the cinematic woman, mediated through shared artistic practice, is ‘the desire-that-gives’.

Keywords: female gaze, Gerwig, Sciamma, shared artistic practice

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5508 Regulation of SHP-2 Activity by Small Molecules for the Treatment of T Cell-Mediated Diseases

Authors: Qiang Xu, Xingxin Wu, Wenjie Guo, Xingqi Wang, Yang Sun, Renxiang Tan

Abstract:

The phosphatase SHP-2 is known to exert regulatory activities on cytokine receptor signaling and the dysregulation of SHP-2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Here we report several small molecule regulators of SHP-2 for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases. The new cyclodepsipeptide trichomides A, isolated from the fermentation products of Trichothecium roseum, increased the phosphorylation of SHP-2 in activated T cells, and ameliorated contact dermatitis in mice. The trichomides A’s effects were significantly reversed by using the SHP-2-specific inhibitor PHPS1 or T cell-conditional SHP-2 knockout mice. Another compound is a cerebroside Fusaruside isolated from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. IFB-121. Fusaruside also triggered the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2, which provided a possible mean of selectively targeting STAT1 for the treatment of Th1 cell-mediated inflammation and led to the discovery of the non-phosphatase-like function of SHP-2. Namely, the Fusaruside-activated pY-SHP-2 selectively sequestrated the cytosolic STAT1 to prevent its recruitment to IFN-R, which contributed to the improvement of experimental colitis in mice. Blocking the pY-SHP-2-STAT1 interaction, with SHP-2 inhibitor NSC-87877 or using T cells from conditional SHP-2 knockout mice, reversed the effects of fusaruside. Furthermore, the fusaruside’s effect is independent of the phosphatase activity of SHP-2, demonstrating a novel role for SHP-2 in regulating STAT1 signaling and Th1-type immune responses.

Keywords: SHP-2, small molecules, T cell, T cell-mediated diseases

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5507 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: meta-analysis, effect size, L2 pragmatics, comprehensive meta-analysis, face-to-face, computer-assisted language learning

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5506 Characterization of Calcium-Signalling Mediated by Human GPR55 Expressed in HEK293 Cells

Authors: Yousuf M. Al Suleimani, Robin Hiley

Abstract:

The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and an inducer of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i release. This study attempts to characterize Ca2+ signals provoked by LPI in HEK293 cells engineered to stably express human GPR55 and to test cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55. The study shows that treatment with LPI stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca2+ release. The response is characterized by an initial rapid rise, which is mediated by the Gαq-PLC-IP3 pathway, and this is followed by prolonged oscillations that require RhoA activation. Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by intracellular mechanisms and extracellular Ca2+ is only required to replenish Ca2+ lost from the cytoplasm. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide, however, rimonabant and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated [Ca2+]i. Thus, LPI is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of signaling events and changes in gene expression through GPR55 activation.

Keywords: lysophosphatidylinositol, calcium, GPR55, cannabinoid

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5505 Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus Entry in Cancer Cells through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

Authors: T. Ferreira, A. Kulkarni, C. Bretscher, K. Richter, M. Ehrlich, A. Marchini

Abstract:

H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) is a virus with inherent oncolytic and oncosuppressive activities while remaining non-pathogenic in humans. H-1PV was the first oncolytic parvovirus to undergo clinical testing. Results from trials in patients with glioblastoma or pancreatic carcinoma showed an excellent safety profile and first signs of efficacy. H-1PV infection is vastly dependent on cellular factors, from cell attachment and entry to viral replication and egress. Hence, we believe that the characterisation of the parvovirus life cycle would ultimately help further improve H-1PV clinical outcome. In the present study, we explored the entry pathway of H-1PV in cervical HeLa and glioma NCH125 cancer cell lines. Electron and confocal microscopy showed viral particles associated with clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, providing the first evidence that H-1PV cell entry occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Accordingly, we observed that by blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis with hypertonic sucrose, chlorpromazine, or pitstop 2, H-1PV transduction was markedly decreased. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of AP2M1, which retains a crucial role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, verified the reliance of H-1PV on this route to enter HeLa and NCH125 cancer cells. By contrast, we found no evidence of viral entry through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Indeed, pre-treatment of cells with nystatin or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, both inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis, did not affect viral transduction levels. Unexpectedly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of caveolin-1, the main driver of caveolae-mediated endocytosis, increased H-1PV transduction, suggesting caveolin-1 is a negative modulator of H-1PV infection. We also show that H-1PV entry is dependent on dynamin, a protein responsible for mediating the scission of vesicle neck and promoting further internalisation. Furthermore, since dynamin inhibition almost completely abolished H-1PV infection, makes it unlikely that H-1PV uses macropinocytosis as an alternative pathway to enter cells. After viral internalisation, H-1PV passes through early to late endosomes as observed by confocal microscopy. Inside these endocytic compartments, the acidic environment proved to be crucial for a productive infection. Inhibition of acidification of pH dramatically reduced H-1PV transduction. Besides, a fraction of H-1PV particles was observed inside LAMP1-positive lysosomes, most likely following a non-infectious route. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study to characterise the cell entry pathways of H-1PV. Along these lines, this work will further contribute to understand H-1PV oncolytic properties as well as to improve its clinical potential in cancer virotherapy.

Keywords: clathrin-mediated endocytosis, H-1 parvovirus, oncolytic virus, virus entry

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