Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5829

Search results for: peace education

5829 Reconsidering Curriculum: Educational Responses for Peace-Building in and outside the Classroom

Authors: S. Roman

Abstract:

This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with three Canadian educators to examine peace-based pedagogies used in varied teaching contexts and the degree to which the teaching strategies implemented were aligned with goals of peace-keeping, peace-making or peace-building in the classroom. In this research, the teachers’ peace-oriented pedagogy was influenced by various strands of peace education theory, and as such shaped their conceptualization of ‘peace’. The study’s result shows that when educators implemented government-mandated curriculum, they worked around it and/or added content that increased opportunities for democratic peacebuilding. In addition, all three teachers also strengthened their peace-oriented practice by incorporating conflict resolution skills in and outside the classroom to augment a common social-justice oriented goal for peace-making and peace-keeping and made various distinctions around the conditions necessary for peace-building.

Keywords: citizenship, peace-building education, peace-building curriculum, pedagogy

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5828 Peace through Environmental Stewardship

Authors: Elizabeth D. Ramos

Abstract:

Peace education supports a holistic appreciation for the value of life and the interdependence of all living systems. Peace education aims to build a culture of peace. One way of building a culture of peace is through environmental stewardship. This study sought to find out the environmental stewardship practices in selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines and how these environmental stewardship practices lead to building a culture of peace. The findings revealed that there is still room for improvement in implementing environmental stewardship in schools through academic service learning. In addition, the following manifestations are implemented very satisfactorily in schools: 1) waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, 2) community service, 3) clean and green surroundings. Administrators of schools in the study lead their staff and students in implementing environmental stewardship. It could be concluded that those involved in environmental stewardship display an acceptable culture of peace, particularly, solidarity, respect for persons, and inner peace.

Keywords: academic service learning, environmental stewardship, leadership support, peace, solidarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5827 Role of Teachers in Fostering the Culture of Peace in Higher Education Context: A Literature Review

Authors: Maliheh Rezaei

Abstract:

Peace education has been introduced into many higher educational contexts by designing different programs, expecting to result in constructive changes, specifically in post-conflict countries. Teachers are the potential agents of positive change who play a major role in fostering the culture of peace in their classes. The purpose of this literature review was thus to evaluate the implementation of peace pedagogies by teachers in the context of higher education. More specifically, it addressed a) the role and characteristics of teachers and b) the pedagogies that they used to construct the culture of peace. The systematic literature review was used and several inclusion criteria were applied. Only papers published in English, which contained the keywords of university, higher education, peace, peace education, and similar derivatives such as ‘peacebuilding’ in their title and/or abstract, were included in this review. Moreover, only papers that dealt with the actual implementation of peace education theories were investigated. Findings highlighted that most teachers relied on pedagogies adopted from social justice, global citizenship, and positive psychology practices aiming to foster positive human traits such as resilience, empathy and reflection that were also believed to play an important role in peacebuilding efforts. Nevertheless, the incorporation of peace remained peripheral. The main challenge to incorporate the tenets of peace education was the shortage of teachers who were skilled and qualified enough to incorporate and promote the culture of peace in their classes. This literature review presents the body of research that has linked peace education to Higher Education. Therefore, it informs teachers about the potential roles they have in creating a peaceful and sustainable future. It also presents them with more effective pedagogies and practices to successfully integrate peace-related activities in Higher Education.

Keywords: culture of peace, higher education, teacher, pedogogy

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5826 Barriers to the Implementation of Peace Education in Secondary Schools, South Africa

Authors: Ntokozo Dennis Ndwandwe

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to explore the barriers facing the implementation of peace education as a strategy to combat violence in selected secondary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The problem that motivated this enquiry was the absence of stable peace and the increase of incidents of violence in schools. A qualitative approach was followed when conducting the study, and small samples of three case studies of secondary schools were used. Method used in collecting data consisted of semi-structured interviews; focus group interviews and observation. The participants consisted of the program manager for Quaker for Peace Centre (QPC), three principals, nine teachers, and fifteen learners. Data were analysed by transcribing, organising, marking by hand and coding that produced labels that allowed key points to be highlighted. Findings revealed that the effective implementation of peace education was being constrained by factors such as financial constraints, inadequate time allocated, lack of parental involvement, over work-loaded teachers, negative attitude and other societal influences. It is recommended that teachers should receive an ongoing training for peace education. Therefore, the government should prioritise and provide funds for peace education. In addition, parental involvement should be improved in order to enhance the implementation of peace education in selected secondary schools.

Keywords: barriers, implementation, conflict, peace, peace education, conflict resolution, violence

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5825 Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity in Peace Education and Peace Studies: A Content Analysis

Authors: Frances Bernard Kominkiewicz

Abstract:

Demonstrating the ability to build social justice and peace is integral in undergraduate and graduate education. Many disciplines are involved in peace education and peace studies, and the collaboration of those disciplines are examined in this paper. To the author’s best knowledge, no content analysis research previously existed regarding peace studies and peace education from a multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity perspective. Peacebuilding is taught through these approaches, which adds to the depth, breadth, and richness of peace education and peace studies. This paper presents a content analysis of academic peace studies programs and course descriptions. Variables studied include contributions and foci of disciplines in peace studies programs and students’ engagement in community peacebuilding. The social work discipline, for example, focuses on social and economic justice as one of the nine competencies that undergraduate and graduate students must attain before earning a Bachelor of Social Work degree or a Master of Social Work degree and becoming social work practitioners. Demonstrating the ability to build social justice and peace is integral in social work education. Peacebuilding is taught through such social work courses as conflict resolution, and social work practice with communities and organizations, and these courses are examined in this research through multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity approach. Peace and social justice are linked terms in various fields, including social work. Social justice is of paramount importance in social work programs, and social workers are trained to advocate for human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice. Social workers use knowledge of oppression, globally as well as nationally, in the practice of peace education and peace studies. Social work is at the forefront in advocating for social justice as a discipline and joins with other educators in strengthening the peacebuilding opportunities for students. The content analysis, conducted through a random sample of peace studies and peace education university and college programs in the United States, found that although courses teach the concepts of peace education and peace studies, courses often are not given these titles in the social work discipline. Therefore, this analysis also includes a discussion of the multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity approach to peace education, peace studies, and peacebuilding and the importance of these approaches in educating students about peace. The content analysis further found great variability in the number of disciplines involved in peace studies programs, the focus of those disciplines in peace education, the placement of peace studies and peace education within the university or college, and the number of courses and concentrations available in peace studies and peace education. In conclusion, the research points toward very robust and diverse approaches to peace education with opportunities for further research and discussion.

Keywords: content analysis, interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity, peace education programs

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5824 Changes in Student Definition of De-Escalation in Professional Peace Officer Education

Authors: Pat Nelson

Abstract:

Since the release of the 21st century policing report in the United States, the techniques of de-escalation have received a lot of attention and focus in political systems, policy changes, and the media. The challenge in professional peace officer education is that there is a vast range of defining de-escalation and understanding the various techniques involved, many of which are based on popular media. This research surveyed professional peace officer education university students on their definition of de-escalation and the techniques associated with de-escalation before specific communications coursework was completed. The students were then surveyed after the communication coursework was completed to determine the changes in defining and understanding de-escalation techniques. This research has found that clearly defining de-escalation and emphasizing the broad range of techniques available enhances the students’ understanding and application of proper de-escalation. This research demonstrates the need for professional peace officer education to move students from media concepts of law enforcement to theoretical concepts.

Keywords: criminal justice education, communication theory, de-escalation, peace officer communication

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5823 Music for Peace, a Model for Socialization

Authors: Mina Fenercioglu

Abstract:

This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema. In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema’s global program. Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.

Keywords: El Sistema, music education, music for peace, socialization

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5822 Peace Based Diplomacy, Peace Communication and Peace Lobbying in the Example of Turkey-France Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

The first stage to procure peace communication is to construct a mutual accordance, which can be defined as: To constitute reconciliation ground in order to open and constitute the right peace and dialogue areas. For example: In Turkey’s EU entry process, in order to procure French public opinion, to constitute a communication frame is a must. For the constitution of this frame, the titles of discussion in which it will be moved and for which French public opinion will show its support must be determined. The most important title of this ground is Turkey’s peace potential for Europe with its strategic position. For this reason, it’s is so strategic for peace communication that Turkey’s contributions for Europe and World should be opened up for discussion in public opinion in France and be introduced as a strong accordance ground.Peace based diplomacy, peace communication strategies and peace lobbying in the example of Turkey-France relations presents a strong peace titles.

Keywords: intercultural communication, mediation education, common sense leaders, artistic sensitivity

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5821 Creative Peace Diplomacy Model by the Perspective of Dialogue Management for International Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to keep peace all over the world. The study titled “peace diplomacy for international relations” is consist of three part. In the first part, peace diplomacy is going to be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. And, in this part, peace communication will be explained by international communication perspective. In the second part of the study,public relations events and communication campaigns will be developed originally for peace diplomacy. In this part, it is aimed original public communication dialogue management tools for peace diplomacy. the aim of the final part of the study, is to produce original public communication model for international relations. The model includes peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols, dialogue education, dialogue management strategies, peace actors, communication models, peace team management and public diplomacy steps. The creative part of the study aims to develop a model used for international relations for all countries. Creative Peace Diplomacy Model will be developed in the case of Turkey-Turkey-France and Turkey-Greece relations. So, communication and public relations events and campaigns are going to be developed as original for only this study.

Keywords: peace diplomacy, public communication model, dialogue management, international relations

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5820 Role of English Language Teachers in Fostering the Culture of Peace in ELT Contexts: A Literature Review

Authors: Maliheh Rezaei

Abstract:

As demand for learning English as the global language remains high, scholars are increasingly encouraged to explore the potential of this medium for creating hegemony and positive changes in human communities. This makes English Language teachers the potential agents of positive change who play a major role in fostering the culture of peace in their classes. The purpose of this literature review was thus evaluating the implementation of peace pedagogies by English language teachers. More specifically, it addressed a) the role and characteristics of English language teachers as peace agents and b) the pedagogies that they used to construct the culture of peace. Literature review was used, and several inclusion criteria were applied. Only papers published in English, which contained the keywords of English language teaching (ELT) and other related terms and acronyms such as teaching English to speakers of other languages, and teaching English as a second/foreign language as well as peace, peace education, and similar derivatives such ‘peacebuilding’ in their title and/or abstract were included in this review. Moreover, only papers that dealt with the actual implementation of peace education theories were investigated. Findings highlighted that most English language teachers relied on pedagogies adopted from social justice, global citizenship, and positive psychology. They specifically aimed to foster positive human traits such as resilience, empathy, and reflection that were also believed to play an important role in peacebuilding efforts. Nevertheless, the role of English language teachers in educating for peace was found to be peripheral. The main challenge to incorporate the tenets of peace education was the shortage of English language teachers who were skilled and qualified enough to incorporate and promote the culture of peace in their classes. This literature review presents the body of research that has linked peace education to ELT; therefore, it informs language teachers about the potential roles they have in creating a peaceful and sustainable future. It also presents them with more effective pedagogies and practices to successfully integrate peace-related activities in their classes.

Keywords: English language teachers, English language teaching, culture of peace, peace pedagogies

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
5819 Countering Violent Extremism: Challenges and Possibilities for Muslim Ummah

Authors: Altaf Ahmed

Abstract:

Unhindered progress and advancement of life are directly associated with peace and development. Unfortunately, many modern states are prone to the perilous of social challenges; Violent Extremism is the most ubiquitous adversary among all. Islam in its origin fully supports peace and security; the charter of Madina, the treaty of Hudabia and conquer of Mecca are the biggest examples in this reference. The holy Prophet Muhammad ﷺ always gave priority to peace in these cases. Today, the majority of the Muslim World faces VE and terrorism due to multiple reasons ranging from religious interpretations to political, social and economic conditions. This research will try to explore challenges for Muslim Ummah in maintaining peace and what steps have been taken by it to resolve conflicts among states. In this context, Sustainable development goals (SDGs) will be particularly analysed. SDGs were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015. It is an undeniable fact that these are the best peace-building tools. Although there are 17 SDGs, the paper will mainly focus on quality education, zero hunger, end of poverty (social protection), women empowerment, reduced inequalities and economic growth as the best peace-building approaches for eradication of violent extremism.

Keywords: violent extremism, Muslim Ummah, peace, modern world, education

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5818 The Historical Perspectives of Peace Education as a Vehicle of Unity and Technological Developments in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole Enoch Adeniran

Abstract:

Peace studies and conflict resolution; though a relatively new discipline had attracted scholars from far and near. It had enhanced a purposeful training of mind of young adult among other categories of learners. It provides a platform through which university under-graduates and post-graduates students are exposed to the rudiments of peace building, peacemaking and peace keeping towards a successful conflict resolution. The paper historicizes peace education as most desirable in any human society that desired development. It aims at educating children and young adults in the dynamics of peaceful conflicts resolution at home, in school and communities (states) throughout the world for a purposeful technological development. It also aims at exposing students to the nature of conflict and how to manage and resolve conflicts in order to promote national unity for meaningful development. The paper argues that, for a state to record any meaningful socio-economic, political and technological development; a conducive and peaceful atmosphere must be put in place. This theoretical paper emerged in the context of historical specificities of conflict resolution from a general conceptual framework. It then concludes with suggestions on the modes of conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution for an ideal technologically advanced society.

Keywords: history, education, peace, unity, technology and development

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5817 The Anatomy of Inter-Religious Conflict in Northern Nigeria: A Conflict without Peace Education

Authors: Shehu Hashimu

Abstract:

Ever since the independence, Northern Nigeria has been experiencing a flashpoint of all sorts of conflict ranging from ethnoreligious, intra-religious, and inter-religious violence; many people are of the view and worrisome that indeed the region (North) is becoming a religious-political battle-ground. The trends of violence associated with these conflicts are a reflection of high level of misunderstanding, misinform unpolitical zeal toward uplifting peace education for greater enhancement among the religious, ethnic group or sects in the northern region. The aims of this paper, among other things, are to outline the misconception on the term inter-religious conflict. It is justifiable to state the brief historical antecedence of the making of contemporary Northern Nigeria and how conflict is fluctuating over and over without concrete resolution is another concern of the paper. The desirability of peace education in enhancing cordial relations and cementing potholes among various religious sects in the region (Northern Nigeria) cannot over emphasized considering the pivotal role play toward national cohesion; therefore, this paper strategically made a lengthy discourse for elaborations. In the conclusion aspect of it, the paper outline some relevant recommendation and suggestions for viable co-existence if properly implemented.

Keywords: anatomy, inter-religious, conflict, peace education

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5816 Between Order and Chaos: Politics and the Challenge of Peace in Mozambique

Authors: Edmilson Nhambe, Belisario Machaieie

Abstract:

Since the signing of the General Peace Agreement-GPA in 1992, Mozambique has seen successive setbacks in the search for effective peace, civil war, social conflicts, terrorism, and armed conflicts mix the reality of Mozambican democracy. The article seeks to understand the dynamics of conflict and peace in Mozambique. Specifically, it seeks to analyze the structural factors that lead to (violent) conflict situations and the factors that favor or promote peace. For this purpose, desk research was chosen to analyze studies of peace and conflict. This article develops the argument that the non-violation of the peace agreement, in particular the GPA in Rome, as it had a structuring effect on the Mozambican political system, no longer guarantees in itself the irreversibility of the pacification process. In fact, the country is currently stagnating in the category of a fragile peace process with the risk of slipping into a situation of war or open armed conflict.

Keywords: peace, conflict, GPA, instability

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5815 Music Educators for Peace: Synchronizing Music and Pedagogical Experiences to Re-Build Social Fabric in Colombia's Post-Conflict

Authors: Julian Dario Castro Cifuentes

Abstract:

In Colombia, the armed conflict has lasted for more than sixty years bringing poverty, internal displacement of people, deaths from both government and insurgent forces and other violence-related problems that has damaged its social fabric. In 2016, the peace process between the Colombian government and the FARC rebels brought the possibility of ending this war and a new set of challenges to Colombian society in order to achieve pacific coexistence and reconciliation. In this scenario, there have been different efforts from diverse social actors in order to build peace and reconciliation mainly within the victims of the armed conflict. In the case of music, there have been multiple programs for social transformation through music and pedagogical experiences. Nevertheless, the need to strengthen this initiative by giving ‘peace building oriented’ pedagogical tools to the musicians that lead this experiences and understanding which aspects make this practices ‘musically meaningful’, has been recognized. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to discuss the convergences and divergences of music, and educational experiences applied to peacebuilding in the context of Colombia’s post-conflict. In this research, the hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm is applied in a case study of a peace building music education experience in the department of Nariño, Colombia articulated with the program ‘Manos a la Paz’. Two particular experiences, one on musical practice and another on music education are taken as a unit of analysis to understand its essence and structure in order to find ways to articulate efforts in peace building actions from music. This study shows how the existent gap between music experience and its subjacent pedagogical knowledge, can be reduced through deconstruction of the music and pedagogical experience. The ‘Manos a la Paz’ program showed how a peace building approach to music education can make major contributions to Pacific Coexistence and Reconciliation in Colombia’s Post-Conflict.

Keywords: music education, music for peace, music pedagogy, peace building, social fabric

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5814 Common Sense Leadership in the Example of Turkish Political Leader Devlet Bahçeli

Authors: B. Gültekin, T. Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to maintain peace all over the World. This study consists of three parts. In the first part, the leadership of Devlet Bahçeli, leader of the Nationalist Movement Party, will be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. Also, in this part, peace communication will be explained by the peace leadership traits of Devlet Bahçeli, who is one of the efficient political leaders representing the concepts of compromise and agreement on different sides of politics. In the second part of study, it is aimed to analyze Devlet Bahçeli’s leadership within the frame of peace communication and the final part of this study is about creating an original public communication model for public diplomacy based on Devlet Bahçeli as an example. As a result, the main purpose of this study is to develop an original peace communication model including peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols exhibited in the policies of Devlet Bahçeli. The political leadership represented by Devlet Bahçeli inspires political leaders to provide peace communication. In this study, principles and policies of peace leadership of Devlet Bahçeli will be explained as an original model on a peace communication platform.

Keywords: public diplomacy, dialogue management, peace leadership, peace diplomacy

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5813 Community Base Peacebuilding in Fragile Context

Authors: Nizar Ahmad

Abstract:

Peace without community participation will remain a vision, so, this study presents the contribution and efforts made by community base organization in views of local conflict affect population in Pakhtun society. A four conflict affected villages of Malakad Division were selected and a sample size of 278 household respondents were determined through online survey system software out of total 982 households. A Chi-square test was applied to ascertain association between various communication base organizations factors with state of peace in the area. It was found that provision of humanitarian aid, rehabilitation of displaced population, rebuilding of trust in government and peace festivals by communication organization had significant association with state of peace in the area. In contrast provision of training, peace education monitoring and reporting of human rights violation in war zone by local organization was non-significantly related to the state of peace in the area. Community base organization play an active role in building peace in the area but lack capacity, linkages with external actors and outside support. National and international organization actors working in the area of peace and conflict resolution need to focus on the capacity, networking and peace initiatives of local organizations working in fragile context.

Keywords: community base peacebuilding, conflict resolution, terrorism, violence

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5812 A Flagship Framework with Feet of Clay: Operational and Structural Challenges of the African Peace and Security Architecture

Authors: Wiriranai Brilliant Masara

Abstract:

The African Peace and Security Architecture is widely celebrated and revered as a paragon of the will to address peace and security challenges in Africa. However, like any other institution, it is embedded with operational and institutional challenges that prevent it from effectively carrying out its mandate and turning goals into achieved results. The article examines the fundamental flaws and weaknesses of the African Peace and Security Architecture by focusing on its institutions, norms, instruments, and its relationship to Africa’s Regional Economic Communities. Therefore, the article reviews the flaws of the five elements of the African Peace and Security Architecture which are the Peace and Security Council, Panel of the Wise, Continental Early Warning System, African Standby Force, and Peace Fund.

Keywords: African Union, African Peace and Security Architecture, peace and security council, continental early warning system, African Standby Force, Panel of the Wise, Peace Fund

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5811 Aggressive Behavior Prevention: The Effect of Peace Education and Media Literacy towards Student's Understanding about Aggression

Authors: Dadang Gunawan, I. Dewa Ketut Kertawidana, Lufthi Noorfitriyani

Abstract:

For the last 5 years, there is the never-ending violent act and increased cases regarding aggressive behavior among high school students in Bogor, Indonesia. Those cases caused harm to many people, even death, and lead to the continuation circle of violence. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of using peace education and media literacy in enhancing student’s understanding about aggression, as an effort to prevent aggressive behavior. In terms of methodology, this research was done by quasi-experiment with one group pretest and post-test design. A number of 38 students who were at risk of aggressive behavior from 3 vocational high school were involved to receive a 10 learning session about peace and media literacy. The aggression questionnaire was used to identify participants, supported by student’s record in school. To collect data, the questionnaire for measuring understanding about aggression has been developed and was used after the validity and reliability of this questionnaire tested. Post-test was carried out after the session ended. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding result showed that the mean score of student’s understanding of aggression was increased, therefore learning session of peace education and media literacy is significantly effective to enhance student’s understanding of aggression. It also showed a meaningful difference of understanding between male and female student’s whereas female students have a better understanding of aggression.

Keywords: aggressive behavior prevention, aggression, media literacy, peace education, peacebuilding

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5810 Peace Pact System in Bontoc, Mountain Province

Authors: Claire Kaplaan P. Lafadchan

Abstract:

The study looked into the peace pact system as a customary way of solving cases in Bontoc, Mountain Province. To study the importance of the peace pact system, the study focused on the extent of attainment of the objectives of peace pact system in Bontoc, Mountain Province; the extent of attainment of the procedure; level of satisfaction on the peace pact system; and, the degree of the seriousness of the problems encountered. The study aimed to see the importance of peace pact system as a means of amicable settlement in Bontoc, Mountain Province as the researcher is concerned on the conflicts evolving between natives of Bontoc and people from other municipalities. Questionnaire-checklist was used as the main data-gathering tool. It was found out in the study that the goals and objectives of peace pact is much attained; the procedures is much attained; the level of satisfaction is much satisfied; and the problems encountered is moderately serious. Despite the fact that peace pact participants are all doing their part in the process, still, there are problems they encountered.

Keywords: peace pact, amicable settlement, bontoc, pagta, pechen

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5809 Economic Empowerment before Political Participation: Peacebuilding from the Perspective of Women Activists in the Post-Yugoslav Area

Authors: Emilie Fort

Abstract:

Two major pitfalls emerge at the intersection of gender and peacebuilding literature: the comprehension of women as a homogeneous category and a focus on women's participation in formal peace processes and state structures. However, women belong (and identify) to distinct ethnic, religious, or social groups, and the variety of their social location impacts their ability to mobilize, to participate in peace processes as well as the way they envision peace. This study is based on interviews conducted (remotely) with women activists from the post-Yugoslav area. It shows that women's economic empowerment and education are central issues that must be addressed for women political participation being effective. This has implications for peace projects –their priorities, scales of implementation, etc.– and the allocation of civil society’s funds.

Keywords: ex-Yugoslavia, gender-based issues, peacebuilding, women activism

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5808 Rethinking Peace Journalism in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of News Discourse on the Afghan Refugee Repatriation Conflict

Authors: Ayesha Hasan

Abstract:

This study offers unique perspectives and analyses of peace and conflict journalism through interpretative repertoire, media frames, and critical discourse analyses. Two major English publications in Pakistan, representing both long and short-form journalism, are investigated to uncover how the Afghan refugee repatriation from Pakistan in 2016-17 has been framed in Pakistani English media. Peace journalism focuses on concepts such as peace initiatives and peace building, finding common ground, and preventing further conflict. This study applies Jake Lynch’s Coding Criteria to guide the critical discourse analysis and Lee and Maslog’s Peace Journalism Quotient to examine the extent of peace journalism in each text. This study finds that peace journalism is missing in Pakistani English press, but represented, to an extent, in long-form print and online coverage. Two new alternative frames are also proposed. This study gives an in-depth understanding of if and how journalists in Pakistan are covering conflicts and framing stories that can be identified as peace journalism. This study represents significant contributions to the remarkably limited scholarship on peace and conflict journalism in Pakistan and extends Shabbir Hussain’s work on critical pragmatic perspectives on peace journalism in Pakistan.

Keywords: Afghan refugee repatriation, Critical discourse analysis, Media framing , Peace and conflict journalism

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5807 In Its 20th Anniversary, Will Dayton Peace Agreement Continue or Complete Its Mission?

Authors: Halit Turan, Mehmet Ozturk, Serdal Akyuz

Abstract:

General Framework Agreement for Peace (Dayton Peace Agreement) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (GFAP), is one of the most challenging issues in the contemporary peace studies scholarship. It is clear that this agreement has created an exceptional state structure which Bosnia and Herzegovina has still executed for 20 years. The agreement, signed reluctantly by warring sides to end war, has carried out reaching the present day. Demonstrations held by unemployed people in the early of 2014 can be seen as a symptom of discontent about low economic wealth level which is a clear consequence of agreement. This paper lays out the influences of problems stemmed from the agreement to the future of country especially in terms of economic issues.

Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina, dayton peace agreement, economic problems, social discontent

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5806 Conflicts and Their Resolutions through Peace-Building: A Roadmap to Africa's Development

Authors: Samuel Omachi

Abstract:

Since the creation of man, conflicts have remained a part and parcel of the society in spite of all measures adopted to keep them away. Conflicts are globally recognized as impediments of sustainable development and therefore regarded as undesirable, yet they are inevitable. However, some political leaders are better managers of conflicts than others. Those that manage conflicts poorly are backward and far from achieving economic development while efficient managers excel. The states in Africa fall into the category of poor managers of conflicts. Consequently, African continent has gained the notoriety of being the most crisis-ridden and poverty-stricken continent in the world in spite of her enormous resource endowment status. This problematic provided the compelling need for the discourse in the present study. Using the documentary analytical method, the paper x-rays the sources of conflicts, their effects and resolutions through peace education to allow room for economic development. The study concluded that African leaders needed to imbibe the culture of good governance with a key plank of peace building as a sine-qua-non for breaking the jinx that has tied the continent down to enable her catch up with her contemporaries in other parts of the competitive world.

Keywords: conflicts, resolutions, peace-building, development

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5805 Tourism as Benefactor to Peace amidst the Structural Conflict: An Exploratory Case Study of Nepal

Authors: Pranil Kumar Upadhayaya

Abstract:

While peace is dividend to tourism, tourism can also be a vital force for world peace. The existing body of knowledge on a tripartite complex nexus between tourism, peace and conflict reveals that tourism is benefactor to peace and sensitive to conflict. By contextualizing the ongoing sporadic structural conflict in the transitional phase in the aftermath of a decade long (1996-2006), Maoist armed conflict in Nepal, the purpose of this study is to explore the potentials of tourism in peace-building. The outcomes of this research paper is based on the mixed methods of research (qualitative and quantitative). Though the armed conflict ended with the comprehensive peace agreement in 2006 but there is constant manifestations of non-violent structural conflicts, which continue to threaten the sustainability of tourism industry. With the persistent application of coping strategies, tourism is found resilient during the ongoing structural political conflict. The strong coping abilities of the private sector of tourism industry have also intersected with peace-building efforts with more reactive and less proactive (pro-peace) engagements. This paper ascertains about the application of the ‘theory of tourism security’ by Nepalese tourism industry while coping with conflict and reviving, and sustaining. It reveals that the multiple verities of tourism at present has heterogeneous degree of peace potentials. The opportunities of ‘peace through tourism’ can be promoted subject to its molding with responsible, sustainable and participatory characteristics. This paper comes out with pragmatic policy recommendations for strengthening the position of tourism as a true peace-builder: (a) a broad shift from mainstream conventional tourism to the community based rural with local participation and ownership to fulfill Nepal’s potentials for peace, and (b) building and applications of the managerial and operational codes of conducts for owners and workers (labor unions) at all tourism enterprises and strengthen their practices.

Keywords: code of conduct, community based tourism, conflict, peace-building, tourism

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5804 Global Peace and Security: The Role of International Peace and Security Organizations and the Need for Institutional and Operational Reforms

Authors: Saint C. Nguedjip

Abstract:

This paper is an analytical review a set of 20 literatures as required by the assignment prompt. The review centers on global peace and security. What role do international organizations play in global peace and security? The review centers around three main points. First, I examine global peace and security impacts on global governance. Secondly, it highlights the role traditional international community and security organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and others play in providing the globe with peace and collective security. Third, it suggests a way forward as those institutions seek betterment and improvement. The review begins by defining some concepts and addressing the ambivalent meaning of peace and war. Scholars and researchers have conducted extensive research on the importance of international organizations. Yet, there is still a lot to consider if betterment and improvement are on the agenda. The review will shed light on the failures and challenges that these organizations. Those challenges are continuously undermining peacebuilding and peacekeeping actions of a great number among those institutions created with an ultimate mission of keeping the world order organized and coordinated for peace and security regardless of differences, cultures, and backgrounds. Women face violence on a daily basis, while racism and discrimination cause klm; ]]];inflammations worldwide. The chaotic situation in Ukraine is a wake-up call on scholarship and practitioners alike to come up with suggestions as well as recommendations that help mitigate insecurity while promoting peace and security, not only for Ukrainians but also for all countries facing wars and others issues. This paper will point the audience toward the right direction.

Keywords: security, peace, global governance, global peace and security, peacekeeping, international organizations, human rights, multilateralism, and unilateralism, gender, women

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5803 Teacher Education: Exploring the Challenges of the Teaching Profession in Nigeria for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Ugabi John Ibak, Odey Boniface Ugbem

Abstract:

Education is considered the bedrock of any meaningful developments and teacher education plays a critical role in this direction. Teacher education is the master keys that can alleviate poverty, promote peace, conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help achieve all round sustain enable development in Nigeria and the world over. This paper X-rays the nature and character of the teaching profession, historical background to teacher education in Nigeria, national policy on education, problems of teacher education in Nigeria and prospects of teacher education for sustainable national development. The study shows that the misfortunes of the teacher education owes much to it historical antecedent. Also majorly, is the failure of government to adequately fund education at the various levels in the country. It was discovered that in the history of the nation no government has budgeted 13% of its annual budget (half of 26% UNESCO minimum) to education. This has resulted to poor infrastructure, inadequate equipment and poorly motivated personnel in all the nations public schools at all levels. Hence, the paper concludes that in spite of these overwhelming challenges, teachers have a lot of prospects both in the teaching profession and outside teaching.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching profession, sustainable national development, education, development

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5802 Jirga: A Traditional Approach to Peacebuidling in Conflict Affected Fragile Communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Nizar Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon, Farhat Ullah

Abstract:

This study investigates the peace efforts made by Pakhtun’s traditional institution Jirga in conflict-affected communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data were collected through a structured interview schedule from a sample of 278 household members in four selected villages of Dir Upper and Dir Lower Districts. A Chi square test was applied to ascertain relationships between Jirga related factors with the state of peace in the study area. It was found that factors such as Jirga regularly conducted meetings (P=. 000), it inflicted punishment upon local militants (P=. 001), ex-combatants were re-integrated through Jirga (P= .000) and Jirga ordered the local the defiant to leave the community had a significant association with state of peace in the area. It is concluded that Jirga system had played a vital role in the peacebuilding process of the area through provision of support to government in peace operation and mobilizing local people for peace in the area. It is suggested that Jirga shall to be the part of peace process and government needs to provide its possible support to members of the Jirga in order to enhance their capacity of peace work.

Keywords: Jirga, peacebuilding, terrorism, traditional mechanism, conflict affect areas

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5801 Using Songs as Direct and Indirect Vehicles of Peace

Authors: Johannes Van Der Sandt

Abstract:

This paper explores and reflects on the power of music, and more specific singing as an instrument for integration, inclusion, group cohesion, collective cooperation, repairing social relationships and facilitating dialogue between groups in conflict. The General Assembly of the United Nations has declared the 21st of September as International Day of Peace. This day is dedicated to advocate and strengthen among all people, an annual day to strive for no violence and cease-fire. What role does music play in strengthening ideals of peace? The findings of this paper is a result of field and online research as well as a literature survey to identify the most important examples of institutions, instruments or initiatives where music serves as a vehicle for the transmission and promoting of peace ideals and acting to assist movements for social change. Important examples where singing and music were used as tools for peace activism are the 1987 Estonian Singing Revolution and the more recent peace engagement in the Afghan Conflict, both very good examples of the cultural capital of the local population used as catalyst for promoting peace. The author offers a concise and relevant overview of such initiatives with the aim to validate the power of music and song as tools to support the United Nation’s Declaration on the Promotion Among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding Between Peoples: Young people should be educated and made aware of the ideals of peace. They should be educated in a spirit of mutual understanding and respect for one another in order to develop an attitude of striving for equal rights for all human beings, believing in economic and social growth for all, together with a belief in disarmament and working towards the maintenance of peace and security worldwide.

Keywords: conflict, music, peace, singing

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5800 Understanding Embryology in Promoting Peace Leadership: A Document Review

Authors: Vasudev Das

Abstract:

The specific problem is that many leaders of the 21st century do not understand that the extermination of embryos wreaks havoc on peace leadership. The purpose of the document review is to understand embryology in facilitating peace leadership. Extermination of human embryos generates a requital wave of violence which later falls on human society in the form of disturbances, considering that violence breeds further violence as a consequentiality. The study results reveal that a deep understanding of embryology facilitates peace leadership, given that minimizing embryo extermination enhances non-violence in the global village. Neo-Newtonians subscribe to the idea that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The US Federal Government recognizes the embryo or fetus as a member of Homo sapiens. The social change implications of this study are that understanding human embryology promotes peace leadership, considering that the consequentiality of embryo extermination can serve as a deterrent for violence on embryos.

Keywords: consequentiality, Homo sapiens, neo-Newtonians, violence

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