Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2136

Search results for: languages in contact

2136 Bilingualism: A Case Study of Assamese and Bodo Classifiers

Authors: Samhita Bharadwaj

Abstract:

This is an empirical study of classifiers in Assamese and Bodo, two genetically unrelated languages of India. The objective of the paper is to address the language contact between Assamese and Bodo as reflected in classifiers. The data has been collected through fieldwork in Bodo recording narratives and folk tales and eliciting specific data from the speakers. The data for Assamese is self-produced as native speaker of the language. Assamese is the easternmost New-Indo-Aryan (henceforth NIA) language mainly spoken in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam and some other north-eastern states of India. It is the lingua franca of Assam and is creolised in the neighbouring state of Nagaland. Bodo, on the other hand, is a Tibeto-Burman (henceforth TB) language of the Bodo-Garo group. It has the highest number of speakers among the TB languages of Assam. However, compared to Assamese, it is still a lesser documented language and due to the prestige of Assamese, all the Bodo speakers are fluent bi-lingual in Assamese, though the opposite isn’t the case. With this context, classifiers, a characteristic phenomenon of TB languages, but not so much of NIA languages, presents an interesting case study on language contact caused by bilingualism. Assamese, as a result of its language contact with the TB languages which are rich in classifiers; has developed the richest classifier system among the IA languages in India. Yet, as a part of rampant borrowing of Assamese words and patterns into Bodo; Bodo is seen to borrow even Assamese classifiers into its system. This paper analyses the borrowed classifiers of Bodo and finds the route of this borrowing phenomenon in the number system of the languages. As the Bodo speakers start replacing the higher numbers from five with Assamese ones, they also choose the Assamese classifiers to attach to these numbers. Thus, the partial loss of number in Bodo as a result of language contact and bilingualism in Assamese is found to be the reason behind the borrowing of classifiers in Bodo. The significance of the study lies in exploring an interesting aspect of language contact in Assam. It is hoped that this will attract further research on bilingualism and classifiers in Assam.

Keywords: Assamese, bi-lingual, Bodo, borrowing, classifier, language contact

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2135 English Pashto Contact: Morphological Adaptation of Bilingual Compound Words in Pashto

Authors: Imran Ullah Imran

Abstract:

Language contact is a familiar concept in the present global world. Across the globe, languages get mixed up at different levels. Borrowing, code-switching are some of the means through which languages interact. This study examines Pashto-English contact at word and syllable levels. By recording the speech of 30 Pashto native speakers, selected via 'social network' sampling, the study located a number of Pashto-English compound words, which is a unique contact of its kind. In data analysis, tokens were categorized on the basis of their pattern and morphological structure. The study shows that Pashto-English Bilingual Compound words (BCWs) are very prevalent in the Pashto language. The study also found that the BCWs in Pashto are completely productive and have their own meanings. It also shows that the dominant pattern of hybrid words in Pashto is the conjugation of an independent English root word followed by a Pashto inflectional morpheme, which contributes to the core semantic content of the construction. The BCWs construction shows that how both the languages are closer to each other. Pashto-English contact results into bilingual compound and hybrid words, which forms a considerable number of tokens in the present-day spoken Pashto. On the basis of these findings, the study assumes that the same phenomenon may increase with the passage of time that would, in turn, result in the formation of more bilingual compound or hybrid words.

Keywords: code-mixing, bilingual compound words, pashto-english contact, hybrid words, inflectional lexical morpheme

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2134 Multilingualism and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Salome Labeh

Abstract:

Diverse Languages that exist in Nigeria, gave rise to the need to choose among these languages, which one or ones to be used as the National Language(s) in Nigeria. The Multilingual Nature of Nigeria has been examined, in relation to the provisional result of 1991 census conducted in Nigeria and the status of language policy in the country, which eventually led to the discovery of the fact that Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba languages have the highest speaker in terms of population, and are already made co-official languages in Nigeria, alongside with English language. Then, these languages should be considered as the National Languages, if eventually a language policy emerges in Nigeria.

Keywords: multilingual, languages, culture, Nigeria

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2133 Heritage Spanish Speaker’s Bilingual Practices and Linguistic Varieties: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Ana C. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper will discuss some of the bilingual practices of Heritage Spanish speakers caused by living within two cultures and two languages, Spanish, the heritage language, and English, the dominant language. When two languages remain in contact for long periods, such as the case of Spanish and English, it is common that both languages can be affected by bilingual practices such as Spanglish, code-switching, borrowing, anglicisms and calques. Examples of these translingual practices will be provided, as well as HS speaker’s linguistic dialects, and the challenges they encounter with the standard variety used in the Spanish classroom.

Keywords: heritage, practices, Spanish, speakers translingual

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2132 Sociolinguistic Aspects and Language Contact, Lexical Consequences in Francoprovençal Settings

Authors: Carmela Perta

Abstract:

In Italy the coexistence of standard language, its varieties and different minority languages - historical and migration languages - has been a way to study language contact in different directions; the focus of most of the studies is either the relations among the languages of the social repertoire, or the study of contact phenomena occurring in a particular structural level. However, studies on contact facts in relation to a given sociolinguistic situation of the speech community are still not present in literature. As regard the language level to investigate from the perspective of contact, it is commonly claimed that the lexicon is the most volatile part of language and most likely to undergo change due to superstrate influence, indeed first lexical features are borrowed, then, under long term cultural pressure, structural features may also be borrowed. The aim of this paper is to analyse language contact in two historical minority communities where Francoprovençal is spoken, in relation to their sociolinguistic situation. In this perspective, firstly lexical borrowings present in speakers’ speech production will be examined, trying to find a possible correlation between this part of the lexicon and informants’ sociolinguistic variables; secondly a possible correlation between a particular community sociolinguistic situation and lexical borrowing will be found. Methods used to collect data are based on the results obtained from 24 speakers in both the villages; the speaker group in the two communities consisted of 3 males and 3 females in each of four age groups, ranging in age from 9 to 85, and then divided into five groups according to their occupations. Speakers were asked to describe a sequence of pictures naming common objects and then describing scenes when they used these objects: they are common objects, frequently pronounced and belonging to semantic areas which are usually resistant and which are thought to survive. A subset of this task, involving 19 items with Italian source is examined here: in order to determine the significance of the independent variables (social factors) on the dependent variable (lexical variation) the statistical package SPSS, particularly the linear regression, was used.

Keywords: borrowing, Francoprovençal, language change, lexicon

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2131 An Investigation of Migrants' Attitudes towards Their Ethnic Languages: A Study of Angolan Migrants in Namibia

Authors: Julia Indongo - Haiduwa

Abstract:

The study looks at the attitudes of Angolan migrants in the informal sectors towards their ethnic languages. The assumption is most Angolan migrants speak Portuguese instead of their ethnic languages as they lack interest in their ethnic languages. The study was qualitative in nature, and 20 Angolan migrants who are operating in the informal sector where purposively selected for the semistructured interviews. The study revealed that many Angolan has negative attitudes towards their ethnic language because even prior to their migration to Namibia, they use Portuguese to communicate as opposed to their ethnic languages. The ethnic languages are associated with old people and the ethnic languages do not offer the migrants any economic benefits. The study recommends that there is a need for the revitalization of Angolan ethnic languages in Namibia in order to maintain the language and prevent them from dying.

Keywords: ethnic languages language attitude, language, choice, language maintenance, multilingualism

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2130 Multilingualism and the Creation of New Languages: The Case of Camfranglais Spoken in Italy and Germany

Authors: Jocelyne Kenne Kenne

Abstract:

Previous works in the field of sociolinguistics have explored the various outcomes of linguistic pluralism. One of these outcomes is the creation of new languages. The presentation will focus on one of such languages, Camfranglais, a hybrid language spoken by Cameroonians. It appeared in the 1970s in the francophone area in Cameroon and developed as a result of interactions between French, English, Cameroonian Pidgin English and local Cameroonian languages, all languages spoken in Cameroon. With the migration of Cameroonians to Europe, researches have been conducted to analyze the sociolinguistic profile of Cameroonians in their new environment. The emphasis on this presentation will be on two recent studies that have been conducted to analyze the peculiarity of Camfranglais in two European countries: Germany and Italy. The research involved 59 Cameroonians living in Italy and 49 Cameroonians residing in Germany. The respondents were composed of participants from different linguistic background, students and workers, married and single. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed. The field study was divided into three parts. The first part was focused on observing the Cameroonians interact in different places such as in canteens, in the university halls of residence, lecture theatres, at homes, at various Cameroonian meetings. Those observations were accompanied by audio-recordings of the various interactions. The aim was to study communication between Cameroonians to see whether they use Camfranglais or not; if yes, in which domains and what were the speakers’ linguistic profiles. Additionally, questionnaires of different lengths were used to collect biographical information concerning the participants and their sociolinguistic profile and finally, in-depth interviews with Cameroonians were conducted to inquire about the use, the functions and the importance of this language in the migratory context. The results of the research demonstrate how a widespread use of Camfranglais by Cameroonians in Germany and Italy reveal a longing for home on the one hand and a sign of belonging on the other. It also shows the differences that exist between the profiles of Camfranglais speakers in Europe and the speakers in Cameroon notably in terms of age and social class. Finally, it points out some differences in the use, the structure and the functions of this hybrid language in the migratory setting. This study is a contribution to existing research in the field of contact languages and can serve as a comparison for other situations of multilingualism and the creation of mixed languages. Furthermore, with globalization, the study of migrant languages and the contact of these languages with new languages are topics that might be productive for further research in the field of sociolinguistics.

Keywords: interaction, migrants language, multilingualism, mixed languages

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2129 Attitudes towards Bilingualism: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Patricia W. Ngassa

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Language attitude is an area arousing the interest of linguists who are continuously discovering new methods of detecting attitudes. This paper problematizes Cameroonians’ alleged tendency of neglecting home languages and considering Bilingualism in borrowed languages as more important. 30 questionnaires were used to know attitudes of parents towards bilingualism and our home languages. Results revealed that our borrowed official languages are considered more important than home languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, mother tongue, Cameroon, official language

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2128 Effects of Foreign-language Learning on Bilinguals' Production in Both Their Languages

Authors: Natalia Kartushina

Abstract:

Foreign (second) language (L2) learning is highly promoted in modern society. Students are encouraged to study abroad (SA) to achieve the most effective learning outcomes. However, L2 learning has side effects for native language (L1) production, as L1 sounds might show a drift from the L1 norms towards those of the L2, and this, even after a short period of L2 learning. L1 assimilatory drift has been attributed to a strong perceptual association between similar L1 and L2 sounds in the mind of L2 leaners; thus, a change in the production of an L2 target leads to the change in the production of the related L1 sound. However, nowadays, it is quite common that speakers acquire two languages from birth, as, for example, it is the case for many bilingual communities (e.g., Basque and Spanish in the Basque Country). Yet, it remains to be established how FL learning affects native production in individuals who have two native languages, i.e., in simultaneous or very early bilinguals. Does FL learning (here a third language, L3) affect bilinguals’ both languages or only one? What factors determine which of the bilinguals’ languages is more susceptible to change? The current study examines the effects of L3 (English) learning on the production of vowels in the two native languages of simultaneous Spanish-Basque bilingual adolescents enrolled into the Erasmus SA English program. Ten bilingual speakers read five Spanish and Basque consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel words two months before their SA and the next day after their arrival back to Spain. Each word contained the target vowel in the stressed syllable and was repeated five times. Acoustic analyses measuring vowel openness (F1) and backness (F2) were performed. Two possible outcomes were considered. First, we predicted that L3 learning would affect the production of only one language and this would be the language that would be used the most in contact with English during the SA period. This prediction stems from the results of recent studies showing that early bilinguals have separate phonological systems for each of their languages; and that late FL learner (as it is the case of our participants), who tend to use their L1 in language-mixing contexts, have more L2-accented L1 speech. The second possibility stated that L3 learning would affect both of the bilinguals’ languages in line with the studies showing that bilinguals’ L1 and L2 phonologies interact and constantly co-influence each other. The results revealed that speakers who used both languages equally often (balanced users) showed an F1 drift in both languages toward the F1 of the English vowel space. Unbalanced speakers, however, showed a drift only in the less used language. The results are discussed in light of recent studies suggesting that the amount of language use is a strong predictor of the authenticity in speech production with less language use leading to more foreign-accented speech and, eventually, to language attrition.

Keywords: language-contact, multilingualism, phonetic drift, bilinguals' production

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2127 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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2126 The Analysis of Language Shift, Accommodation, Attrition and Effects On Minority Languages In Pakistan

Authors: Afsheen Kashifa, Muhammad Saad Khan

Abstract:

The present study examines the linguistic use of English as a permanent part of the regional languages of Pakistan. This research has delimited its investigation to the language used by the students of English language who speak different regional languages. It deals with the attitudes, causes, and effects of the language shift from regional and minority languages to English. It further gets insights from the feedback provided by the students as respondents that English is replacing the minority languages for being the language of prestige, convenience, and rich vocabulary. These concepts have been achieved through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The findings of this research exhibit that the respondents speak English because of its vocabulary and easy way of communication; therefore, they enjoy a high place in society. This research also shows that the speakers of the regional languages are encouraged by their parents to speak English. Eventually, the words and expressions of English, the dominant language, have become a permanent part of the minority languages. Therefore, the minority languages are becoming endangered languages.

Keywords: language shift, language accommodation, language attrition, effects on minority languages

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2125 Comparative Study of Urdu and Hindko Language

Authors: Tahseen Bibi

Abstract:

Language is a source of communicating the ideas, emotions and feelings to others. Languages are different from one another on the basis of symbols and articulation. Regional languages play a role of unification in any country. National language of any country gives strength to its masses as it evaporates the mutual indifferences. There are various regional languages in Pakistan like Sindhi, Pushto, Hindko and Balochi. Hindko language dates back to the ancient times and the Hindko speakers can also easily understand and speak Urdu language. Urdu language is an amalgam of various languages. These languages are interconnected. Thus we can draw an analogy between the two languages under discussion on the basis of the pronunciation. The research will show that there are so many words in both the languages which have the similar pronunciation. It will further tell that the roots of Urdu language lie in Hindko. The reason behind this resemblance is that Urdu has got extracted from Hindko and other languages. Hindko language has played a prominent role in the development of Urdu language. Thus the role of Hindko language in the emergence and development of Urdu cannot be denied. This article will use the qualitative and comparative study as methodology. The research will highlight that there is close resemblance in both the languages on the basis of pronunciation, signifying that Urdu language has been extracted from Hindkon language.

Keywords: Hindko, Urdu, regional languages, vocabulary

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2124 English Loanwords in Nigerian Languages: Sociolinguistic Survey

Authors: Surajo Ladan

Abstract:

English has been in existence in Nigeria since colonial period. The advent of English in Nigeria has caused a lot of linguistic changes in Nigerian languages especially among the educated elites and to some extent, even the ordinary people were not spared from this phenomenon. This scenario has generated a linguistic situation which culminated into the creation of Nigerian Pidgin that are conglomeration of English and other Nigerian languages. English has infiltrated the Nigerian languages to a point that a typical Nigerian can hardly talk without code-switching or using one English word or the other. The existence of English loanwords in Nigerian languages has taken another dimension in this scientific and technological age. Most of scientific and technological inventions are products of English language which are virtually adopted into the languages with phonological, morphological, and sometimes semantic variations. This paper is of the view that there should be a re-think and agitation from Nigerians to protect their languages from the linguistic genocide of English which are invariably facing extinction.

Keywords: linguistic change, loanword, phenomenon, pidgin

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2123 Attitudes toward Programming Languages Based on Characteristics

Authors: Mohammad Shokoohi-Yekta, Hamid Mirebrahim

Abstract:

A body of research has been devoted to investigating the preferences of computer programmers. These researches used various questionnaires to find out what programming language is most popular among programmers. The problem with such research is that the programmers are usually familiar with only a few languages; therefore, disregarding a number of other languages which might have characteristics that match their preferences more closely. To overcome such a problem, we decided to investigate the preferences of programmers in regards to the characteristics of languages, which help us to discover the languages that include the most characteristics preferred by the users. We conducted a user study to measure the preferences of programmers on different characteristics of programming languages and then tried to compare existing languages in the areas of application, Web and system programming. Overall, the results of our study indicated that the Ruby programming language has the highest preference score in the two areas of application and Web, and C++ has the highest score in the system area. The results of our study can also help programming language designers know the characteristics they should consider when developing new programming languages in order to attract more programmers.

Keywords: object orientation, programming language design, programmers' preferences, characteristic

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2122 Language Activation Theory: Unlocking Bilingual Language Processing

Authors: Leorisyl D. Siarot

Abstract:

It is conventional to see and hear Filipinos, in general, speak two or more languages. This phenomenon brings us to a closer look on how our minds process the input and produce an output with a specific chosen language. This study aimed to generate a theoretical model which explained the interaction of the first and the second languages in the human mind. After a careful analysis of the gathered data, a theoretical prototype called Language Activation Model was generated. For every string, there are three specialized banks: lexico-semantics, morphono-syntax, and pragmatics. These banks are interrelated to other banks of other language strings. As the bilingual learns more languages, a new string is replicated and is filled up with the information of the new language learned. The principles of the first and second languages' interaction are drawn; these are expressed in laws, namely: law of dominance, law of availability, law of usuality and law of preference. Furthermore, difficulties encountered in the learning of second languages were also determined.

Keywords: bilingualism, psycholinguistics, second language learning, languages

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2121 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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2120 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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2119 Speech Rhythm Variation in Languages and Dialects: F0, Natural and Inverted Speech

Authors: Imen Ben Abda

Abstract:

Languages have been classified into different rhythm classes. 'Stress-timed' languages are exemplified by English, 'syllable-timed' languages by French and 'mora-timed' languages by Japanese. However, to our best knowledge, acoustic studies have not been unanimous in strictly establishing which rhythm category a given language belongs to and failed to show empirical evidence for isochrony. Perception seems to be a good approach to categorize languages into different rhythm classes. This study, within the scope of experimental phonetics, includes an account of different perceptual experiments using cues from natural and inverted speech, as well as pitch extracted from speech data. It is an attempt to categorize speech rhythm over a large set of Arabic (Tunisian, Algerian, Lebanese and Moroccan) and English dialects (Welsh, Irish, Scottish and Texan) as well as other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, and German. Listeners managed to classify the different languages and dialects into different rhythm classes using suprasegmental cues mainly rhythm and pitch (F0). They also perceived rhythmic differences even among languages and dialects belonging to the same rhythm class. This may show that there are different subclasses within very broad rhythmic typologies.

Keywords: F0, inverted speech, mora-timing, rhythm variation, stress-timing, syllable-timing

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2118 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou

Abstract:

When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

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2117 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen

Abstract:

Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

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2116 Perceptions on Community Media for Effective Acculturation in Nigerian Indigenous Languages

Authors: Chima Onwukwe

Abstract:

This study examined perceptions on the effectiveness, attendant challenges and remedies of community media for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages. The qualitative survey design was adopted with Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) of 50 purposively chosen informants. It was perceived that community media could serve as veritable platform for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages since they would engender the setting of acculturation in Nigerian languages as national objective or goal. It was further held that the strengths of community media for acculturation were in being goal-defined, ensuring local content and diversification. The study identified that as palatable as the proposal for community media for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages is; it would be fraught with some set-backs or challenges that were very much surmountable. Perceptions pointed towards transient nature of community media and funding as challenges, as well as multi-based funding as one remedy. Immediate establishment of community media for the purpose of acculturation in Nigerian languages was recommended.

Keywords: perception, community media, acculturation, indigenous language

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2115 The Influence of Contact Models on Discrete Element Modeling of the Ballast Layer Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Peyman Aela, Lu Zong, Guoqing Jing

Abstract:

Recently, there has been growing interest in numerical modeling of ballast railway tracks. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for ballast is the discrete element method (DEM). Up to now, the effects of the contact model on ballast particle behavior have not been precisely examined. In this regard, selecting the appropriate contact model is mainly associated with the particle characteristics and the loading condition. Since ballast is cohesionless material, different contact models, including the linear spring, Hertz-Mindlin, and Hysteretic models, could be used to calculate particle-particle or wall-particle contact forces. Moreover, the simulation of a dynamic test is vital to investigate the effect of damping parameters on the ballast deformation. In this study, ballast box tests were simulated by DEM to examine the influence of different contact models on the mechanical behavior of the ballast layer under cyclic loading. This paper shows how the contact model can affect the deformation and damping of a ballast layer subjected to cyclic loading in a ballast box.

Keywords: ballast, contact model, cyclic loading, DEM

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2114 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding

Abstract:

The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

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2113 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, sliding

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2112 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat

Abstract:

In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

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2111 Complications of Contact Lens-Associated Keratitis: A Refresher for Emergency Departments

Authors: S. Selman, T. Gout

Abstract:

Microbial keratitis is a serious complication of contact lens wear that can be vision and eye-threatening. Diverse presentations relating to contact lens wear include dry corneal surface, corneal infiltrate, ulceration, scarring, and complete corneal melt leading to perforation. Contact lens wear is a major risk factor and, as such, is an important consideration in any patient presenting with a red eye in the primary care setting. This paper aims to provide an overview of the risk factors, common organisms, and spectrum of contact lens-associated keratitis (CLAK) complications. It will highlight some of the salient points relevant to the assessment and workup of patients suspected of CLAK in the emergency department based on the recent literature and therapeutic guidelines. An overview of the management principles will also be provided.

Keywords: microbial keratitis, corneal pathology, contact lens-associated complications, painful vision loss

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2110 Are Some Languages Harder to Learn and Teach Than Others?

Authors: David S. Rosenstein

Abstract:

The author believes that modern spoken languages should be equally difficult (or easy) to learn, since all normal children learning their native languages do so at approximately the same rate and with the same competence, progressing from easy to more complex grammar and syntax in the same way. Why then, do some languages seem more difficult than others? Perhaps people are referring to the written language, where it may be true that mastering Chinese requires more time than French, which in turn requires more time than Spanish. But this may be marginal, since Chinese and French children quickly catch up to their Spanish peers in reading comprehension. Rather, the real differences in difficulty derive from two sources: hardened L1 language habits trying to cope with contrasting L2 habits; and unfamiliarity with unique L2 characteristics causing faulty expectations. It would seem that effective L2 teaching and learning must take these two sources of difficulty into consideration. The author feels that the latter (faulty expectations) causes the greatest difficulty, making effective teaching and learning somewhat different for each given foreign language. Examples from Chinese and other languages are presented.

Keywords: learning different languages, language learning difficulties, faulty language expectations

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2109 Gesture in the Arabic and Malay Languages a Comparative Study

Authors: Siti Sara binti Hj Ahmad, Adil Elshiekh Abdalla

Abstract:

The Arabic and Malay languages belong to different language’s families; while the Arabic language descends from the Semitic language, Malay belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family. Hence, the grammatical systems of the two languages differ from each other. Arabic, being a language found in the heart of the dessert, and Malay is the language found in the heart of thick equatorial forests, is another source of vital cultural differences. Consequently, it is expected that this situation will create differences in the ways of how speakers of the two languages perceive the world around them, convey and understand their messages. On the other hand, as the majority of the speakers of Malay language are Muslims, Arabic language found its way in this region; currently, Arabic is widely taught in school, some terms of it found their way in the Malay language. Accordingly, the Arabic language and culture have widely penetrated into the Malay language. This study is proposed with the aim to find out the differences and similarities between the two languages, in the term of the nonverbal communication. The result of this study will be of high significance, as it will help in enhancing the mutual understanding between the speakers of these languages. The comparative analysis approach will be utilized in this study.

Keywords: gesture, Arabic language, Malay language, comparative analysis

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2108 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Yin-Chen Liu, Chih-Chun Wu, Mei-He Shih

Abstract:

In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE, gender differences

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2107 Linguistic Analysis of the Concept ‘Relation’ in Russian and English Languages

Authors: Nadezhda Obvintceva

Abstract:

The article gives the analysis of the concept ‘relation’ from the point of view of its realization in Russian and English languages on the basis of dictionaries articles. The analysis reveals the main difference of representation of this concept in both languages. It is the number of lexemes that express its general meanings. At the end of the article the author gives an explanation of possible causes of the difference and touches upon the issue about analytical phenomena in the vocabulary.

Keywords: concept, comparison, lexeme, meaning, relation, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 393