Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6874

Search results for: oral production

6874 Production of Oral Vowels by Chinese Learners of Portuguese: Problems and Didactic Implications

Authors: Adelina Castelo

Abstract:

The increasing number of learners of Portuguese as Foreign Language in China justifies the need to define the phonetic profile of these learners and to design didactic materials that are adjusted to their specific problems in pronunciation. Different aspects of this topic have been studied, but the production of oral vowels still needs to be investigated. This study aims: (i) to identify the problems the Chinese learners of Portuguese experience in the pronunciation of oral vowels; (ii) to discuss the didactic implications drawn from those problems. The participants were eight native speakers of Mandarin Chinese that had been learning Portuguese in College for almost a year. They named pictured objects and their oral productions were recorded and phonetically transcribed. The selection of the objects to name took into account some linguistic variables (e.g. stress pattern, syllable structure, presence of the Portuguese oral vowels in different word positions according to stress location). The results are analysed in two ways: the impact of linguistic variables on the success rate in the vowels' production; the replacement strategies used in the non-target productions. Both analyses show that the Chinese learners of Portuguese (i) have significantly more difficulties with the mid vowels as well as the high central vowel and (ii) do not master the vowel height feature. These findings contribute to define the phonetic profile of these learners in terms of oral vowel production. Besides, they have important didactic implications for the pronunciation teaching to these specific learners. Those implications are discussed and exemplified.

Keywords: Chinese learners, learners’ phonetic profile, linguistic variables, Portuguese as foreign language, production data, pronunciation teaching, oral vowels

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6873 Translanguaging and Cross-languages Analyses in Writing and Oral Production with Multilinguals: a Systematic Review

Authors: Maryvone Cunha de Morais, Lilian Cristine Hübner

Abstract:

Based on a translanguaging theoretical approach, which considers language not as separate entities but as an entire repertoire available to bilingual individuals, this systematic review aimed at analyzing the methods (aims, samples investigated, type of stimuli, and analyses) adopted by studies on translanguaging practices associated with written and oral tasks (separately or integrated) in bilingual education. The PRISMA criteria for systematic reviews were adopted, with the descriptors "translanguaging", "bilingual education" and/or “written and oral tasks" to search in Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs, Eric, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for articles published between 2017 and 2021. 280 registers were found, and after following the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 24 articles were considered for this analysis. The results showed that translanguaging practices were investigated on four studies focused on written production analyses, ten focused on oral production analysis, whereas ten studies focused on both written and oral production analyses. The majority of the studies followed a qualitative approach, while five studies have attempted to study translanguaging with quantitative statistical measures. Several types of methods were used to investigate translanguaging practices in written and oral production, with different approaches and tools indicating that the methods are still in development. Moreover, the findings showed that students’ interactions have received significant attention, and studies have been developed not just in language classes in bilingual education, but also including diverse educational and theoretical contexts such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, task repetition, Science classes, collaborative writing, storytelling, peer feedback, Speech Act theory and collective thinking, language ideologies, conversational analysis, and discourse analyses. The studies, whether focused either on writing or oral tasks or in both, have portrayed significant research and pedagogical implications, grounded on the view of integrated languages in bi-and multilinguals.

Keywords: bilingual education, oral production, translanguaging, written production

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6872 Oral Examination: An Important Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Dermatological Disorders

Authors: Sanjay Saraf

Abstract:

The oral cavity can be the site for early manifestations of mucocutaneous disorders (MD) or the only site for occurrence of these disorders. It can also exhibit oral lesions with simultaneous associated skin lesions. The MD involving the oral mucosa commonly presents with signs such as ulcers, vesicles and bullae. The unique environment of the oral cavity may modify these signs of the disease, thereby making the clinical diagnosis an arduous task. In addition to the unique environment of oral cavity, the overlapping of the signs of various mucocutaneous disorders, also makes the clinical diagnosis more intricate. The aim of this review is to present the oral signs of dermatological disorders having common oral involvement and emphasize their importance in early detection of the systemic disorders. The aim is also to highlight the necessity of oral examination by a dermatologist while examining the skin lesions. Prior to the oral examination, it must be imperative for the dermatologists and the dental clinicians to have the knowledge of oral anatomy. It is also important to know the impact of various diseases on oral mucosa, and the characteristic features of various oral mucocutaneous lesions. An initial clinical oral examination is may help in the early diagnosis of the MD. Failure to identify the oral manifestations may reduce the likelihood of early treatment and lead to more serious problems. This paper reviews the oral manifestations of immune mediated dermatological disorders with common oral manifestations.

Keywords: dermatological investigations, genodermatosis, histological features, oral examination

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6871 Evidence Based Practice for Oral Care in Children

Authors: T. Turan, Ç. Erdoğan

Abstract:

As far as is known, general nursing care practices do not include specific evidence-based practices related to oral care in children. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence based nursing practice for oral care in children. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature in this field. According to all age groups and the oral care in various specific situations located evidence in the literature were examined. It has been determined that the methods and frequency used in oral care practices performed by nurses in clinics differ from one hospital to another. In addition, it is seen that different solutions are used in basic oral care, oral care practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and evidence-based practice in mucositis management in children. As a result, a standard should be established in oral care practices for children and education for children is recommended.

Keywords: evidence-based practice, oral care, nursing, children

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6870 The Impact of Cooperative Learning on EFL Learners Oral Performance

Authors: Narimen Hamdini

Abstract:

The mastery of a foreign language often implies adequate speaking competency and communication. However, it has been marked that the Algerian students’ oral performance is affected by the lack of language practice opportunities. The present study aims at investigating the impact of cooperative learning strategies on the learners’ oral performance through integrating some learning strategies in oral expression classes. Thus, a quasi-experimental study with one group pretest-posttest design was conducted. A convenience sample of 27 second-year students from the University of Jijel, Algeria, was taught during three consecutive weeks through cooperative learning activities in conjunction with regular language instruction in oral expression classes. Regarding data collection, the study makes use of students’ questionnaire, a semi-structured interview with the teachers of oral expression, and orally scored pre-posttest. While the students’ questionnaire aims at exploring the learners ‘speaking difficulties and attitudes towards the implementation of the strategy, the semi-structured interview aims at revealing the teachers’ instructional practices and attitudes toward the integration of CL activities. Finally, the oral tests were conducted before and after the intervention to measure the effect of the strategy on the learners’ oral production. The findings showed that the experimental group scored higher in the posttest. Cooperative learning promotes not only the learner’s oral performances, but also motivation and social skills. Consequently, its implementation in the oral expression classes is validated and recommended.

Keywords: cooperative learning, learning, oral performance, teaching

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6869 Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Study

Authors: Renjith George Pallivathukal, Preethy Mary Donald

Abstract:

Asymptomatic oral lesions are often ignored by the patients and usually will be identified only in advanced stages. Early detection of precancerous lesions is important for better prognosis. It is also important for the oral health care person to be aware of the regional prevalence of oral lesions in order to provide early care for the same. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of oral lesions based on the information available from patient records in a teaching dental school. Dental records of patients who attended the department of Oral medicine and diagnosis between September 2014 and September 2016 were retrieved and verified for oral lesions. Results: The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The lesions were classified as white (40.5%), red (23%), ulcerated (10.5%), pigmented (15.2%) and soft tissue enlargements (10.8%). 52% of the patients were unaware of the oral lesions before the dental visit. Overall, the prevalence of lesions in dental patients lower to national estimates, but the prevalence of some lesions showed variations.

Keywords: oral mucosal lesion, pre-cancer, prevalence, soft tissue lesion

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6868 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

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6867 Oral Sex Practice among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesian Urban Settings

Authors: I Putu Yuda Hananta, Inke Kusumastuti

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The latest Indonesian Biology and Behavior Surveillance (IBBS) conducted by Indonesian Ministry of Health reported a large proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) engaging in oral sex in their recent sexual history. While it is considered as a pleasuring and safe, oral sex might facilitate the transmission of various sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens. This study was aimed to investigate the oral sex practice among MSM in Indonesian urban settings to help delineate demographic and behavior determinants of such practice. In 2014, 501 MSM in 8 clinic-based and outreach STI services were recruited in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Denpasar, Indonesia. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about their demographics and sexual history. Median age (interquartile range) of the respondents was 27 (24-30) years; most completed senior high school (54.3%), worked in informal jobs (57.9%), and single (60.9%); and 32.3% reported receiving money in exchange for sex. Oral sex was practiced by most respondents: insertive only (10.0%), receptive only (6.0%), and both (82.4%). A separate multivariable analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the determinants for receptive and insertive oral sex. Factors associated with receptive oral sex were having more than 10 sex partner(s) in the preceding 6 months vs 1 partner, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI]=3.40 [1.22-9.42], p=0.03; and history of receptive-insertive anal sex vs no history, aOR=4.37 [1.76-10.82], p=0.01. Factors associated with insertive oral sex were receiving money for sex vs. not receiving, aOR=2.98 [1.10-8.04], p=0.02; and history of receptive-insertive anal sex vs. no history, aOR=2.10 [0.51-8.74], p<0.001. Only a few respondents reported consistent condom use (11.6% and 12.0% for receptive and insertive oral sex, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that while oral sex is a common practice among MSM, the consistency of condom use in oral sex is very low. In addition, certain sex behavior (number of sex partners, sex work and history of anal sex) were associated with oral sex, and this might need to be addressed during health promotion efforts on STI prevention through oral-genital contact.

Keywords: behavior, Indonesia, men who have sex with men, oral sex

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6866 Treatment of Drug-Induced Oral Ulceration with Hyaluronic Acid Gel: A Case Report

Authors: Meltem Koray, Arda Ozgon, Duygu Ofluoglu, Mehmet Yaltirik

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Oral ulcerations can be seen as a side effect of different drugs. These ulcers usually appear within a few weeks following drug treatment. In most of cases, these ulcers resist to conventional treatments, such as anesthetics, antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, cauterization, topical tetracycline and corticosteroid treatment. The diagnosis is usually difficult, especially in patients receiving multiple drug therapies. Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biomaterial that has been introduced as an alternative approach to enhance wound healing and also used for oral ulcer treatment. The aim of this report is to present the treatment of drug-induced oral ulceration on maxillary mucosa with HA gel. 60-year-old male patient was referred to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery complaining of oral ulcerations during few weeks. He had received chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 2014 with the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and he has accompanying systemic diseases such as; cardiological, neurological diseases and gout. He is medicated with Escitalopram (Cipralex® 20mg), Quetiapine (Seroquel® 100mg), Mirtazapine (Zestat® 15mg), Acetylsalicylic acid (Coraspin® 100mg), Ramipril-hydrochlorothiazide (Delix® 2.5mg), Theophylline anhydrous (Teokap Sr® 200mg), Colchicine (Colchicum Dispert® 0.5mg), Spironolactone (Aldactone® 100mg), Levothyroxine sodium (Levotiron® 50mg). He had painful oral ulceration on the right side of maxillary mucosa. The diagnosis was 'drug-induced oral ulceration' and HA oral gel (Aftamed® Oral gel) was prescribed 3 times a day for 2 weeks. Complete healing was achieved within 3 weeks without any side effect and discomfort. We suggest that HA oral gel is a potentially useful local drug which can be an alternative for management of drug-induced oral ulcerations.

Keywords: drug-induced, hyaluronic acid, oral ulceration, maxillary mucosa

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6865 Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community

Authors: Murniwati, Nurul Khairiyah, Putri Ovieza Maizar

Abstract:

The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, DMFT, oral health status

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6864 Detection of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Cutaneous Psoriatic Patients

Authors: Rania A. R. Soudan, Easter Joury

Abstract:

Introduction: Psoriasis is a common chronic dermatologic disease. It may affect the mucous membranes. The presence of oral mucosal lesions has been a subject of controversy. The aim: To determine possible association between oral mucosal lesions and psoriasis, and to correlate the same with different types of psoriasis and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: The oral mucosa was clinically examined in 100 randomly selected Syrian psoriatic patients presented to the Dermatological Diseases Hospital in Damascus University, Syria (February 2009 - December 2010), and in 100 matched controls. PASI index was used to evaluate the disease severity. Chi-square and Student t-test were used to compare differences between groups. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were observed in 72% of the psoriasis cases, while 46% of the control group’s subjects had oral lesions. Fissured tongue, geographic tongue, and red lesions were detected in 36%, 25%, and 7% of the examined psoriatics, respectively. These lesions were significantly more frequent in the psoriatics than in the controls. A correlation was found between furred tongue and the age of the psoriasis patients. However, an association was observed for fissured tongue, furred tongue with the severity of the disease, and for fissured tongue, white lesions, cheilitis with nail involvement. However, no correlation with the psoriasis types was recorded. Conclusion: Some oral mucosal lesions were associated with psoriasis, so these lesions may be considered as oral manifestations of this disease, and should be taken into account in new studies as possible predictors or markers of this dermatitis. Further studies are recommended to confirm these oral manifestations.

Keywords: psoriasis, tongue, mucosa, lesions

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6863 Use of Oral Midazolam in Endoscopy

Authors: Alireza Javadzadeh

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oral versus i.v. midazolam in providing sedation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: Sixty-one children (age < 16 years) scheduled for upper GI endoscopy were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral or i.v. midazolam. Measurements were made and compared for vital signs, level of sedation, pre- and post-procedure comfort, anxiety during endoscopy, ease of separation from parents, ease and duration of procedure, and recovery time. Results: Patients were aged 1–16 years (mean 7.5 ± 3.42 years); 30 patients received oral medication, and 31 received i.v. medication. There were no statistically significant differences in age or gender between groups. There were no significant differences in level of sedation, ease of separation from parents, ease of ability to monitor the patient during the procedure, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, or respiratory rate. Oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the i.v. group than the oral group 10 and 30 min after removal of the endoscope, and recovery time was longer in the oral than the i.v. group. Conclusions: Oral administration of midazolam is a safe and effective method of sedation that significantly reduces anxiety and improves overall tolerance for children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

Keywords: children, endoscopy, midazolam, oral, sedation

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6862 Oral Fluency: A Case Study of L2 Learners in Canada

Authors: Maaly Jarrah

Abstract:

Oral fluency in the target language is what many second language learners hope to achieve by living abroad. Research in the past has demonstrated the role informal environments play in improving L2 learners' oral fluency. However, living in the target country and being part of its community does not ensure the development of oral fluency skills. L2 learners' desire to communicate and access to speaking opportunities in the host community are key in achieving oral fluency in the target language. This study attempts to identify differences in oral fluency, specifically speech rate, between learners who communicate in the L2 outside the classroom and those who do not. In addition, as the desire to communicate is a crucial factor in developing oral fluency, this study investigates whether or not learners' desire to speak the L2 outside the classroom plays a role in their frequency of L2 use outside the classroom. Finally, given the importance of the availability of speaking opportunities for L2 learners in order to practice their speaking skills, this study reports on the participants' perceptions of the speaking opportunities accessible to them in the target community while probing whether or not their perceptions differed based on their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate. The results suggest that exposure to the target language and daily communication with the native speakers is strongly related to the development of learners' oral fluency. Moreover, the findings suggest that learners' desire to communicate affects their frequency of communication in their L2 outside the classroom. At the same time, all participants, regardless of their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate, asserted that speaking opportunities beyond the classroom are very limited. Finally, the study finds there are marked differences in the perceptions learners have regarding opportunities for learning offered by the same language program. After reporting these results, the study concludes with recommendations for ESL programs that serve international students.

Keywords: ESL programs, L2 Learners, oral fluency, second language

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6861 Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Leptin and Leptin Receptors with Oral Cancer

Authors: Chiung-Man Tsai, Chia-Jui Weng

Abstract:

Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) both play a crucial role in the mediation of physiological reactions and carcinogenesis and may serve as a candidate biomarker of oral cancer. The present case-control study aimed to examine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) with or without interacting to environmental carcinogens on the risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The SNPs of three genetic allele, from 567 patients with oral cancer and 560 healthy controls in Taiwan were analyzed. All of The three genetic polymorphisms exhibited insignificant (P > .05) effects on the risk to have oral cancer. However, the patients with polymorphic allele of LEP -2548 have a significant low risk for the development of clinical stage (A/G, AOR = 0.670, 95% CI = 0.454–0.988, P < .05; A/G+G/G, AOR = 0.676, 95% CI = 0.467–0.978, P < .05) compared to patients with ancestral homozygous A/A genotype. Additionally, an interesting result was found that the impact of LEP -2548 G/A SNP on oral carcinogenesis in subjects without tobacco consumption (A/G, AOR=2.078, 95% CI: 1.161-3.720, p=0.014; A/G+G/G, AOR=2.002, 95% CI: 1.143-3.505, p=0.015) is higher than subjects with tobacco consumption. These results suggest that the genetic polymorphism of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were not associated with the susceptibility of oral cancer; SNP in LEP -2548 G/A showed a poor clinicopathological development of oral cancer; Population without tobacco consumption and with polymorphic LEP -2548 G/A gene may significantly increase the risk to have oral cancer.

Keywords: carcinogen, leptin, leptin receptor, oral squamous cell carcinoma, single nucleotide polymorphism

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6860 Hematological Changes in Oral Cancer Patients with Smokable and Chewable Tobacco

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch

Abstract:

Objective: To analyze hematological changes in patients of oral cancer with history of smokable and chewable tobacco use, and to compare them with healthy controls. Study Design: Descriptive type of study survey. Setting: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LUMHS, Jamshoro. Study Period: One year July, 2013 to July, 2014. Subject and Methods: Histopathologically confirmed hundred cases of oral cancer with the history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco were selected to analyze the hematological variation. Inclusion Criteria: Histopathologically diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma, with history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco. Exclusion Criteria: Patient with any systemic medically compromising problem, terminally ill patients, radio or chemotherapeutically treated patients, patients with metastasis to lungs or any distant metastasis, patients with the history of more than one well-defined etiological factor involved. Results: There were 73% patients of oral cancer reported with anemic. Significantly lower values of Hb, platelet, and higher mean values of ESR, TLC, and were observed in both groups of oral cancer patients; tobacco smokers and tobacco chewers as compared to non-smokers healthy controls. There was more decline in the level of haemoglobin and incline in the level of ESR observed in tobacco chewer oral cancer patients as compared to tobacco smokers patients, while TLC was more observed in smokers. Conclusion: Oral cancer patients with a history of chewable/smokable tobacco have likely worse hematological profile, which increases the anesthetic and surgical challenges for maxillofacial surgeons, which have a significant impact on treatment planning as well.

Keywords: oral cancer, hematological variations, tobacco, smokers

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6859 Investigation of Verbal Feedback and Learning Process for Oral Presentation

Authors: Nattawadee Sinpattanawong

Abstract:

Oral presentation has been used mostly in business communication. The business presentation is carrying out through an audio and visual presentation material such as statistical documents, projectors, etc. Common examples of business presentation are intra-organization and sales presentations. The study aims at investigating functions, strategies and contents of assessors’ verbal feedback on presenters’ oral presentations and exploring presenters’ learning process and specific views and expectations concerning assessors’ verbal feedback related to the delivery of the oral presentation. This study is designed as a descriptive qualitative research; four master students and one teacher in English for Business and Industry Presentation Techniques class of public university will be selected. The researcher hopes that any understanding how assessors’ verbal feedback on oral presentations and learning process may illuminate issues for other people. The data from this research may help to expand and facilitate the readers’ understanding of assessors’ verbal feedback on oral presentations and learning process in their own situations. The research instruments include an audio recorder, video recorder and an interview. The students will be interviewing in order to ask for their views and expectations concerning assessors’ verbal feedback related to the delivery of the oral presentation. After finishing data collection, the data will be analyzed and transcribed. The findings of this study are significant because it can provide presenters knowledge to enhance their learning process and provide teachers knowledge about providing verbal feedback on student’s oral presentations on a business context.

Keywords: business context, learning process, oral presentation, verbal feedback

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6858 The Chewing Gum Confectionary Development for Oral Hygiene with Nine Hour Oral Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Yogesh Bacchaw, Ashish Dabade

Abstract:

Nowadays oral health is raising concern in society. Acid producing microorganisms changes the oral pH and creates a favorable environment for microbial growth. This growth not only promotes dental decay but also bad breath. Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) listed component was incorporated in chewing gum as an antimicrobial agent. The chewing gum produced exhibited up to 9 hours of antimicrobial activity against oral microflora. The toxicity of GRAS component per RACC value of chewing gum was negligible as compared to actual toxicity level of GRAS component. The antibacterial efficiency of chewing gum was tested by using total plate count (TPC) and colony forming unit (CFU). Nine hours were required to microflora to reach TPC/CFU of before chewing gum consumption. This chewing gum not only provides mouth freshening activity but also helps in lowering dental decay, bad breath, and enamel whitening.

Keywords: colony forming unit (CFU), chewing gum, generally recognized as safe (GRAS), microbial growth, microorganisms, oral health, RACC, total plate count (TPC), antimicrobial agent, enamel whitening, oral pH

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6857 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav

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Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: herbal mouthwash, bio medicine, life sciences, herbal extracts

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6856 Community Pharmacist's Perceptions, Attitude and Role in Oral Health Promotion and Diseases Prevention

Authors: Bushra Alghamdi, Alla Alsharif, Hamzah Aljohani, Saba Kassim

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Introduction: Collaborative work has always been acknowledged as a fundamental concept in delivering oral health care. Aim: This study aimed to assess the perception and attitude of pharmacists in oral health promotion and to determine the confident levels of pharmacists in delivering advice on oral health problems. Methods: An observational cross-sectional survey, using self-administered anonymous questionnaires, was conducted between March and April 2017. The study recruited a convenience sample of registered community pharmacists who were working in local private pharmaceutical stores in the urban area of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A preliminary descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Thirty-five pharmacists have completed the surveys. All participants were males, with a mean age of 35.5 ( ± 6.92) years. Eighty-six percent of the participants reported that pharmacists should have a role in oral health promotion. Eighty percent have reported adequate level of confident when giving advice on most of the common oral health problems that include; oral health related risk behaviors such as tobacco cessation (46%), bleeding gums (63%) and sensitive teeth (60%). However, higher percentages of pharmacists have reported low confident levels when giving advice in relation to specific domain of dentistry, such as lost dental fillings (57%), loose crowns (60%), trauma to teeth (40%), denture-related problems (51%) and oral cancer (6.9%). Conclusion: Community pharmacists recognized their potential role in promoting oral health in KSA. Community pharmacists had varying levels of ability and confidence to offer support for oral health. The study highlighted that inner professional collaboration between pharmacists and dental care healthcare should be enhanced.

Keywords: community, oral health, promotion, pharmacist

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6855 Oral Microflora and the Risk of Dental Caries in Portuguese Children

Authors: Sara Sousa, Veronique Gomes, Nélio Veiga, Maria José Correia

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Objectives: To assess the presence or absence of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius in the oral biofilm of children in an elementary school of Viseu, Portugal, and verify the relationship between Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius and the absence of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with a final sample of 40 children aged 6-11 years old. Oral examination was accomplished with the identification of their oral health status and oral biofilm collection. Analysis of biological samples by molecular techniques of DNA isolation and identification of three Streptococci bacteria by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was made. Results: We identified Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus gordoni only in the lower interincisal region. These species were also present mainly in the first permanent non-decayed molars. On the contrary, Streptococcus mutans was found mostly in decayed first permanent molars. Conclusion: This preliminary study establishes a possible association between the absence of dental caries and the presence of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius. Since these two species are described as alkali producers, it is suggested that their presence somehow confers protection against caries. These results support new dental caries prevention strategies based on oral biofilm modulation by enrichment with alkalinogenic species.

Keywords: dental caries, oral biofilm, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus salivarius

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6854 A Primary Care Diagnosis of Middle-Aged Men with Oral Cancer Who Underwent Extensive Resection and Flap Repair: A Case Report

Authors: Ching-Yi Huang, Pi-Fen Cheng, Hui-Zhu Chen, Shi Ting Huang, Heng-Hua Wang

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This is a case of oral cancer after extensive resection and modified right lateral neck lymph node dissection followed by reconstruction with a skin flap. The nursing period lasted From September 25 to October 3, 2017, through observation, interview, physical assessment, and medical record review, the author identified the following nursing problems: acute pain, impaired oral mucous membrane, and body image change. During the nursing period, the author provided individual and overall nursing care and established mutual trust through the use of empathy. Author listened and eased the patient's physical indisposition, such as wound pain, we use medications and acupuncture massage to relieve pain. However, for oral mucosa change caused by surgery, provide continuous and complete oral care and oral exercise training to improve oral mucosal healing and restore swallowing function. In the body-image changes, guided him to express his feeling after the body-image change, and enhanced support and from the family, and encouraged him to attend head and neck cancer survivor alliance which allowed the patient to accept the altered body image and reaffirm self-worth. Hopefully, through sharing this nursing experience will help to the nursing care quality of nursing care for oral cancer patients after extensive resection and modified right lateral neck lymph node dissection followed by reconstruction with a skin flap.

Keywords: oral cancer, acute pain, impaired oral mucous membrane, body image change

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6853 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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6852 Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Taxol in Overcoming Taxol Resistance through the Inhibition of LDHA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Lin Feng, Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu

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The development of chemoresistance in patients represents a major challenge in cancer treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase‑A (LDHA) is one of the principle isoforms of LDH that is expressed in breast tissue, controlling the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and also playing a significant role in the metabolism of glucose. The aim of this study was to identify whether LDHA was involved in oral cancer cell resistance to Taxol and whether the downregulation of LDHA, as a result of cisplatin treatment, may overcome Taxol resistance in human oral squamous cells. The OECM‑1 oral epidermal carcinoma cell line was used, which has been widely used as a model of oral cancer in previous studies. The role of LDHA in Taxol and cisplatin resistance was investigated and the synergistic cytotoxicity of cisplatin and/or Taxol in oral squamous cells was analyzed. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, LDHA expression was analyzed by western blot analysis and siRNA transfection was performed to knock down LDHA expression. The present study results showed that decreased levels of LDHA were responsible for the resistance of oral cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP). CDDP treatments downregulated LDHA expression and lower levels of LDHA were detected in the CDDP‑resistant oral cancer cells compared with the CDDP‑sensitive cells. By contrast, the Taxol‑resistant cancer cells showed elevated LDHA expression levels. In addition, small interfering RNA‑knockdown of LDHA sensitized the cells to Taxol but desensitized them to CDDP treatment while exogenous expression of LDHA sensitized the cells to CDDP, but desensitized them to Taxol. The present study also revealed the synergistic cytotoxicity of CDDP and Taxol for killing oral cancer cells through the inhibition of LDHA. This study highlights LDHA as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming Taxol resistance in oral cancer patients using the combined treatments of Taxol and CDDP.

Keywords: cisplatin, Taxol, carcinoma, oral squamous cells

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6851 Smokeless Tobacco Oral Manifestation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Saliva

Authors: Sintija Miļuna, Ričards Melderis, Loreta Briuka, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča

Abstract:

Objectives: Smokeless tobacco products in Latvia have become more available and favorable to young adults, especially students and athletes like hockey and floorball players. The aim of the research was to detect visual mucosal changes in the oral cavity in smokeless tobacco users and to evaluate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNF Alpha) levels in saliva from smokeless tobacco users. Methods: A smokeless tobacco group (n=10) and a control group (non-tobacco users) (n=10) were intraorally examined for oral lesions and 5 ml of saliva were collected. Saliva was analyzed for Il-6, IL-1, Il-8, TNF Alpha using ELISA Sigma-Aldrich. Results IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were higher in the smokeless tobacco group (IL-1 115,61 pg/ml vs. 13.33 pg/ml; IL-6 389.09 pg/ml vs. 0 pg/ml; IL-8 1171.1 pg/ml vs. 224.3 pg/ml; TNF Alpha 941.87 pg/ml vs. 53.03 pg/ml). Conclusions White localized lesions were detected in places where smokeless tobacco users placed sachets. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were significantly higher in the smokeless tobacco group than in the control group. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Rīga Stradiņš University No.22/28.01.2016.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, Snus, inflammatory biomarkers, oral lesions, oral pathology

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6850 Peer Group Approach: An Oral Health Intervention from Children for Children at Primary School in Klungkung, Bali, Indonesia

Authors: Regina Tedjasulaksana, Maria Martina Nahak, A. A. Gede Agung, Ni Made Widhiasti

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Strategic effort to realize the empowerment of community in school is through the peer group approach so that it needs to choose the students who are trained as the’ little dentist’ in order to have the cognitive and skills to participate in the school dental health effort (UKGS) program, such as providing oral health education to the other students. Aim: To assessed the effectiveness of peer group approach to enhance the oral health knowledge level of schoolchildren at primary school in Klungkung, Bali. Methods: Experimental study using the pre-post test without control group design. The differences of knowledge levels, tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene status (using PHP-M index) of 10 students before and after trained as the little dentists were analyzed using paired t-test. The correlations between knowledge level and tooth brushing behavior and correlations between tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene before and after trained as the little dentists were analyzed using Spearman. Furthermore, the trained little dentists provide oral health education to 102 students of grade 1 to 5 at their school once a week for 3 months. The students’ knowledge level scores of each grade were taken every 21 days as many as three times The difference of it was analyzed using Repeated Measured. Result: The mean scores among all little dentists before and after training for each of knowledge level were each 63.05 + 5.62 and 85.00 + 7.81, tooth brushing behavior were each 31.00 + 14.49 and 100.00 + 0.00 and oral hygiene status using PHP-M index were each 32.80 + 10.17 and 11.40 + 8.01. The knowledge level, tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene status of 10 students before and after trained as the little dentists were different significantly (p<0.05). Before and after trained as the little dentists it showed that significant correlations between knowledge level with tooth brushing behavior (p<0.05) and significant correlations between tooth brushing behavior and oral hygiene (p<0.05). The mean scores of knowledge level among all students before (pre-test) and after (post-test (1),(2),(3)) getting oral health education from little dentists for each, of grade 1 were 40.00 + 17.97; 67.85 + 18.88; 81.72 +26.48 and 70.00 + 22.87, grade 2 were 40.00 + 17.97; 67.85 + 18.88; 81.72 + 26.48 and 70.00 + 22.87, grade 3 were 65.83 + 23.94; 72.50 + 26.08; 80.41 + 24.93 and 83.75 + 19.74, grade 4 were 88.57 + 12.92; 90.71 + 9.97; 92.85 + 10.69 and 93.57 + 6.33 and grade 5 were 86.66 + 13.40; 93.33 + 9.16; 94.16 + 10.17 and 98.33 + 4.81. The students’ knowledge level of grade 1,2 and 3 before and after getting oral health education from little dentists showed significant different (p<0.05), meanwhile there was no significant different on grade 4 and 5 (p<0.05) although mean scores showed an increase. Conclusion: Peer group approach can be used to enhance the oral health knowledge level of schoolchildren at primary school in Klungkung, Bali.

Keywords: small dentists, oral health, peer group approach, school children

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6849 The Loss of Oral Performative Semantic Influence of the Qur'an in Its Translations

Authors: Alalddin Al-Tarawneh

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In its literal translation, the Qur’an is frequently subject to misinterpretation as a result of failures to deliver its meaning into any language. This paper relies on the genuine aspect that the Qur’an is an oral performance in its nature; and the objective of any Qur’an translation is to deliver its meaning in English. Therefore, it approaches the translation of the Qur’an beyond the usual formal linguistic approach in order to include an extra-textual factor. This factor is the recitation or oral performance of the Qur’an, that is, tajweed as it is termed in Arabic. The translations used in this paper to apply the suggested approach were carefully chosen to be representative of the problems that exist in many Qur’an translations. These translations are The Meaning of the Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary by Ali (1989), The Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Pickthall (1997/1930), and The Quran: Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings by Sahih (2010). Through the examples cited in this paper, it is suggested that the agents involved in producing a ‘translation’ of the Holy Qur’an have to take into account its oral aspect which yields additional senses and meanings that are not being captured by adhering to the words of the ‘written’ discourse. This paper attempts in its translation into English.

Keywords: oral performance, tajweed, Qur'an translation, recitation

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6848 Oral Health of Tobacco Chewers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Warsi A. Ibrahim, Qureshi A. Ambrina, Younus M. Anjum

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Introduction: Oral lesions related to commercially available Smokeless Tobacco (ST), such as, Pan, Gutka, Mahwa, Naswar is considered a serious challenge for dental health care providers in Pakistan. Majority of labored Pakistani population consume ST, where public transporters and drivers are no exception. It was necessary to identify individuals of this particular population group and screen their oral health and early signs of pre-cancerous lesions so that appropriate preventive measures could be taken to reduce the burden on health providers. Aim of Study: To estimate Prevalence of ST consumption and perception of use, and to evaluate Oral Health status among public drivers of Karachi. Material & methods: A cross-sectional study survey was conducted over duration of 2 months, through convenient sampling. Sample size (n=615) of public drivers (age > 18 years) all over Karachi was gathered. A structured proforma was used to record socio-demographics, addiction profile, perception of use and oral health status (oral lesions, oral sub-mucosal fibrosis and dental caries) of study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics only. Results: Prevalence of ST consumption among the study participants was figured to 92.5%. Out of these almost 70% suffered from one or the other form of oral lesion(s). Four major types of ST consumption were observed out of which 60 % of oral lesion were related to Gutka chewers showing early signs of oral cancer. In addition, occurrence of Oral sub-mucosal fibrosis (OSF) was found to be significantly high around 54.8%. Overall dental caries status was also high, showing on an average 5 teeth of an individual were decayed, missing or filled deviating from WHO normal criteria (mean < 3). It was thus proven from the study that public drivers relied on oral tobacco consumption because it helps them ‘Improve consciousness’ (p-value: < 0.01; using chi-square test). Multivariate analysis showed that there were higher prevalence of smokeless tobacco among highway drivers versus local drivers (A.O.R: 2.82 [0.83-9.61], p-value: < 0.01) Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has a direct effect on oral health. However, the type of ST, the duration of consumption are factors which are directly related to the severity. Moreover, Gutka may be considered as having most lethal effects on oral health which may lead to oral cancer and affect individual’s quality of life. Specific preventive programs must be undertaken to reduce the consumption of Gutka among public transporters and drivers.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, oral lesions, drivers, public transporters

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6847 Randomized Controlled Study of the Antipyretic Efficacy of Oral Paracetamol, Intravenous Paracetamol, and Intramuscular Diclofenac

Authors: Firjeeth C. Paramba, Vamanjore A. Naushad, Nishan K. Purayil, Osama H. Mohammed, Prem Chandra

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Background: Fever is a common problem in adults visiting the emergency department. Extensive studies have been done in children comparing the efficacy of various antipyretics. However, studies on the efficacy of antipyretic drugs in adults are very scarce. To the best of our knowledge, no controlled trial has been carried out comparing the antipyretic efficacy of paracetamol (oral and intravenous) and intramuscular diclofenac in adults. Methods: In this parallel-group, open-label trial, participants aged 14–75 years presenting with fever who had a temperature of more than 38.5°C were enrolled and treated. Participants were randomly allocated to receive treatment with 1,000 mg oral paracetamol (n=145), 1,000 mg intravenous paracetamol (n=139), or 75 mg intramuscular diclofenac (n=150). The primary outcome was degree of reduction in mean oral temperature at 90 minutes. The efficacy of diclofenac versus oral and intravenous paracetamol was assessed by superiority comparison. Analysis was done using intention to treat principles. Results: After 90 minutes, all three groups showed a significant reduction in mean temperature, with intramuscular diclofenac showing the greatest reduction (−1.44 ± 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.4 to −2.5) and oral paracetamol the least (−1.08 ± 0.51, 95% CI −0.99 to −2.2). After 120 minutes, there was a significant difference observed in the mean change from baseline temperature between the three treatment groups (P, 0.0001). Significant changes in temperature were observed in favor of intramuscular diclofenac over oral and intravenous paracetamol at each time point from 60 minutes through 120 minutes inclusive. Conclusion: Both intramuscular diclofenac and intravenous paracetamol showed superior antipyretic activity than oral paracetamol. However, in view of its ease of administration, intramuscular diclofenac can be used as a first-choice antipyretic in febrile adults in the emergency department.

Keywords: antipyretic, intramuscular, intravenous, paracetamol, diclofenac, emergency department

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6846 Content and Language Integrated Instruction: An Investigation of Oral Corrective Feedback in the Chinese Immersion Classroom

Authors: Qin Yao

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Content and language integrated instruction provides second language learners instruction in subject matter and language, and is greatly valued, particularly in the language immersion classroom where a language other than students’ first language is the vehicle for teaching school curriculum. Corrective feedback is an essential instructional technique for teachers to integrate a focus on language into their content instruction. This study aims to fill a gap in the literature on immersion—the lack of studies examining corrective feedback in Chinese immersion classrooms, by studying learning opportunities brought by oral corrective feedback in a Chinese immersion classroom. Specifically, it examines what is the distribution of different types of teacher corrective feedback and how students respond to each feedback type, as well as how the focus of the teacher-student interactional exchanges affect the effect of feedback. Two Chinese immersion teachers and their immersion classes were involved, and data were collected through classroom observations interviews. Observations document teachers’ provision of oral corrective feedback and students’ responses following the feedback in class, and interviews with teachers collected teachers’ reflective thoughts about their teaching. A primary quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data revealed that, among different types of corrective feedback, recast occurred most frequently. Metalinguistic clue and repetition were the least occurring feedback types. Clarification request lead to highest percentage of learner uptake manifested by learners’ oral production immediately following the feedback, while explicit correction came the second and recast the third. In addition, the results also showed the interactional context played a role in the effectiveness of the feedback: teachers were most likely to give feedback in conversational exchanges that focused on explicit language and content, while students were most likely to use feedback in exchanges that focused on explicit language. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate recasts are preferred by Chinese immersion teachers, confirming results of previous studies on corrective feedback in non-Chinese immersion classrooms; and clarification request and explicit language instruction elicit more target language production from students and are facilitative in their target language development, thus should not be overlooked in immersion and other content and language integrated classrooms.

Keywords: Chinese immersion, content and language integrated instruction, corrective feedback, interaction

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6845 Investigating Classroom Teachers' Perceptions of Assessing U.S. College Students' L2 Chinese Oral Performance

Authors: Guangyan Chen

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This study examined Chinese teachers’ perceptions of assessing U.S. college students’ L2 (second language) Chinese oral performances at different levels. Ten oral performances were videotaped from which three were chosen as samples to represent three different proficiency levels based on professionals’ judgments according to the ACTFL proficiency guidelines. The three samples were shown to L2 Chinese teachers who completed questionnaires about their assessments for each speech sample. In total, 104 L2 Chinese teachers responded to each of the three samples. The Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) of the teachers’ responses revealed three similar rating criteria patterns for assessing the three levels of oral performances. The teachers’ responses to Samples 2 and 3 revealed five rating criteria: Global proficiency, Chinese conceptual framework, content richness, communication appropriateness, and communication clarity. The teachers’ responses to Sample 1 revealed four rating criteria: global proficiency, Chinese conceptual framework, communication appropriateness/content richness, and communication clarity. However, the analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed that the proficiency levels of the three oral performances differed significantly across all rating criteria. Therefore, the data suggests that L2 classroom teachers could use the similar rating criteria pattern to assess college-level L2 Chinese students’ oral performances at different proficiency levels.

Keywords: language assessment, L2 Chinese, oral performance, rating criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 477