Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1660

Search results for: technical

1660 Technical Games Using ICT as a Preparation for Teaching about Technology in Pre-School Age

Authors: Pavlína Částková, Jiří Kropáč, Jan Kubrický

Abstract:

The paper deals with the current issue of Information and Communication Technologies and their implementation into the educational activities of preschool children. The issue is addressed in the context of technical education and the specifics of its implementation in a kindergarten. One of the main topics of this paper is a technical game activity of a preschool child, and its possibilities, benefits and risks. The paper presents games/toys as one of the means of exploring and understanding technology as an essential part of human culture.

Keywords: ICT, technical education, pre-school age, technical games

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1659 Problems of Translating Technical Terms from English into Arabic

Authors: Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh, Lara Ahmad Mansour El-Awar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the strategies MA translation students used for translating technical terms, the most common obstacles they encountered in translating such terms, and the motives behind using such terms as they are in their original form despite their translatability into Arabic. To achieve these objectives, a translation test was administered to 100 MA students specialising in translation at both Hashemite University and The University of Jordan. It consisted of two parts: (a) 50 English technical terms to be translated (b) two questions to be answered concerning the challenges or problems encountered while translating the previous technical terms and the motives that drive them to use most of the English technical terms as they are despite their translatability into Arabic. The analysis of the results revealed that MA translation students faced problems in translating technical terms, namely the inability to find the equivalent form for the given technical terms, the use of literal translation, and the wider use of loan-words type. Besides, the students used different strategies to translate the technical terms, namely borrowing (i.e., loan- words), paraphrasing, synonymy, naturalization, equivalence, and literal translation. Moreover, it was also revealed that most technical terms were used as they are in the source language despite their translatability into Arabic because these technical terms are easier to use in English rather than in Arabic. Also, when these terms were introduced to the Arab world, they were introduced in English, not in Arabic. So, the brain links these objects to their English terms.

Keywords: arabic, english, technical terms, translation strategies, translation problems

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1658 Methodological Issues of Teaching Vocabulary in a Technical University

Authors: Elza Salakhova

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to consider some common difficulties encountered in teaching vocabulary in technical higher educational institutions. It deals with the problem of teaching special vocabulary in the process of teaching a foreign language. There have been analyzed some problems in teaching a foreign language to learners of a technical higher establishment. There are some recommendations for teachers to motivate their students to learn and master a foreign language through learning terminology.

Keywords: professionally-oriented study, motivation, technical university, foreign language

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1657 Analyzing the Importance of Technical Writing in Professional Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Sadaf Khalid, Jahanzaib Sarwar, Rabia Touseef

Abstract:

No matter how much perfect we become in our practical skills regarding the implementation of learned ideas, the need of technical writing capability cannot be neglected to be a professional. Technical writing is a way of communicating the ideas in written which, otherwise, need to be presented orally. Technical writing skills have always been the need of the time, as they are required for internal, as well as external official communication in both formal and informal manner. Moreover, they are the best way to capture the attention of your customers by presenting information in an effective manner. This paper aims to analyze the importance of technical writing skills in professional industries of Pakistan by conducting a survey. Survey results presented in this paper clearly depicts the importance of formal and informal written communication media used in different professional industries in Pakistan. Analysis and discussion of the extent to which the alternative ways of communication besides technical writing have got importance in Pakistan is also an important aspect of this survey.

Keywords: technical writing, survey, oral communication, globalization, communication trends, formal communication media, informal communication, audience

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1656 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

Abstract:

The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
1655 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar

Abstract:

One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

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1654 Role of Macro and Technical Indicators in Equity Risk Premium Prediction: A Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Naveed Ul Hassan, Bilal Aziz, Maryam Mushtaq, Imran Ameen Khan

Abstract:

Equity risk premium (ERP) is the stock return in excess of risk free return. Even though it is an essential topic of finance but still there is no common consensus upon its forecasting. For forecasting ERP, apart from the macroeconomic variables attention is devoted to technical indicators as well. For this purpose, set of 14 technical and 14 macro-economic variables is selected and all forecasts are generated based on a standard predictive regression framework, where ERP is regressed on a constant and a lag of a macroeconomic variable or technical indicator. The comparative results showed that technical indicators provide better indications about ERP estimates as compared to macro-economic variables. The relative strength of ERP predictability is also investigated by using National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) data of business cycle expansion and recessions and found that ERP predictability is more than twice for recessions as compared to expansions.

Keywords: equity risk premium, forecasting, macroeconomic indicators, technical indicators

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1653 Identification of Training Topics for the Improvement of the Relevant Cognitive Skills of Technical Operators in the Railway Domain

Authors: Giulio Nisoli, Jonas Brüngger, Karin Hostettler, Nicole Stoller, Katrin Fischer

Abstract:

Technical operators in the railway domain are experts responsible for the supervisory control of the railway power grid as well as of the railway tunnels. The technical systems used to master these demanding tasks are constantly increasing in their degree of automation. It becomes therefore difficult for technical operators to maintain the control over the technical systems and the processes of their job. In particular, the operators must have the necessary experience and knowledge in dealing with a malfunction situation or unexpected event. For this reason, it is of growing importance that the skills relevant for the execution of the job are maintained and further developed beyond the basic training they receive, where they are educated in respect of technical knowledge and the work with guidelines. Training methods aimed at improving the cognitive skills needed by technical operators are still missing and must be developed. Goals of the present study were to identify which are the relevant cognitive skills of technical operators in the railway domain and to define which topics should be addressed by the training of these skills. Observational interviews were conducted in order to identify the main tasks and the organization of the work of technical operators as well as the technical systems used for the execution of their job. Based on this analysis, the most demanding tasks of technical operators could be identified and described. The cognitive skills involved in the execution of these tasks are those, which need to be trained. In order to identify and analyze these cognitive skills a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was developed. CTA specifically aims at identifying the cognitive skills that employees implement when performing their own tasks. The identified cognitive skills of technical operators were summarized and grouped in training topics. For every training topic, specific goals were defined. The goals regard the three main categories; knowledge, skills and attitude to be trained in every training topic. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to develop specific training methods to train the relevant cognitive skills of the technical operators.

Keywords: cognitive skills, cognitive task analysis, technical operators in the railway domain, training topics

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1652 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung

Abstract:

This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock production

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
1651 The New Economy: A Pedagogy for Vocational and Technical Education Programmes in Nigeria

Authors: Sunny Nwakanma

Abstract:

The emergence of the new economy has created a new world order for skill acquisition, economic activities and employment. It has dramatically changed the way we live, learn, work and even think about work. It has also created new opportunities as well as challenges and uncertainty. This paper will not only demystify the new economy and present its instrumentality in the acceleration of skill acquisition in technical education, but will also highlight industrial and occupational changes brought about by the synergy between information and communication technology revolution and the global economic system. It advocates among other things, the use of information and communication technology mediated instruction in technical education as it provides the flexibility to meet diverse learners’ need anytime and anywhere and facilitate skill acquisition.

Keywords: new economy, technical education, skill acquisition, information and communication technology

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1650 Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Maikudi Umar

Abstract:

This paper conceived Vocational and Technical Education as those aspects of educational process, in addition to general education leading to acquisition of practical skills, attitudes as well as basic scientific knowledge as it relates to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life. The paper therefore viewed Vocational and Technical education as those aspects of educational training designed to provide the recipient with the skills abilities and understanding needed for efficient performance in chosen occupational carrier for self reliance. The paper also examined some major inhibitions to the attainment of self reliance through VTE. The paper also recommended a change of attitudes by governments in Nigeria by providing adequate equipment so as to meet up with the challenges.

Keywords: vocational education, technical education, skills and self reliance, issues and challenges

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1649 Attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Science and Technical Education in Yauri Metropolis Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Alhassan Libata

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess attitude of secondary school students towards science and technical education in Yauri metropolis, Kebbi State, Nigeria. The population of the study was 200. Proportionate random sampling method was used in selecting 132 as sample size. Science and technical education is the most powerful forces for change in the world today, and students who hope to have a hand in shaping a better future must participate for their advancements. Four Null hypotheses were generated to guide the conduct of the study, questionnaire was the only instrument used in the study; the instrument was subjected to test-retest reliability. The reliability index of the instrument was 0.69. Overall scores of the Students were analyzed and a mean score was determined, the mean score of students was 85. There were no significant differences between the attitudes of male and female students towards science and technical education. The results also revealed that there was significant difference between the attitude of boding and day school students towards science and technical education, personality constraints of students is one factor militating against the participation of students in science and technical education, socio-economic status of the parents over the years have been the dominant factor of student’s inadequate representation in the field of science and technical education. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommended that teachers should motivate students, which they can do through their teaching styles and by showing them the relevance of the learning topics to their everyday lives. Government and the school management should create the learning environment that helps motivate students not only to come to classes but also want to learn and enjoy learning science and technical education, establishment of more Science and Technical Colleges education, more Public enlightenment campaigns to motivate parents and the entire community to support their children in studying science and technical education.

Keywords: attitude, students, science, Yauri

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1648 Improving Technical Translation Ability of the Iranian Students of Translation Through Multimedia: An Empirical Study

Authors: Dina Zakeri, Ali Aminzad

Abstract:

Multimedia-assisted teaching results in eliminating traditional training barriers, facilitating the cognition process and upgrading learning outcomes. This study attempted to examine the effects of implementing multimedia on teaching technical translation model and on the technical text translation ability of Iranian students of translation. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a total of forty-six learners were selected out of fifty-seven participants in a higher education center in Tehran based on their scores in Preliminary English Test (PET) and were divided randomly into the experimental and control groups. Prior to the treatment, a technical text translation questionnaire was devised and then approved and validated by three assistant professors of technical fields and three assistant professors of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) at the university. This questionnaire was administered as a pretest to both groups. Control and experimental groups were trained for five successive weeks using identical course books but with a different lesson plan that allowed employing multimedia for the experimental group only. The devised and approved questionnaire was administered as a posttest to both groups at the end of the instruction. A multivariate ANOVA was run to compare the two groups’ means on the PET, pretest and posttest. The results showed the rejection of all null hypotheses of the study and revealed that multimedia significantly improved technical text translation ability of the learners.

Keywords: multimedia, multimedia-mediated teaching, technical translation model, technical text, translation ability

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1647 Technical and Legal Definitions in Cyber Terrorism

Authors: Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani, Nazura Abdul Manap, Hamed Ladoni Damghani, Rohimi Bin Shapiee

Abstract:

In recent years the speed of new technology has brought forth so many new issues. Cyberspace is among the new technologies that need novel ways to address the various issues that have arisen. While cyberspace is a technical notion that defies a single definition, this new technology requires the adoption and application of new laws. In order to manage issues arising from the existence of cyberspace, proper policies and definitions must be formulated which satisfy both technical and legal aspects. One difficulty in this regard is due to the unique features of cyberspace architecture. This article proposes to define cyberspace and cyber terrorism. This will allow for a more effective and comprehensive addressing of legal issues as they can then be handled better by introducing a new factor to the otherwise ordinary analysis in whichever field is implicated such as the nature and place of use.

Keywords: cyberspace, cyber terrorism, technical definition, legal definition

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1646 Socio-Technical Systems: Transforming Theory into Practice

Authors: L. Ngowi, N. H. Mvungi

Abstract:

This paper critically examines the evolution of socio-technical systems theory, its practices, and challenges in system design and development. It examines concepts put forward by researchers focusing on the application of the theory in software engineering. There are various methods developed that use socio-technical concepts based on systems engineering without remarkable success. The main constraint is the large amount of data and inefficient techniques used in the application of the concepts in system engineering for developing time-bound systems and within a limited/controlled budget. This paper critically examines each of the methods, highlight bottlenecks and suggest the way forward. Since socio-technical systems theory only explains what to do, but not how doing it, hence engineers are not using the concept to save time, costs and reduce risks associated with new frameworks. Hence, a new framework, which can be considered as a practical approach is proposed that borrows concepts from soft systems method, agile systems development and object-oriented analysis and design to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The approach will enable the development of systems using socio-technical systems theory to attract/enable the system engineers/software developers to use socio-technical systems theory in building worthwhile information systems to avoid fragilities and hostilities in the work environment.

Keywords: socio-technical systems, human centered design, software engineering, cognitive engineering, soft systems, systems engineering

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1645 Karachi Electric Power Technical and Financial Performance Evaluation after Privatization

Authors: Fawad Azeem

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparative analysis of Karachi Electric before and after privatization. Technical as well as financial analysis has been done based on the available KE’s stats for last decade. Karachi Electric has evolved as a better entity in terms of its financial and technical achievements. On the other hand, human resources have been seriously affected due to mass firing of employees from the organizations. Study and analysis show that transparent and unbiased privatization practices on institutions like KE that were in serious trouble can upsurge the standards of the institution. Further, for the betterment of the social circle privatization must not affect the employment opportunities.

Keywords: Karachi Electric, power, energy, privatization

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1644 Learning Styles Difference in Difficulties of Generating Idea

Authors: M. H. Yee, J. Md Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. K. Tee, M. M. Mohamad

Abstract:

The generation of an idea that goes through several phases is affected by individual factors, interests, preferences and motivation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to individual learning styles. A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of developed questionnaires were used in this research. The results showed that the most dominant learning style is among technical students is Doer. A total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced difficulties in solving individual assignments. Most of the problem faced by technical students is the difficulty of generating ideas for solving individual assignments. There was no significant difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to students’ learning styles. Therefore, students need to learn higher order thinking skills enabling students to generate ideas and consequently complete assignments.

Keywords: difference, difficulties, generating idea, learning styles, Kolb Learning Styles Inventory

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1643 Assessing Efficiency Trends in the Indian Sugar Industry

Authors: S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper measures technical and scale efficiencies of 40 Indian sugar companies for the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The efficiencies are estimated through input-oriented DEA models using one output variable—value of output (VOP) and five input variables—capital cost (CA), employee cost (EMP), raw material (RW), energy & fuel (E&F) and other manufacturing expenses (OME). The sugar companies are classified into integrated and non-integrated categories to know which one achieves higher level of efficiency. Sources of inefficiency in the industry are identified through decomposing the overall technical efficiency (TE) into pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE). The paper also estimates input-reduction targets for relatively inefficient companies and suggests measures to improve their efficiency level. The findings reveal that the TE does not evince any trend rather it shows fluctuations across years, largely due to erratic and cyclical pattern of sugar production. Further, technical inefficiency in the industry seems to be driven more by the managerial inefficiency than the scale inefficiency, which implies that TE can be improved through better conversion of inputs into output.

Keywords: DEA, slacks, sugar industry, technical efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1642 Understanding the Impact of Climate-Induced Rural-Urban Migration on the Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in Malawi

Authors: Innocent Pangapanga-Phiri, Eric Dada Mungatana

Abstract:

This study estimates the effect of climate-induced rural-urban migrants (RUM) on maize productivity. It uses panel data gathered by the National Statistics Office and the World Bank to understand the effect of RUM on the technical efficiency of maize production in rural Malawi. The study runs the two-stage Tobit regression to isolate the real effect of rural-urban migration on the technical efficiency of maize production. The results show that RUM significantly reduces the technical efficiency of maize production. However, the interaction of RUM and climate-smart agriculture has a positive and significant influence on the technical efficiency of maize production, suggesting the need for re-investing migrants’ remittances in agricultural activities.

Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, farm productivity, rural-urban migration, panel stochastic frontier models, two-stage Tobit regression

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1641 The Influence of Physical-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hemp Filling Materials by the Addition of Energy Byproducts

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Jiri Bydzovsky

Abstract:

This article describes to what extent the addition of energy by-products into the structures of the technical hemp filling materials influence their properties. The article focuses on the changes in physical-mechanical and thermal technical properties of materials after the addition of ash or FBC ash or slag in the binding component of material. Technical hemp filling materials are made of technical hemp shives bonded by the mixture of cement and dry hydrate lime. They are applicable as fillers of vertical or horizontal structures or roofs. The research used eight types of energy by-products of power or heating plants in the Czech Republic. Secondary energy products were dispensed in three different percentage ratios as a replacement of cement in the binding component. Density, compressive strength and determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity after 28, 60 and 90 days of curing in a laboratory environment were determined and subsequently evaluated on the specimens produced.

Keywords: ash, binder, cement, energy by-product, FBC ash (fluidized bed combustion ash), filling materials, shives, slag, technical hemp

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1640 Understanding the Impact of Climate Change on Farmer's Technical Efficiency in Mali

Authors: Christelle Tchoupé Makougoum

Abstract:

In the context of agriculture, differences across localities in term of climate change can create systematic variation among farmers technical efficiency. Failure to account for climate variability could lead to wrong conclusions about farmers’ technical efficiency and also it could bias the ranking of farmers according to their managerial performance. The literature on agricultural productivity has given little attention to this issue whereas it is necessary for establishing to what extent climate affects farmers efficiency. This article contributes to the preview literature by two ways. First, it proposed a new econometric model that accounting for the climate change influences on technical efficiency in the specific area of agriculture. Second it estimates the inefficiency due to climate change and the real managerial performance of Malian farmers. Using the Mali’s data from agricultural census and CRU TS3 climatic database we implemented an adjusted stochastic frontier methodology to account for the impact of environmental factors. The results yield three main findings. First, instability in temperatures and rainfall decreases technical efficiency on average. Second, the climate change modifies the classification of the farmers according to their efficiency scores. Thirdly it is noted that, although climate changes are partly responsible for the deviation from the border, the capacity of farmers to combine inputs into the optimal proportion is more to undermine. The study concluded that improving farmer efficiency should include fostering their resilience to climate change.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, stochastic production function, technical efficiency

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1639 Technical Parameters Evaluation for Caps to Apucarana/Parana - Brazil APL

Authors: Cruz, G. P., Nagamatsu, R. N., Scacchetti, F. A. P., Merlin, F. K.

Abstract:

This study aims to assess a set of technical parameters that provide quality products to the companies that produce caps, APL Apucarana / PR, the city that produces most Brazilian caps, in order to verify the potential of Brazilian caps to compete with international brands, recognized by the standard of excellence when it comes to quality of its products. The determination of the technical parameters was arbitrated from textile ABNT, a total of six technical parameters, providing eight tests for cotton caps. For the evaluation, we used as reference a leading brand recognized worldwide (based on their sales volume in $) for comparison with 3 companies of the APL Apucarana. The results showed that, of the 8 tests, of 8 tests, the companies Apucarana did not obtain better performance than the competitor. They obtained the same results in three tests and lower performance in 5. Given these values, it is concluded that local caps are not far from reaching the quality of leading brand. It is recommended that the APL companies use the parameters to evaluate their products, using this information to support decision-making that seek to improve both the product design and its production process, enabling the feasibility for faster international recognition . Thus, they may have an edge over its main competitor.

Keywords: technical parameters, making caps, quality, evaluation

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1638 Technical and Economical Feasibility Analysis of Solar Water Pumping System - Case Study in Iran

Authors: A. Gharib, M. Moradi

Abstract:

The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate. Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with a storage battery, AC solar water pumping with a storage tank, and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical and economic feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, solar water pumping system

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1637 Heteroscedastic Parametric and Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Stochastic Frontier Application to Technical Efficiency Measurement

Authors: Rebecca Owusu Coffie, Atakelty Hailu

Abstract:

Variants of production frontier models have emerged, however, only a limited number of them are applied in empirical research. Hence the effects of these alternative frontier models are not well understood, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we apply recent advances in the production frontier to examine levels of technical efficiency and efficiency drivers. Specifically, we compare the heteroscedastic parametric and the semiparametric stochastic smooth coefficient (SPSC) models. Using rice production data from Ghana, our empirical estimates reveal that alternative specification of efficiency estimators results in either downward or upward bias in the technical efficiency estimates. Methodologically, we find that the SPSC model is more suitable and generates high-efficiency estimates. Within the parametric framework, we find that parameterization of both the mean and variance of the pre-truncated function is the best model. For the drivers of technical efficiency, we observed that longer farm distances increase inefficiency through a reduction in labor productivity. High soil quality, however, increases productivity through increased land productivity.

Keywords: pre-truncated, rice production, smooth coefficient, technical efficiency

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1636 The Performance of Saudi Banking Industry 2000 -2011: Have the Banks Distinguished Themselves from One Another?

Authors: Bukhari M. S. Sillah, Imran Khokhar, Muhammad Nauman Khan

Abstract:

This paper studies the technical efficiency of Saudi banking sector using stochastic frontier model. A sample of 12 banks over the period 2000-2011 is selected to investigate their technical efficiencies in mobilizing deposits, producing investment and generating income. The banks are categorized as Saudi-owned banks, Saudi-foreign-owned banks and Islamic banks. The findings show some consistent pattern of these bank types; and there exist significant disparities among the banks in term of technical efficiency. The Banque Saudi Fransi stands out as a benchmark bank for the industry, and it is a Saudi-foreign owned bank type. The Saudi owned bank types have shown fluctuating performance during the period; and the Islamic bank types are no significantly different from Saudi-owned bank types.

Keywords: technical efficiency, production frontier model, Islamic banking

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1635 Autopoietic Socio-technical Systems: A New Lens for Understanding Anticipation

Authors: Gregory Vigneaux

Abstract:

The capacity to anticipate future events across varying time scales is integral to the effective operation of both emergency management and emergency services organizations. This paper provides fresh insight into anticipation by first offering a novel conceptualization of organizations in both fields by twisting together socio-technical systems and autopoietic theory. The result of this intertwining of theory is a view of emergency management and emergency services organizations as self-reproducing systems driven by socio-technical processes contingent upon both inflows and outflows across a boundary produced by the system’s own activity. Flowing from this perspective is an approach to anticipation that extends from a system’s intent of continuing to reproduce its identity over a dynamic landscape. This discussion takes a pragmatic turn through Maturana and Verden-Zöller’s domains of structural change, classifying anticipated events and connecting them with types of responses involving inflows, outflows, and socio-technical processes.

Keywords: risk, anticipation, organizations, planning, transformation, identity

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1634 Technical Feasibility Analysis of PV Water Pumping System in Khuzestan Province-Iran

Authors: M.Goodarzi, M.Mohammadi, M. Rezaee

Abstract:

The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate.Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with storage battery, AC solar water pumping with storage tank and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic water pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 504
1633 Identification of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency Sugar Cane Farming in East Java

Authors: Noor Rizkiyah, Djoko Koestiono, Budi Setiawan, Nuhfil Hanani

Abstract:

This research aims to identify the factors that affect the production of sugar cane, the level of technical efficiency of farming sugar cane ratooning and factors that affect technical inefficiency. Research carried out in Malang of East Java with sampling in a non random sampling stratified proportioned and obtained 172 household sugar cane farmers who are classified based on the level of ratooning i.e. ratooning I 3-4 times ratoning, ratooning II 5-10 times ratoning as well as ratooning III > 10 times ratoning. The method used is the Stochastic Production Frontier approach MLE (maximum likelihood estimation). From the results obtained by analysis of the factors affecting the production of sugar cane farming land, namely ratooning fertilizer use ZA petroganic, use of fertilizer and seeds of embroidery and labor. While the average level of sugar cane farmers ratooning efficiency of 0.78 and categorized yet efficient technically. For the factors that influence the technical inefficiency i.e. age, number of dependents and the frequency of family ratooning. Though not yet technically efficient but sugar cane farmers cultivate cultivation remains ratooning. But if it is done repeatedly ratooning will result in a decrease in the production of sugar cane. Whereas the results of the analysis of farming level of feasibility or RC ratooning sugar cane ratio of 1.15 so worth trying to accomplish. Thus with increased technology and combining the use of inputs is an attempt to let the technical efficiency can be achieved so that the more worthy to be organised.

Keywords: technical efficiency, production, sugarcane, frontier

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1632 Physical Characterization of a Watershed for Correlation with Parameters of Thomas Hydrological Model and Its Application in Iber Hidrodinamic Model

Authors: Carlos Caro, Ernest Blade, Nestor Rojas

Abstract:

This study determined the relationship between basic geo-technical parameters and parameters of the hydro logical model Thomas for water balance of rural watersheds, as a methodological calibration application, applicable in distributed models as IBER model, which represents a distributed system simulation models for unsteady flow numerical free surface. There was an exploration in 25 points (on 15 sub) basin of Rio Piedras (Boy.) obtaining soil samples, to which geo-technical characterization was performed by laboratory tests. Thomas model has a physical characterization of the input area by only four parameters (a, b, c, d). Achieve measurable relationship between geo technical parameters and 4 values of hydro logical parameters helps to determine subsurface, underground and surface flow more agile manner. It is intended in this way to reach some solutions regarding limits initial model parameters on the basis of Thomas geo-technical characterization. In hydro geological models of rural watersheds, calibration is an important process in the characterization of the study area. This step can require a significant computational cost and time, especially if the initial values or parameters before calibration are outside of the geo-technical reality. A better approach in these initial values means optimization of these process through a geo-technical materials area, where is obtained an important approach to the study as in the starting range of variation for the calibration parameters.

Keywords: distributed hydrology, hydrological and geotechnical characterization, Iber model

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1631 Reader Reception of Cultural Context for Chinese Translation of Scientific and Technical Discourse: An Empirical Study

Authors: Caiwen Wang, Yuling Liu

Abstract:

Scientific and technical discourse is non-literary, and so it is often regarded as merely informative, free of the cultural context of both the source and the target language. Thus it is supposed that translators of sci-tech texts do not need to consider cultural factors in the translation process as readers only care for the information conveyed. This paper takes a different standpoint and shows that cultural context plays an important part in scientific and technical texts and thereafter in bridging the gap between different cultural communities of readers. The paper argues that the common cultural context for members of the same cultural community, such as morals, customs, and values, also underpins the sci-tech discourse of various text types, and therefore may pose difficulties for readers of a different cultural community if this is re-presented or translated literally. The research hypothesises that depending on how it is re-presented or translated; cultural context can either encourage or discourage readers’ reading experience and subsequently their interest to read and use translation texts. Drawing upon the Reception Theory by Hans Robert Jauss, the research investigates the relationship between cultural context and scientific and technical translation from English to Chinese. Citing 55 examples of sci-tech translations from magazines, newspapers and the website of Shell, a major international oil and gas company, the research shows that the source texts for these 55 cases all have bearing on the source cultural context, and translators will need to address this in the translation process instead of doing literal translation to be merely correct. The research then interviews 15 research subjects for their views of the translations. By assessing readers’ reception and perception of translated Chinese sci-tech discourse, the research concludes that cultural context contributes to the quality of scientific and technical translation in an important way and then discusses the implications of the findings for training scientific and technical translators.

Keywords: Chinese translation, cultural context, reception theory, scientific and technical texts

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