Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani

24 Technical and Legal Definitions in Cyber Terrorism

Authors: Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani, Nazura Abdul Manap, Hamed Ladoni Damghani, Rohimi Bin Shapiee


In recent years the speed of new technology has brought forth so many new issues. Cyberspace is among the new technologies that need novel ways to address the various issues that have arisen. While cyberspace is a technical notion that defies a single definition, this new technology requires the adoption and application of new laws. In order to manage issues arising from the existence of cyberspace, proper policies and definitions must be formulated which satisfy both technical and legal aspects. One difficulty in this regard is due to the unique features of cyberspace architecture. This article proposes to define cyberspace and cyber terrorism. This will allow for a more effective and comprehensive addressing of legal issues as they can then be handled better by introducing a new factor to the otherwise ordinary analysis in whichever field is implicated such as the nature and place of use.

Keywords: cyberspace, cyber terrorism, technical definition, legal definition

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23 Challenges of Blockchain Applications in the Supply Chain Industry: A Regulatory Perspective

Authors: Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani


Due to the emergence of blockchain technology and the benefits of cryptocurrencies, intelligent or smart contracts are gaining traction. Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming our lives, and it is being embraced by a wide range of sectors. Smart contracts, which are at the heart of blockchains, incorporate AI characteristics. Such contracts are referred to as "smart" contracts because of the underlying technology that allows contracting parties to agree on terms expressed in computer code that defines machine-readable instructions for computers to follow under specific situations. The transmission happens automatically if the conditions are met. Initially utilised for financial transactions, blockchain applications have since expanded to include the financial, insurance, and medical sectors, as well as supply networks. Raw material acquisition by suppliers, design, and fabrication by manufacturers, delivery of final products to consumers, and even post-sales logistics assistance are all part of supply chains. Many issues are linked with managing supply chains from the planning and coordination stages, which can be implemented in a smart contract in a blockchain due to their complexity. Manufacturing delays and limited third-party amounts of product components have raised concerns about the integrity and accountability of supply chains for food and pharmaceutical items. Other concerns include regulatory compliance in multiple jurisdictions and transportation circumstances (for instance, many products must be kept in temperature-controlled environments to ensure their effectiveness). Products are handled by several providers before reaching customers in modern economic systems. Information is sent between suppliers, shippers, distributors, and retailers at every stage of the production and distribution process. Information travels more effectively when individuals are eliminated from the equation. The usage of blockchain technology could be a viable solution to these coordination issues. In blockchains, smart contracts allow for the rapid transmission of production data, logistical data, inventory levels, and sales data. This research investigates the legal and technical advantages and disadvantages of AI-blockchain technology in the supply chain business. It aims to uncover the applicable legal problems and barriers to the use of AI-blockchain technology to supply chains, particularly in the food industry. It also discusses the essential legal and technological issues and impediments to supply chain implementation for stakeholders, as well as methods for overcoming them before releasing the technology to clients. Because there has been little research done on this topic, it is difficult for industrial stakeholders to grasp how blockchain technology could be used in their respective operations. As a result, the focus of this research will be on building advanced and complex contractual terms in supply chain smart contracts on blockchains to cover all unforeseen supply chain challenges.

Keywords: blockchain, supply chain, IoT, smart contract

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22 The Legal and Regulatory Gaps of Blockchain-Enabled Energy Prosumerism

Authors: Karisma Karisma, Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani


This study aims to conduct a high-level strategic dialogue on the lack of consensus, consistency, and legal certainty regarding blockchain-based energy prosumerism so that appropriate institutional and governance structures can be put in place to address the inadequacies and gaps in the legal and regulatory framework. The drive to achieve national and global decarbonization targets is a driving force behind climate goals and policies under the Paris Agreement. In recent years, efforts to ‘demonopolize’ and ‘decentralize’ energy generation and distribution have driven the energy transition toward decentralized systems, invoking concepts such as ownership, sovereignty, and autonomy of RE sources. The emergence of individual and collective forms of prosumerism and the rapid diffusion of blockchain is expected to play a critical role in the decarbonization and democratization of energy systems. However, there is a ‘regulatory void’ relating to individual and collective forms of prosumerism that could prevent the rapid deployment of blockchain systems and potentially stagnate the operationalization of blockchain-enabled energy sharing and trading activities. The application of broad and facile regulatory fixes may be insufficient to address the major regulatory gaps. First, to the authors’ best knowledge, the concepts and elements circumjacent to individual and collective forms of prosumerism have not been adequately described in the legal frameworks of many countries. Second, there is a lack of legal certainty regarding the creation and adaptation of business models in a highly regulated and centralized energy system, which inhibits the emergence of prosumer-driven niche markets. There are also current and prospective challenges relating to the legal status of blockchain-based platforms for facilitating energy transactions, anticipated with the diffusion of blockchain technology. With the rise of prosumerism in the energy sector, the areas of (a) network charges, (b) energy market access, (c) incentive schemes, (d) taxes and levies, and (e) licensing requirements are still uncharted territories in many countries. The uncertainties emanating from this area pose a significant hurdle to the widespread adoption of blockchain technology, a complementary technology that offers added value and competitive advantages for energy systems. The authors undertake a conceptual and theoretical investigation to elucidate the lack of consensus, consistency, and legal certainty in the study of blockchain-based prosumerism. In addition, the authors set an exploratory tone to the discussion by taking an analytically eclectic approach that builds on multiple sources and theories to delve deeper into this topic. As an interdisciplinary study, this research accounts for the convergence of regulation, technology, and the energy sector. The study primarily adopts desk research, which examines regulatory frameworks and conceptual models for crucial policies at the international level to foster an all-inclusive discussion. With their reflections and insights into the interaction of blockchain and prosumerism in the energy sector, the authors do not aim to develop definitive regulatory models or instrument designs, but to contribute to the theoretical dialogue to navigate seminal issues and explore different nuances and pathways. Given the emergence of blockchain-based energy prosumerism, identifying the challenges, gaps and fragmentation of governance regimes is key to facilitating global regulatory transitions.

Keywords: blockchain technology, energy sector, prosumer, legal and regulatory.

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21 Optimal Site Selection for Temporary Housing regarding Disaster Management Case Study: Tehran Municipality (No.6)

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani, Raziyeh Hadavand


Optimal site selection for temporary housing is one of the most important issues in crisis management. In this research, district six of Tehran city with high frequency and geographical distribution of earthquakes has been selected as a case study for positioning temporary housing after a probable earthquake. For achieving this goal this study tries to identify and evaluate distribution of location according to some standards such as compatible and incompatible urban land uses with utility of GIS and AHP. The results of this study show the most susceptible parts of this region in the center. According to the maps, north eastern part of Kordestan, Shaheed Gomnam intersection possesses the highest pixels value in terms of areal extent, therefore these places are recommended as an optimum site location for construction of emergency evacuation base.

Keywords: optimal site selection, temporary housing , crisis management, AHP, GIS

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20 Persian Garden Design and Climate Case Studies: Shahzadeh-Mahan and Shah Garden

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan


Gardens symbolize human effort to bring Eden to earth and are defined as the purest pleasures and the greatest inspiration for men. According to Persian mythology, a garden called "Paris" is a magical, perfumed place populated by beautiful and angelic creatures. "Pardis" comes from the word "paridaiza," which means "walled garden." Gardening has always been a worldwide attraction due to the abundance of green space, and desert gardens are no exception. Because most historical garden designs use a similar pattern, such as Chahar-Bagh, climate effects have not been considered. The purpose of studying these general designs was to determine whether location and weather conditions are affecting them. So, two gardens were chosen for comparison: a desert (Shahzadeh-Mahan) and a humid garden (Shah) and compared their geometry, irrigation system, entrances, and pavilions. The findings of the study revealed that there are several notable differences among their architectural principles. For example, the desert garden design is introverted with transparent surfaces and a single focal point, while the moderate garden is extraverted with high complexity and multiple perspectives. In conclusion, the study recognizes the richness and significance of the Persian garden concept, which can be applied in many different contexts.

Keywords: Pardis, Chahar-bagh, Persian garden, temperate, humid climate, geometry, pavilion, irrigations, culture

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19 Design and Analysis of a Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Plant for Maximum Operational Flexibility

Authors: Salah Hosseini, Hadi Ramezani, Bagher Shahbazi, Hossein Rabiei, Jafar Hooshmand, Hiwa Khaldi


Diversity of energy portfolio and fluctuation of urban energy demand establish the need for more operational flexibility of combined Cooling, Heat, and Power Plants. Currently, the most common way to achieve these specifications is the use of heat storage devices or wet operation of gas turbines. The current work addresses using variable extraction steam turbine in conjugation with a gas turbine inlet cooling system as an alternative way for enhancement of a CCHP cycle operating range. A thermodynamic model is developed and typical apartments building in PARDIS Technology Park (located at Tehran Province) is chosen as a case study. Due to the variable Heat demand and using excess chiller capacity for turbine inlet cooling purpose, the mentioned steam turbine and TIAC system provided an opportunity for flexible operation of the cycle and boosted the independence of the power and heat generation in the CCHP plant. It was found that the ratio of power to the heat of CCHP cycle varies from 12.6 to 2.4 depending on the City heating and cooling demands and ambient condition, which means a good independence between power and heat generation. Furthermore, selection of the TIAC design temperature is done based on the amount of ratio of power gain to TIAC coil surface area, it was found that for current cycle arrangement the TIAC design temperature of 15 C is most economical. All analysis is done based on the real data, gathered from the local weather station of the PARDIS site.

Keywords: CCHP plant, GTG, HRSG, STG, TIAC, operational flexibility, power to heat ratio

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18 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani


Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research, the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (60 uM) and Ki (30 uM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to the enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60°C both in presence and absence of the drug.

Keywords: bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase

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17 Using Blockchain Technology to Extend the Vendor Managed Inventory for Sustainability

Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Roshaali Khaturia, Pardis Sahraei, Mohammad Niyayesh, Omid Fatahi Valilai


Nowadays, Information Technology (IT) is changing the way traditional enterprise management concepts work. One of the most dominant IT achievements is the Blockchain Technology. This technology enables the distributed collaboration of stakeholders for their interactions while fulfilling the security and consensus rules among them. This paper has focused on the application of Blockchain technology to enhance one of traditional inventory management models. The Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) has been considered one of the most efficient mechanisms for vendor inventory planning by the suppliers. While VMI has brought competitive advantages for many industries, however its centralized mechanism limits the collaboration of a pool of suppliers and vendors simultaneously. This paper has studied the recent research for VMI application in industries and also has investigated the applications of Blockchain technology for decentralized collaboration of stakeholders. Focusing on sustainability issue for total supply chain consisting suppliers and vendors, it has proposed a Blockchain based VMI conceptual model. The different capabilities of this model for enabling the collaboration of stakeholders while maintaining the competitive advantages and sustainability issues have been discussed.

Keywords: vendor managed inventory, VMI, blockchain technology, supply chain planning, sustainability

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16 Affective Factors on Citizens’ Participations in Plants Clinics in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Abedi Sh. Khodamoradi


The main aim of this research is to assess effective factors on citizens’ participations in plants clinics. Statistical society includes 153 citizens of region 15 of Tehran municipality, which in first six months of 2015 participated in educational classes held by Plant education center of Pardis and Pamchal Park located in region no.15. Sample size was calculated by Cochran formula and 10% was added to sample size in order to prevent probable problems and the final sample was n=124. Validity of questionnaire was calculated by professors of extension and education group in Oloom Tahghighat university of Tehran and reliability was 0.82 which was reported by editors. Data then was analyzed by SPSS software, and frequency table, comparing mean and correlation and regression also were assessed. Correlation was proved between age, type of activity and participation extent in plant clinics. Also participation would be increased in plant clinics due to positive and significant relation between educational factors and participation extent with improving educational factors. Moreover, there is inverse relation between literacy level and participation in level of 5%. Finally, regression analysis was used in order to predict each change which independent variable determines for dependent one.

Keywords: plants clinics, participations, Tehran, Iran

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15 Effects of Milk Fat Sustitution by Margarine on Iranian uf Brine Cheese

Authors: Mahnaz Manafi Dizaj Yekan, Mostafa Mazaheri Tehrani, Javad Hesari


Physicochemical properties of Ultrafiltered White cheese analogues made with substituting 1/3 and 2/3 of the dairy fat with vegetable fat, margarine, were studied during ripening. Results showed replacement of milk fat by margarine made to more hardness and springiness in cheese samples and overcome to softening of texture as one of the main defects of UF white cheeses. Analysis of Fatty acids Profiles of samples fat by Gas Chromatography revealed cheese analogues samples had higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and can led to improve nutritional quality of product. Sensorial characteristics of analogue cheeses were similar to control samples with respect to color but better than control samples in stiffness, while overall acceptance of analogues with 1/3 fat replacement was similar to control cheeses and better than analogue cheeses with 2/3 fat replacement.

Keywords: analogue cheese, uf white cheese, margarine, stiffness, springiness, fatty acids profiles

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14 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian


Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection, Iran

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13 Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Dynamic Neural Networks

Authors: E. Sobhani-Tehrani, K. Khorasani, N. Meskin


This paper presents a novel integrated hybrid approach for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear systems. Unlike most FD techniques, the proposed solution simultaneously accomplishes fault detection, isolation, and identification (FDII) within a unified diagnostic module. At the core of this solution is a bank of adaptive neural parameter estimators (NPE) associated with a set of single-parameter fault models. The NPEs continuously estimate unknown fault parameters (FP) that are indicators of faults in the system. Two NPE structures including series-parallel and parallel are developed with their exclusive set of desirable attributes. The parallel scheme is extremely robust to measurement noise and possesses a simpler, yet more solid, fault isolation logic. On the contrary, the series-parallel scheme displays short FD delays and is robust to closed-loop system transients due to changes in control commands. Finally, a fault tolerant observer (FTO) is designed to extend the capability of the NPEs to systems with partial-state measurement.

Keywords: hybrid fault diagnosis, dynamic neural networks, nonlinear systems, fault tolerant observer

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12 An Axiomatic Model for Development of the Allocated Architecture in Systems Engineering Process

Authors: Amir Sharahi, Reza Tehrani, Ali Mollajan


The final step to complete the “Analytical Systems Engineering Process” is the “Allocated Architecture” in which all Functional Requirements (FRs) of an engineering system must be allocated into their corresponding Physical Components (PCs). At this step, any design for developing the system’s allocated architecture in which no clear pattern of assigning the exclusive “responsibility” of each PC for fulfilling the allocated FR(s) can be found is considered a poor design that may cause difficulties in determining the specific PC(s) which has (have) failed to satisfy a given FR successfully. The present study utilizes the Axiomatic Design method principles to mathematically address this problem and establishes an “Axiomatic Model” as a solution for reaching good alternatives for developing the allocated architecture. This study proposes a “loss Function”, as a quantitative criterion to monetarily compare non-ideal designs for developing the allocated architecture and choose the one which imposes relatively lower cost to the system’s stakeholders. For the case-study, we use the existing design of U. S. electricity marketing subsystem, based on data provided by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). The result for 2012 shows the symptoms of a poor design and ineffectiveness due to coupling among the FRs of this subsystem.

Keywords: allocated architecture, analytical systems engineering process, functional requirements (FRs), physical components (PCs), responsibility of a physical component, system’s stakeholders

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11 Role of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Media in Alleviating Kidney Injury via Inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin System in Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Pardis Abolghasemi, Benyamin Hatamsaz


Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious health problem described by specific kidney structure and functional disturbance. Renoprotective effects of the stem cells secretase have been shown in many kidney diseases. The aim is to evaluate the capability of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (hWJMSCs-CM) to alleviate DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: Diabetic nephropathy was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) in twenty rats. Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs at third passages. At week 8, diabetic rats were divided into two groups: treated (hWJMSCs-CM, 500 μl/rat for three weeks, IP) and not treated (DN). In the 11th week, three groups (control, DN and DN+hWJMSCs-CM) were kept in metabolic cages and urine was collected for 24h. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. The serum samples were maintained for measuring BUN, Cr and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The left kidney was kept at -80°C for ACE activity assessment. The right kidney and pancreas were used for histopathologic evaluation. Result: Diabetic nephropathy was detected by microalbuminuria and increased albumin/creatinine ratio, as well as the pancreas and renal structural disturbance. Glomerular filtration rate, BP and HR increased in the DN group. The ACE activity was elevated in the serum and kidneys of the DN group. Administration of hWJMSCs-CM modulated the renal functional and structural disturbance and decreased the ACE activity. Conclusion: Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs may have a Renoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy. This may happen through regulation of ACE activity and renin-angiotensin system inhibition.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, mesenchymal stem cells, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation

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10 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Argon Plasma Jet on Healing Process of the Wagner Grade 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Authors: M. Khaledi Pour, P. Akbartehrani, M. Amini, M. Khani, M. Mohajeri Tehrani, R. Radi, B. Shokri


Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) is one of the costly severe complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) due to diabetes are significant causes of this complication. In 10 years the patients with DFUs are twice as likely to die as patients without DFUs. Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) is a promising tool for medical purposes. CAP generate reactive species at room temperature and are effective in killing bacteria and fibroblast proliferation. These CAP-based tools produce NO, which has bactericidal and angiogenesis properties. It also showed promising effects in the DFUs surface reduction and the time to wound closure. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of the Argon Plasma Jet (APJ) on the healing process of the Wagner Grade 2 DFUs in a randomized clinical trial. The 20 kHz sinusoidal voltage frequency derives the APJ. Patients (n=20) were randomly double-blinded assigned into two groups. These groups receive the standard care (SC, n=10) and the standard care with APJ treatment (SC+APJ, n=10) for five sessions in four weeks. The results showed that the APJ treatment along standard care could reduce the wound surface by 20 percent more than the standard care. Also, It showed a more influential role in controlling wound infection.

Keywords: argon plasma jet, cold atmospheric plasma, diabetes, diabetic foot ulcer

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9 Particle Filter Supported with the Neural Network for Aircraft Tracking Based on Kernel and Active Contour

Authors: Mohammad Izadkhah, Mojtaba Hoseini, Alireza Khalili Tehrani


In this paper we presented a new method for tracking flying targets in color video sequences based on contour and kernel. The aim of this work is to overcome the problem of losing target in changing light, large displacement, changing speed, and occlusion. The proposed method is made in three steps, estimate the target location by particle filter, segmentation target region using neural network and find the exact contours by greedy snake algorithm. In the proposed method we have used both region and contour information to create target candidate model and this model is dynamically updated during tracking. To avoid the accumulation of errors when updating, target region given to a perceptron neural network to separate the target from background. Then its output used for exact calculation of size and center of the target. Also it is used as the initial contour for the greedy snake algorithm to find the exact target's edge. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a database which contains a lot of challenges such as high speed and agility of aircrafts, background clutter, occlusions, camera movement, and so on. The experimental results show that the use of neural network increases the accuracy of tracking and segmentation.

Keywords: video tracking, particle filter, greedy snake, neural network

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8 Investigating Knowledge Management in Financial Organisation: Proposing a New Model for Implementing Knowledge Management

Authors: Ziba R. Tehrani, Sanaz Moayer


In the age of the knowledge-based economy, knowledge management has become a key factor in sustainable competitive advantage. Knowledge management is discovering, acquiring, developing, sharing, maintaining, evaluating, and using right knowledge in right time by right person in organization; which is accomplished by creating a right link between human resources, information technology, and appropriate structure, to achieve organisational goals. Studying knowledge management financial institutes shows the knowledge management in banking system is not different from other industries but because of complexity of bank’s environment, the implementation is more difficult. The bank managers found out that implementation of knowledge management will bring many advantages to financial institutes, one of the most important of which is reduction of threat to lose subsequent information of personnel job quit. Also Special attention to internal conditions and environment of the financial institutes and avoidance from copy-making in designing the knowledge management is a critical issue. In this paper, it is tried first to define knowledge management concept and introduce existing models of knowledge management; then some of the most important models which have more similarities with other models will be reviewed. In second step according to bank requirements with focus on knowledge management approach, most major objectives of knowledge management are identified. For gathering data in this stage face to face interview is used. Thirdly these specified objectives are analysed with the response of distribution of questionnaire which is gained through managers and expert staffs of ‘Karafarin Bank’. Finally based on analysed data, some features of exiting models are selected and a new conceptual model will be proposed.

Keywords: knowledge management, financial institute, knowledge management model, organisational knowledge

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7 Investigation of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Exposure Protocol on Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Authors: P. Akbartehrani, M. Khaledi Pour, M. Amini, M. Khani, M. Mohajeri Tehrani, E. Ghasemi, P. Charipoor, B. Shokri


A common problem between diabetic patients is foot ulcers which are chronic and require specialized treatment. Previous studies illustrate that Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has beneficial effects on wound healing and infection. Nevertheless, the comparison of different cap exposure protocols in diabetic ulcer wound healing remained to be studied. This study aims to determine the effect of two different exposure protocols on wound healing in diabetic ulcers. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted at two clinics. Diabetic patients with G1 and G2 wanger classification diabetic foot ulcers were divided into two groups of study. One group was treated by the first protocol, which was treating wounds by argon-generated cold atmospheric plasma jet once a week for five weeks in a row. The other group was treated by the second protocol, which was treating wounds every three days for five weeks in a row. The wounds were treated for 40 seconds/cubic centimeter, while the nozzle tip was moved nonlocalized 1 cm above the wounds. A patient with one or more wounds could participate in different groups as wounds were separately randomized, which allow a participant to be treated several times during the study. The study's significant findings were two different reductions rate in wound size, microbial load, and two different healing speeds. This study concludes that CAP therapy by the second protocol yields more effective healing speeds, reduction in wound sizes, and microbial loads of foot ulcers in diabetic patients.

Keywords: wound healing, diabetic ulcers, cold atmospheric plasma, cold argon jet

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6 Buffer Allocation and Traffic Shaping Policies Implemented in Routers Based on a New Adaptive Intelligent Multi Agent Approach

Authors: M. Taheri Tehrani, H. Ajorloo


In this paper, an intelligent multi-agent framework is developed for each router in which agents have two vital functionalities, traffic shaping and buffer allocation and are positioned in the ports of the routers. With traffic shaping functionality agents shape the traffic forward by dynamic and real time allocation of the rate of generation of tokens in a Token Bucket algorithm and with buffer allocation functionality agents share their buffer capacity between each other based on their need and the conditions of the network. This dynamic and intelligent framework gives this opportunity to some ports to work better under burst and more busy conditions. These agents work intelligently based on Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm and will consider effective parameters in their decision process. As RL have limitation considering much parameter in its decision process due to the volume of calculations, we utilize our novel method which invokes Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the RL and gives a high dimensional ability to this algorithm to consider as much as needed parameters in its decision process. This implementation when is compared to our previous work where traffic shaping was done without any sharing and dynamic allocation of buffer size for each port, the lower packet drop in the whole network specifically in the source routers can be seen. These methods are implemented in our previous proposed intelligent simulation environment to be able to compare better the performance metrics. The results obtained from this simulation environment show an efficient and dynamic utilization of resources in terms of bandwidth and buffer capacities pre allocated to each port.

Keywords: principal component analysis, reinforcement learning, buffer allocation, multi- agent systems

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5 Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load

Authors: Behrang Tavousi Tehrani, Mohammad-Zaman Kabir


Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.

Keywords: airy stress function, cylindrical shell, Galerkin technique, load-deflection curve, recovery stress, shape memory alloy

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4 Patient-Specific Design Optimization of Cardiovascular Grafts

Authors: Pegah Ebrahimi, Farshad Oveissi, Iman Manavi-Tehrani, Sina Naficy, David F. Fletcher, Fariba Dehghani, David S. Winlaw


Despite advances in modern surgery, congenital heart disease remains a medical challenge and a major cause of infant mortality. Cardiovascular prostheses are routinely used in surgical procedures to address congenital malformations, for example establishing a pathway from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries in pulmonary valvar atresia. Current off-the-shelf options including human and adult products have limited biocompatibility and durability, and their fixed size necessitates multiple subsequent operations to upsize the conduit to match with patients’ growth over their lifetime. Non-physiological blood flow is another major problem, reducing the longevity of these prostheses. These limitations call for better designs that take into account the hemodynamical and anatomical characteristics of different patients. We have integrated tissue engineering techniques with modern medical imaging and image processing tools along with mathematical modeling to optimize the design of cardiovascular grafts in a patient-specific manner. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is done according to models constructed from each individual patient’s data. This allows for improved geometrical design and achieving better hemodynamic performance. Tissue engineering strives to provide a material that grows with the patient and mimic the durability and elasticity of the native tissue. Simulations also give insight on the performance of the tissues produced in our lab and reduce the need for costly and time-consuming methods of evaluation of the grafts. We are also developing a methodology for the fabrication of the optimized designs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, cardiovascular grafts, design optimization, tissue engineering

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3 Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist Drug on Extracellular Lipase Activityof Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, rode shape and aerobic bacterium that has shown to be resistance to many antibiotics. This resistance makes the bacterium very harmful in some diseases. It can also generate diseases in any part of the gastrointestinal tract from oropharynx to rectum. P. aeruginosa has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. One of the most important reasons that make P. aeruginosa an emerging opportunistic pathogen in patients is its ability to use various compounds as carbon sources. Lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate. Some lipases are expressed and secreted by pathogenic organisms during the infection. Muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. The drug has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms. Aim: In this study the inhibitory effect of a muscarinic antagonist on lipase of P. aeruginosa was investigated. Methods: P. aeruginosa was cultured in minimal salt medium with 1% olive oil as carbon source. The cells were harvested and the supernatant, which contained lipase, was used for enzyme assay. Results: Our results showed that the drug can inhibit P. aeruginosa lipase by competitive manner. In the presence of different concentrations of the drug, the Vmax (2 mmol/min/mg protein) of enzyme did not change, while the Km raised by increasing the drug concentration. The Ki (inhibition constant) and IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of drug was estimated to be about 30 uM and 60 uM which determined that the drug binds to enzyme with high affinity. Maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 8 in the absence and presence of muscarinic antagonist, respectively. The maximum activity of lipase was observed at 600C and the enzyme became inactive at 900C. Conclusion: The muscarinic antagonist drug could inhibit lipase of P. aeruginosa and changed the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. The drug binded to enzyme with high affinity and did not chang the optimum pH of the enzyme. Temperature did not affect the binding of drug to musmuscarinic antagonist.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, drug, enzyme, inhibition

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2 Effect of Time on Stream on the Performances of Plasma Assisted Fe-Doped Cryptomelanes in Trichloroethylene (TCE) Oxidation

Authors: Sharmin Sultana, Nicolas Nuns, Pardis Simon, Jean-Marc Giraudon, Jean-Francois Lamonior, Nathalie D. Geyter, Rino Morent


Environmental issues, especially air pollution, have become a huge concern of environmental legislation as a consequence of growing awareness in our global world. In this regard, control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission has become an important issue due to their potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity. The research of innovative technologies for VOC abatement is stimulated to accommodate the new stringent standards in terms of VOC emission. One emerging strategy is the coupling of 2 existing complementary technologies, namely here non-thermal plasma (NTP) and heterogeneous catalysis, to get a more efficient process for VOC removal in air. The objective of this current work is to investigate the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE-highly toxic chlorinated VOC) from moist air (RH=15%) as a function of time by combined use of multi-pin-to-plate negative DC corona/glow discharge with Fe-doped cryptomelanes catalyst downstream i.e. post plasma-catalysis (PPC) process. For catalyst alone case, experiments reveal that, initially, Fe doped cryptomelane (regardless the mode of Fe incorporation by co-precipitation (Fe-K-OMS-2)/ impregnation (Fe/K-OMS-2)) exhibits excellent activity to decompose TCE compared to cryptomelane (K-OMS-2) itself. A maximum obtained value of TCE abatement after 6 min is as follows: Fe-KOMS-2 (73.3%) > Fe/KOMS-2 (48.5) > KOMS-2 (22.6%). However, with prolonged operation time, whatever the catalyst under concern, the abatement of TCE decreases. After 111 min time of exposure, the catalysts can be ranked as follows: Fe/KOMS-2 (11%) < K-OMS-2 (12.3%) < Fe-KOMS-2 (14.5%). Clearly, this phenomenon indicates catalyst deactivation either by chlorination or by blocking the active sites. Remarkably, in PPC configuration (energy density = 60 J/L, catalyst temperature = 150°C), experiments reveal an enhanced performance towards TCE removal regardless the type of catalyst. After 6 min time on stream, the TCE removal efficiency amount as follows: K-OMS-2 (60%) < Fe/K-OMS-2 (79%) < Fe-K-OMS-2 (99.3%). The enhanced performances over Fe-K-OMS-2 catalyst are attributed to its high surface oxygen mobility and structural defects leading to high O₃ decomposition efficiency to give active species able to oxidize the plasma processed hazardous\by-products and the possibly remaining VOC into CO₂. Moreover, both undoped and doped catalysts remain strongly capable to abate TCE with time on stream. The TCE removal efficiencies of the PPC processes with Fe/KOMS-2 and KOMS-2 catalysts are not affected by time on stream indicating an excellent catalyst stability. When using the Fe-K-OMS-2 as catalyst, TCE abatement slightly reduces with time on stream. However, it is noteworthy to stress that still a constant abatement of 83% is observed during at least 30 minutes. These results prove that the combination of NTP with catalysts not only increases the catalytic activity but also allows to avoid, to some extent, the poisoning of catalytic sites resulting in an enhanced catalyst stability. In order to better understand the different surface processes occurring in the course of the total TCE oxidation in PPC experiments, a detailed X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) study on the fresh and used catalysts is in progress.

Keywords: Fe doped cryptomelane, non-thermal plasma, plasma-catalysis, stability, trichloroethylene

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1 The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Program on Knowledge and Attitude of Victims

Authors: Marzieh Nojomi, Azadeh Mottaghi, Arghavan Haj-Sheykholeslami, Narjes Khalili, Arash Tehrani Banihashemi


Background and objectives: Domestic violence is a global problem with severe consequences throughout the life of the victims. Iran’s Ministry of Health has launched an intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention program, integrated in the primary health care services since 2016. The present study is a part of this national program’s evaluation. In this section, we aimed to examine spousal abuse victims’ knowledge and attitude towards domestic violence before and after receivingthese services. Methods: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of victims, a questionnaire designed by Ahmadzadand colleagues in 2013 was used. This questionnaire includes 15 questions regarding knowledge in the fields of definition, epidemiology, and effects on children, outcomes, and prevention of domestic violence. To assess the attitudes, this questionnaire has 10 questions regarding the attitudes toward the causes, effects, and legal or protective support services of domestic violence. To assess the satisfaction and the effect of the program on prevention or reduction of spousal violence episodes, two more questions were also added. Since domestic violence prevalence differs in different parts of the country, we chose nine areas with the highest, the lowest, and moderate prevalence of IPVfor the study. The link to final electronic version of the questionnaire was sent to the randomly selected public rural or urban health centers in the nine chosen areas. Since the study had to be completed in one month, we used newly identified victims as pre-intervention group and people who had at least received one related service from the program (like psychiatric consultation, education about safety measures, supporting organizations and etc.) during the previous year, as our post- intervention group. Results: A hundred and ninety-two newly identified IPV victims and 267 victims who had at least received one related program service during the previous year entered the study. All of the victims were female. Basic characteristics of the two groups, including age, education, occupation, addiction, spouses’ age, spouses’ addiction, duration of the current marriage, and number of children, were not statistically different. In knowledge questions, post- intervention group had statistically better scores in the fields of domestic violence outcomes and its effects on children; however, in the remaining areas, the scores of both groups were similar. The only significant difference in the attitude across the two groups was in the field of legal or protective support services. From the 267 women who had ever received a service from the program, 91.8% were satisfied with the services, and 74% reported a decrease in the number of violent episodes. Conclusion: National IPV prevention program integrated in the primary health care services in Iran is effective in improving the knowledge of victims about domestic violence outcomes and its effects on children. Improving the attitude and knowledge of domestic violence victims about its causes and preventive measures needs more effective interventions. This program can reduce the number of IPV episodes between the spouses, and satisfaction among the service users is high.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, assessment, health services, efficacy

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