Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4533

Search results for: pharmaceutical industry

4533 Counterfeit Drugs Prevention in Pharmaceutical Industry with RFID: A Framework Based On Literature Review

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Asher Ramish

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to focus on security and safety issues facing by pharmaceutical industry globally when counterfeit drugs are in question. Hence, there is an intense need to secure and authenticate pharmaceutical products in the emerging counterfeit product market. This paper will elaborate the application of radio frequency identification (RFID) in pharmaceutical industry and to identify its key benefits for patient’s care. The benefits are: help to co-ordinate the stream of supplies, accuracy in chains of supplies, maintaining trustworthy information, to manage the operations in appropriate and timely manners and finally deliver the genuine drug to patient. It is discussed that how RFID supported supply chain information sharing (SCIS) helps to combat against counterfeit drugs. And a solution how to tag pharmaceutical products; since, some products prevent RFID implementation in this industry. In this paper, a proposed model for pharma industry distribution suggested to combat against the counterfeit drugs when they are in supply chain.

Keywords: supply chain, RFID, pharmaceutical industry, counterfeit drugs, patients care

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4532 A Critical Review of the Success Model of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Ekta Pandey

Abstract:

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is ranked third largest by volume and fourteenth by value. It thus accounts for 10% of world’s production by volume and 1.5% by value according to Department of Pharmaceuticals, Government of India. The industry has shown phenomenal growth over past few years, moving from US $ 1 billion turnover in 1990 to a turnover of around US $30 billion in 2015. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is ranked seventeenth in terms of export value of active pharmaceutical ingredients and dosage forms to more than 200 countries around the globe. It has shown tremendous changes especially after Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. Recognizing the immense potential for growth and its direct impact on Indian economy, it is important to look up the industrial policies adopted since Indian independence which turnaround the Indian pharmaceutical industry. A systematic review of changes in market structure of Indian pharmaceutical industry due to shift in policy regimes is done from 1850 to 2015 using secondary peer reviewed published research work. The aim is to understand the impact of anti-trust laws, intellectual property rights, industry competition acts and regulations are quite crucial in determining effective economic policy and have overall lasting effects on international trade and ties. The proposed paper examines the position of Indian domestic firms relative to multinational pharmaceutical firms tries to throw some light on the growth curve of Indian pharmaceutical sector.

Keywords: active pharmaceutical ingredients, competition act, pharmaceutical industry, TRIPS

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4531 An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment

Authors: Fumihiko Isada, Yuriko Isada

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.

Keywords: empirical study, industry segment, open innovation, product-development organisation pattern

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4530 Customers' Prescription of Foreign versus Local Brands in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Saira Tajdar, Sajad Ahmad

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical market of Pakistan showed a mixed trend since 1947. In these six decades various local and foreign pharmaceutical companies entered the market with their highly researched based formulas and brands for various diseases. It also created a very competitive market between local and foreign companies and brands. But this intense competition does not clear the picture that whether the customers (Doctors) are preferring/prescribing foreign or local brands more frequently. Previous research has been done in various markets for different brands that whether the customers in that industry prefer foreign or local brands. However, the pharmaceutical industry in this regard has been ignored by the researchers. Generally people don't know that for prescription brands of medicines what the preferences of customers (Doctors) are. Therefore, this study is conducted in two departments of Pharmaceutical industry by selecting the top recommended formulas in those departments that for those formulas whether the customers (Doctors) are prescribing either foreign brands or local brands. Secondary data has been collected from previous studies on the country of origin (COO), ethnocentrism and factors influencing brands preferences from authentic sources. Primary data was also collected through 100 self administered questionnaires from top five hospitals of Peshawar. The results of the study were analyzed through SPSS which shows that in some categories of pharmaceutical products the COO is very important but not for all.

Keywords: customer prescription, country of origin, empirical study, foreign versus local brands, pharmaceutical industry, Pakistan

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4529 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Bernasconi Matteo, Grothkopp Mark, Friedli Thomas

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and human resource management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices

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4528 Linking Market Performance to Exploration and Exploitation in The Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Johann Valentowitsch, Wolfgang Burr

Abstract:

In organizational research, strategies of exploration and exploitation are often considered to be contradictory. Building on the tradeoff argument, many authors have assumed that a company's market performance should be positively dependent on its strategic balance between exploration and exploitation over time. In this study, we apply this reasoning to the pharmaceutical industry. Using exploratory regression analysis we show that the long-term market performance of a pharmaceutical company is linked to both its ability to carry out exploratory projects and its ability to develop exploitative competencies. In particular, our findings demonstrate that, on average, the company's annual sales performance is higher the better the strategic alignment between exploration and exploitation is balanced. The contribution of our research is twofold. On the one hand, we provide empirical evidence for the initial tradeoff hypothesis and thus support the theoretical position of those who understand exploration and exploitation as strategic substitutes. On the other hand, our findings show that a balanced relationship between exploration and exploitation is also important in research-intensive industries, which naturally tend to place more emphasis on exploration.

Keywords: exploitation, exploration, market performance, pharmaceutical industry, strategy

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4527 Does Indian Intellectual Property Policy Affect the U. S. Pharmaceutical Industry? A Comparative Study of Pfizer and Ranbaxy Laboratories in Regards to Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Authors: Alina Hamid Bari

Abstract:

Intellectual Property (IP) policies of a country have a huge impact on the pharmaceutical industry as this industry is all about patents. Developed countries have used IP protection to boost their economy; developing countries are concerned about access to medicine for poor people. U.S. company, Pfizer had a monopoly for 14 years for Lipitor and it all came to end when Pfizer decided to operate in India. This research will focus at the effects of Indian IP policies on USA by comparing Pfizer & Ranbaxy with regards to Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. For this research inductive approach has been used. Main source of material is Annual reports, theory based on academic books and articles along with rulings of court, policy statements and decisions, websites and newspaper articles. SWOT analysis is done for both Pfizer & Ranbaxy. The main comparison was done by doing ratio analysis and analyses of annual reports for the year 2011-2012 for Pfizer and Ranbaxy to see the impact on their profitability. This research concludes that Indian intellectual laws do affect the profitability of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry which can in turn have an impact on the US economy. These days India is only granting patents on products which it feels are deserving of it. So the U.S. companies operating in India have to defend their invention to get a patent. Thus, to operate in India and maintain monopoly in market, US firms have to come up with different strategies.

Keywords: atorvastatin, India, intellectual property, lipitor, Pfizer, pharmaceutical industry, Ranbaxy, TRIPs, U.S.

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4526 Regime under Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement 1994 and Its Impacts on Health in Pakistan: A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Patents

Authors: Muhammad Danyal Khan

Abstract:

The standards of patentability are drawing a great impact upon medicine industry of Pakistan which is indirectly troubling the right to health of ordinary citizen. Globalization of intellectual property laws is directly impacting access to medicine for population in Pakistan. Pakistan has enacted Patent Ordinance 2000 to develop the standards of Patent laws in consonance with international commitments. Moreover, Pakistan is signatory to UN Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015), and three of them directly put stress upon the health standards. This article will provide a critical brief about implications of TRIPS Agreement on standards of health in Pakistan and will also propose a futuristic approach for the pharmaceutical industry. This paper will define the paradox of globalization and national preparedness on pharmaceutical patents utilizing industry statistics and case laws from Pakistan. Moreover, this work will contribute towards debate on access to medicine at legislative and interpretative levels that will further help development of equilibrium between pharmaceutical patents and right to health.

Keywords: TRIPS (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights), patents, compulsory licensing, patent, lifesaving drugs, WTO, infringement

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4525 Corporate Life Cycle and Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: Empirical Evidence from Pharmaceutical Industry in China

Authors: Jing (Claire) LI

Abstract:

The topic of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is significant for pharmaceutical companies in China at this current stage. This is because, as a rapid growth industry in China in recent years, the pharmaceutical industry in China has been undergone continuous and terrible incidents relating to CSR. However, there is limited research and practice of CSR in Chinese pharmaceutical companies. Also, there is an urgent call for more research in an international context to understand the implications of corporate life cycle on CSR performance. To respond to the research need and research call, this study examines the relationship between corporate life cycle and CSR performance of Chinese listed companies in pharmaceutical industry. This research studies Chinese listed companies in pharmaceutical industry for the period of 2010-2017, where the data is available in database. Following the literature, this study divides CSR performance with regards to CSR dimensions, including shareholders, creditors, employees, customers, suppliers, the government, and the society. This study uses CSR scores of HEXUN database and financial measures of these CSR dimensions to measure the CSR performance. This study performed regression analysis to examine the relationship between corporate life cycle stages and CSR performance with regards to CSR dimensions for pharmaceutical listed companies in China. Using cash flow pattern as proxy of corporate life cycle to classify corporate life cycle stages, this study found that most (least) pharmaceutical companies in China are in maturity (decline) stage. This study found that CSR performance for most dimensions are highest (lowest) in maturity (decline) stage as well. Among these CSR dimensions, performing responsibilities for shareholder is the most important among all CSR responsibilities for pharmaceutical companies. This study is the first to provide important empirical evidence from Chinese pharmaceutical industry on the association between life cycle and CSR performance, supporting that corporate life cycle is a key factor in CSR performance. The study expands corporate life cycle and CSR literatures and has both empirical and theoretical contributions to the literature. From perspective of empirical contributions, the findings contribute to the argument that whether there is a relationship between CSR performance and various corporate life cycle stages in the literature. This study also provides empirical evidence that companies in different corporate life cycles have difference in CSR performance. From perspective of theoretical contributions, this study relates CSR and stakeholders to corporate life cycle stages and complements the corporate life cycle and CSR literature. This study has important implications for managers and policy makers. First, the results will be helpful for managers to have an understanding in the essence of CSR, and their company’s current and future CSR focus over corporate life cycle. This study provides a reference for their actions and may help them make more wise resources allocation decisions of CSR investment. Second, policy makers (in the government, stock exchanges, and securities commission) may consider corporate life cycle as an important factor in formulating future regulations for companies. Future research can explore the "process-based" differences in CSR performance and more industries.

Keywords: China, corporate life cycle, corporate social responsibility, pharmaceutical industry

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4524 Determinants of Profitability in Indian Pharmaceutical Firms in the New Intellectual Property Rights Regime

Authors: Shilpi Tyagi, D. K. Nauriyal

Abstract:

This study investigates the firm level determinants of profitability of Indian drug and pharmaceutical industry. The study uses inflation adjusted panel data for a period 2000-2013 and applies OLS regression model with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors. It has been found that export intensity, A&M intensity, firm’s market power and stronger patent regime dummy have exercised positive influence on profitability. The negative and statistically significant influence of R&D intensity and raw material import intensity points to the need for firms to adopt suitable investment strategies. The study suggests that firms are required to pay far more attention to optimize their operating expenditures, advertisement and marketing expenditures and improve their export orientation, as part of the long term strategy.

Keywords: Indian pharmaceutical industry, profits, TRIPS, performance

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4523 Post Covid-19 Landscape of Global Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Abu Zafor Sadek

Abstract:

Pharmaceuticals were one of the least impacted business sectors during the corona pandemic as they are the center point of Covid-19 fight. Emergency use authorization, unproven indication of some commonly used drugs, self-medication, research and production capacity of an individual country, capacity of producing vaccine by many countries, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) related uncertainty, information gap among manufacturer, practitioners and user, export restriction, duration of lock-down, lack of harmony in transportation, disruption in the regulatory approval process, sudden increased demand of hospital items and protective equipment, panic buying, difficulties in in-person product promotion, e-prescription, geo-politics and associated issues added a new dimension to this industry. Although the industry maintains a reasonable growth throughout Covid-19 days; however, it has been characterized by both long- and short-term effects. Short-term effects have already been visible to so many countries, especially those who are import-dependent and have limited research capacity. On the other hand, it will take a few more time to see the long-term effects. Nevertheless, supply chain disruption, changes in strategic planning, new communication model, squeezing of job opportunity, rapid digitalization are the major short-term effects, whereas long-term effects include a shift towards self-sufficiency, growth pattern changes of certain products, special attention towards clinical studies, automation in operations, the increased arena of ethical issues etc. Therefore, this qualitative and exploratory study identifies the post-covid-19 landscape of the global pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: covid-19, pharmaceutical, businees, landscape

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4522 Identification of Persistent Trace Organic Pollutants in Various Waste Water Samples Using HPLC

Authors: Almas Hamid, Ghazala Yaqub, Aqsa Riaz

Abstract:

Qualitative validation was performed to detect the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in various wastewater samples collected from domestic sources (Askari XI housing society, Bedian road Lahore) industrial sources (PET bottles, pharmaceutical, textile) and a municipal drain (Hudiara drain) in Lahore. In addition wastewater analysis of the selected parameter was carried out. pH for wastewater samples from Askari XI, PET bottles, pharmaceutical, textile and Hudiara drain were 6.9, 6.7, 6.27, 7.18 and 7.9 respectively, within the NEQS Pakistan range that is 6-9. TSS for the respective samples was 194, 241, 254, 140 and 251 mg/L, in effluent for pet bottle industry, pharmaceutical and Hudiara drain and exceeded the NEQS Pakistan. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) for the wastewater samples was 896 mg/L, 166 mg/L, 419 mg/L, 812 mg/L and 610 mg/L respectively, all in excess of NEQS (150 mg/L). Similarly the biological oxygen demand (BOD) values (110.8, 170, 423, 355 and 560 mg/L respectively) were also above NEQS limits (80 mg/L). Chloride (Cl-) content, total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature were found out to be within the prescribed standard limits. The POPs selected for analysis included five pesticides/insecticides (D. D, Karate, Commando, Finis insect killer, Bifenthrin) and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene). Peak values of standards were compared with that of wastewater samples. The results showed the presence of D.D in all wastewater samples, pesticide Karate was identified in Askari XI and textile industry sample. Pesticide Commando, Finis (insect killer) and Bifenthrin were detected in Askari XI and Hudiara drain wastewater samples. In case of PAHs; naphthalene was identified in all the five wastewater samples whereas anthracene and phenanthrene were detected in samples of Askari XI housing society, PET bottles industry, pharmaceutical industry and textile industry but totally absent in Hudiara drain wastewater. Practical recommendations have been put forth to avoid hazardous impacts of incurred samples.

Keywords: HPLC studies, lahore, physicochemical analysis, wastewater

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4521 The Effect of Foreign Owned Firms and Licensed Manufacturing Agreements on Innovation: Case of Pharmaceutical Firms in Developing Countries

Authors: Ilham Benali, Nasser Hajji, Nawfal Acha

Abstract:

Given the fact that the pharmaceutical industry is a commonly studied sector in the context of innovation, the majority of innovation research is devoted to the developed markets known by high research and development (R&D) assets and intensive innovation. In contrast, in developing countries where R&D assets are very low, there is relatively little research to mention in the area of pharmaceutical sector innovation, characterized mainly by two principal elements which are the presence of foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals. With the scarcity of research in this field, this paper attempts to study the effect of these two elements on the firms’ innovation tendencies. Other traditional factors that influence innovation, which are the age and the size of the firm, the R&D activities and the market structure, revealed in the literature review, will be included in the study in order to try to make this work more exhaustive. The study starts by examining innovation tendency in pharmaceutical firms located in developing countries before analyzing the effect of foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals on technological, organizational and marketing innovation. Based on the related work and on the theoretical framework developed, there is a probability that foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals have a negative influence on technological innovation. The opposite effect is possible in the case of organizational and marketing innovation.

Keywords: developing countries, foreign owned firms, innovation, licensed manufacturing agreements, pharmaceutical industry

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4520 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

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4519 The Roles of Education, Policies and Technologies in the Globalization Processes of Creative Industry

Authors: Eureeka Haishang Wu

Abstract:

Creative Industry has been recognized as top priority in many nations for decades, as through globalization processes, culture can be economized by creative industry to develop economies. From non-economic perspectives; creative industry supports nation-identity, enhances global exposure, and improve international relation. In order to enable the globalization processes of creative industry, a three-step approach was proposed to align education, policies, and technologies into a transformation platform, and eventually to achieve a common model of global collaboration.

Keywords: creative industry, education, policies, technologies, collaboration, globalization

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4518 Impact of Task Technology Fit on User Effectiveness, Efficiency and Creativity in Iranian Pharmaceutical Oraganizations

Authors: Milad Keshvardoost, Amir Khanlari, Nader Khalesi

Abstract:

Background: Any firm in the pharmaceutical industry requires efficient and effective management information systems (MIS) to support managerial functions. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Task-Technology Fit on user effectiveness, efficiency, and creativity in Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Methodology: 345 reliable and validate questionnaires were distributed among selected samples, through the cluster method, to Information system users of eight leading Iranian pharmaceutical companies, based on the likert scale. The proposed model of the article is based on a model with Task technology fit, on user performance with the definition of efficiency, effectiveness, and creativity through mediation effects of perceived usefulness and ease of use. Results: This study confirmed that TTF with definitions of adequacy and compatibility has positive impacts on user performance Conclusion: We concluded that pharmaceutical users of IS, utilizing a system with a precise and intense observation of users' demands, may make facilitation for them to design an exclusive IS framework.

Keywords: information systems, user performance, pharmaceuticals, task technology fit

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4517 Window Analysis and Malmquist Index for Assessing Efficiency and Productivity Growth in a Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie, Ruba Najdawi, Nour Bata, Mohammad D. AL-Tahat

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical industry is an important component of health care systems throughout the world. Measurement of a production unit-performance is crucial in determining whether it has achieved its objectives or not. This paper applies data envelopment (DEA) window analysis to assess the efficiencies of two packaging lines; Allfill (new) and DP6, in the Penicillin plant in a Jordanian Medical Company in 2010. The CCR and BCC models are used to estimate the technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency. Further, the Malmquist productivity index is computed to measure then employed to assess productivity growth relative to a reference technology. Two primary issues are addressed in computation of Malmquist indices of productivity growth. The first issue is the measurement of productivity change over the period, while the second is to decompose changes in productivity into what are generally referred to as a ‘catching-up’ effect (efficiency change) and a ‘frontier shift’ effect (technological change). Results showed that DP6 line outperforms the Allfill in technical and pure technical efficiency. However, the Allfill line outperforms DP6 line in scale efficiency. The obtained efficiency values can guide production managers in taking effective decisions related to operation, management, and plant size. Moreover, both machines exhibit a clear fluctuations in technological change, which is the main reason for the positive total factor productivity change. That is, installing a new Allfill production line can be of great benefit to increasing productivity. In conclusions, the DEA window analysis combined with the Malmquist index are supportive measures in assessing efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: window analysis, malmquist index, efficiency, productivity

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4516 The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector

Authors: Morteza Raei Dehaghi, Mojtaba Molaahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Mirhashemi

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore the relationship between energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the results showed that there is one-way causality between energy consumption and value-added in the industry sector.

Keywords: economic growth, energy consumption, granger causality test, industry sector

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4515 The Potential Impact of Big Data Analytics on Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Management

Authors: Maryam Ziaee, Himanshu Shee, Amrik Sohal

Abstract:

Big Data Analytics (BDA) in supply chain management has recently drawn the attention of academics and practitioners. Big data refers to a massive amount of data from different sources, in different formats, generated at high speed through transactions in business environments and supply chain networks. Traditional statistical tools and techniques find it difficult to analyse this massive data. BDA can assist organisations to capture, store, and analyse data specifically in the field of supply chain. Currently, there is a paucity of research on BDA in the pharmaceutical supply chain context. In this research, the Australian pharmaceutical supply chain was selected as the case study. This industry is highly significant since the right medicine must reach the right patients, at the right time, in right quantity, in good condition, and at the right price to save lives. However, drug shortages remain a substantial problem for hospitals across Australia with implications on patient care, staff resourcing, and expenditure. Furthermore, a massive volume and variety of data is generated at fast speed from multiple sources in pharmaceutical supply chain, which needs to be captured and analysed to benefit operational decisions at every stage of supply chain processes. As the pharmaceutical industry lags behind other industries in using BDA, it raises the question of whether the use of BDA can improve transparency among pharmaceutical supply chain by enabling the partners to make informed-decisions across their operational activities. This presentation explores the impacts of BDA on supply chain management. An exploratory qualitative approach was adopted to analyse data collected through interviews. This study also explores the BDA potential in the whole pharmaceutical supply chain rather than focusing on a single entity. Twenty semi-structured interviews were undertaken with top managers in fifteen organisations (five pharmaceutical manufacturers, five wholesalers/distributors, and five public hospital pharmacies) to investigate their views on the use of BDA. The findings revealed that BDA can enable pharmaceutical entities to have improved visibility over the whole supply chain and also the market; it enables entities, especially manufacturers, to monitor consumption and the demand rate in real-time and make accurate demand forecasts which reduce drug shortages. Timely and precise decision-making can allow the entities to source and manage their stocks more effectively. This can likely address the drug demand at hospitals and respond to unanticipated issues such as drug shortages. Earlier studies explore BDA in the context of clinical healthcare; however, this presentation investigates the benefits of BDA in the Australian pharmaceutical supply chain. Furthermore, this research enhances managers’ insight into the potentials of BDA at every stage of supply chain processes and helps to improve decision-making in their supply chain operations. The findings will turn the rhetoric of data-driven decision into a reality where the managers may opt for analytics for improved decision-making in the supply chain processes.

Keywords: big data analytics, data-driven decision, pharmaceutical industry, supply chain management

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4514 Status Report of the Express Delivery Industry in China

Authors: Ying Bo Xie, Hisa Yuki Kurokawa

Abstract:

Due to the fast development, China's express delivery industry has involved in a dilemma that the service quality are keeping decreasing while the construction rate of delivery network cannot meet the customers’ demand. In order to get out of this dilemma and enjoy a succession development rate, it is necessary to understand the current situation of China's express delivery industry. Firstly, the evolution of China's express delivery industry was systematical presented. Secondly, according to the number of companies and the amount of parcels they has dealt each year, the merits and faults of tow kind of operating pattern was analyzed. Finally, based on the characteristics of these express companies, the problems of China's express delivery industry was divided into several types and the countermeasures were given out respectively.

Keywords: China, express delivery industry, status, problem

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4513 Management Software for the Elaboration of an Electronic File in the Pharmaceutical Industry Following Mexican Regulations

Authors: M. Peña Aguilar Juan, Ríos Hernández Ezequiel, R. Valencia Luis

Abstract:

For certification, certain goods of public interest, such as medicines and food, it is required the preparation and delivery of a dossier. For its elaboration, legal and administrative knowledge must be taken, as well as organization of the documents of the process, and an order that allows the file verification. Therefore, a virtual platform was developed to support the process of management and elaboration of the dossier, providing accessibility to the information and interfaces that allow the user to know the status of projects. The development of dossier system on the cloud allows the inclusion of the technical requirements for the software management, including the validation and the manufacturing in the field industry. The platform guides and facilitates the dossier elaboration (report, file or history), considering Mexican legislation and regulations, it also has auxiliary tools for its management. This technological alternative provides organization support for documents and accessibility to the information required to specify the successful development of a dossier. The platform divides into the following modules: System control, catalog, dossier and enterprise management. The modules are designed per the structure required in a dossier in those areas. However, the structure allows for flexibility, as its goal is to become a tool that facilitates and does not obstruct processes. The architecture and development of the software allows flexibility for future work expansion to other fields, this would imply feeding the system with new regulations.

Keywords: electronic dossier, cloud management software, pharmaceutical industry, sanitary registration

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4512 The Grit in the Glamour: A Qualitative Study of the Well-Being of Fashion Models

Authors: Emily Fortune Super, Ameerah Khadaroo, Aurore Bardey

Abstract:

Fashion models are often assumed to have a glamorous job with limited consideration for their well-being. This study aims to assess the well-being of models through semi-structured interviews with six professional fashion models and six industry professionals. Thematic analysis revealed that although models experienced improved self-confidence, they also reported heightened anxiety levels, body image issues, and the negative influence of modelling on their self-esteem. By contrast, industry professionals reported no or minimum concerns about anxious behaviours or the general well-being of fashion models. Being resilient as a model was perceived as an essential attribute to have by both models and industry professionals as they face recurrent rejection in this industry. These results demonstrate a significant gap in the current understanding of the well-being of fashion models between industry professionals and the models themselves. Findings imply that there is an inherent need for change in the modelling industry to promote and enhance their well-being.

Keywords: body image, fashion industry, modelling, well-being

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4511 Role of Information and Communication Technology in Pharmaceutical Innovation: Case of Firms in Developing Countries

Authors: Ilham Benali, Nasser Hajji, Nawfel Acha

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical sector is ongoing different constraints related to the Research and Development (R&D) costs, the patents extinction, the demand pressing, the regulatory requirement and the generics development, which drive leading firms in the sector to undergo technological change and to shift to biotechnological paradigm. Based on a large literature review, we present a background of innovation trajectory in pharmaceutical industry and reasons behind this technological transformation. Then we investigate the role that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing in this revolution. In order to situate pharmaceutical firms in developing countries in this trajectory, and to examine the degree of their involvement in the innovation process, we did not find any previous empirical work or sources generating gathered data that allow us to analyze this phenomenon. Therefore, and for the case of Morocco, we tried to do it from scratch by gathering relevant data of the last five years from different sources. As a result, only about 4% of all innovative drugs that have access to the local market in the mentioned period are made locally which substantiates that the industrial model in pharmaceutical sector in developing countries is based on the 'license model'. Finally, we present another alternative, based on ICT use and big data tools that can allow developing countries to shift from status of simple consumers to active actors in the innovation process.

Keywords: biotechnologies, developing countries, innovation, information and communication technology, pharmaceutical firms

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4510 Intellectual Capital Reporting: Case Study of Indonesian Corporations

Authors: Martin Surya Mulyadi, Rosinta Ria Panggabean

Abstract:

The terms of intellectual capital emerge as the economic activity shift from the agricultural economy to knowledge economy and it will allow corporations to earn competitive advantage to its competitors. Considering its importance, many researches have a focus on how corporations disclose its intellectual capital. This intellectual capital research mainly focuses on developed country with only several researchers conducted this research in developing the country. While there are several intellectual capital researches in developing country, to authors’ best knowledge, there is no intellectual capital reporting research in Indonesia published internationally. This research will focus on two industries that acknowledge having a high reliance on intellectual capital: finance industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Our research found that Indonesian corporations in these industries are aware of the importance of intellectual capital, and variations of this disclosure exist within the industry.

Keywords: Developed country, Indonesia, Intellectual Capital, Intellectual Capital Reporting

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4509 Supply Chain Management Practices in Thailand Palm Oil Industry

Authors: Athirat Intajorn

Abstract:

According to the ASEAN free trade areas (AFTA), Thailand has applied the AFTA agreement for reducing tariffs and reflecting changes in business processes. The reflection of changes in agribusiness processes, in particular, has accumulated as production costs for producers. Palm Oil industry has become an important industry to Thailand economic. Thailand currently ranks the 3rd in the world for Crude Palm Oil CPO. Therefore, the scope of this paper presents a research framework to investigate the supply chain management practices in Thailand palm oil industry. This research is limit to literature review. And the proposed framework identifies the criteria of supply chain management for Thailand palm oil industry in order for linkage among entities within logistics management involving plantation, mill, collection port, refinery and cookie from the data utilization. The Supply Chain Management Practices in Thailand Palm Oil Industry framework has a somewhat different view due to the high complexity of agribusiness logistics management.

Keywords: supply chain management, practice, palm oil industry, Thailand palm oil industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4508 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: S. Abd Rahim, F. A. Rahman, E. M. Nasir, N. A. Ramle

Abstract:

Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: co-crystal, dicarboxylic acid, carbamazepine, industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
4507 Models, Resources and Activities of Project Scheduling Problems

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, José J. Hernández-Flores, Edith Olaco Garcia

Abstract:

The Project Scheduling Problem (PSP) is a generic name given to a whole class of problems in which the best form, time, resources and costs for project scheduling are necessary. The PSP is an application area related to the project management. This paper aims at being a guide to understand PSP by presenting a survey of the general parameters of PSP: the Resources (those elements that realize the activities of a project), and the Activities (set of operations or own tasks of a person or organization); the mathematical models of the main variants of PSP and the algorithms used to solve the variants of the PSP. The project scheduling is an important task in project management. This paper contains mathematical models, resources, activities, and algorithms of project scheduling problems. The project scheduling problem has attracted researchers of the automotive industry, steel manufacturer, medical research, pharmaceutical research, telecommunication, industry, aviation industry, development of the software, manufacturing management, innovation and technology management, construction industry, government project management, financial services, machine scheduling, transportation management, and others. The project managers need to finish a project with the minimum cost and the maximum quality.

Keywords: PSP, Combinatorial Optimization Problems, Project Management; Manufacturing Management, Technology Management.

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4506 Proposal for a Model of Economic Integration for the Development of Industry in Cabinda, Angola

Authors: T. H. Bitebe, T. M. Lima, F. Charrua-Santos, C. J. Matias Oliveira

Abstract:

This study aims to present a proposal for an economic integration model for the development of the manufacturing industry in Cabinda, Angola. It seeks to analyze the degree of economic integration of Cabinda and the dynamics of the manufacturing industry. Therefore, in the same way, to gather information to support the decision-making for public financing programs that will aim at the disengagement of the manufacturing industry in Angola and Cabinda in particular. The Cabinda Province is the 18th of Angola, the enclave is located in a privileged area of the African and arable land.

Keywords: economic integration, industrial development, Cabinda industry, Angola

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4505 Tourism Industry in Pakistan: Challenges Faced and Future Prospects

Authors: Misbah Shaheen, Anam Qureshi

Abstract:

In this work we will discuss the challenges faced by tourism industry in Pakistan. Tourism plays vital role in the socio-economic growth of a country. The countries of world, with less tourism opportunities are lagging behind from other nations of the world. Pakistan is one of those countries which rich in historical places, natural beauty, and uniqueness in handmade items and also of green forests. Present study will discuss the challenges being faced by tourism industry with special focus on hotel industry and law and order situation.

Keywords: Pakistan, tourism, handmade items, hotel industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
4504 Software Obsolescence Drivers in Aerospace: An Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley

Abstract:

Software applications have become crucial for the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities. However, due to the considerable time difference between aircraft and software life cycles, obsolescence has turned into a major challenge for industry in last decades. This paper aims to provide a view on the different causes of software obsolescence within aerospace industry, as well as a perception on the importance of each of them. The key research question addressed is what drives software obsolescence in the aerospace industry, managing large software application portfolios. This question has been addressed by conducting firstly an in depth review of current literature and secondly by arranging an industry workshop with professionals from aerospace and consulting companies. The result is a set of drivers of software obsolescence, distributed among three different environments and several domains. By incorporating monitoring methodologies to assess those software obsolescence drivers, benefits in maintenance efforts and operations disruption avoidance are expected.

Keywords: aerospace industry, obsolescence drivers, software lifecycle, software obsolescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 316