Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5340

Search results for: learning styles

5340 Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices

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5339 Disparity of Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Vocational Education

Authors: Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad, Yee Mei Heong, Nurfirdawati Muhammad Hanafi, Tee Tze Kiong

Abstract:

This study is conducted to investigate the disparity of between learning styles and cognitive abilities specifically in Vocational Education. Felder and Silverman Learning Styles Model (FSLSM) was applied to measure the students’ learning styles while the content in Building Construction Subject consists; knowledge, skills and problem solving were taken into account in constructing the elements of cognitive abilities. There are four dimension of learning styles proposed by Felder and Silverman intended to capture student learning preferences with regards to processing either active or reflective, perception based on sensing or intuitive, input of information used visual or verbal and understanding information represent with sequential or global learner. The study discovered that students are tending to be visual learners and each type of learner having significant difference whereas cognitive abilities. The finding may help teachers to facilitate students more effectively and to boost the student’s cognitive abilities.

Keywords: learning styles, cognitive abilities, dimension of learning styles, learning preferences

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5338 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

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5337 Effects of the Mathcing between Learning and Teaching Styles on Learning with Happiness of College Students

Authors: Tasanee Satthapong

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between learning style preferences, teaching style preferences, and learning with happiness of college students who were majors in five different academic areas at the Suansunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The selected participants were 729 students 1st year-5th year in Faculty of Education from Thai teaching, early childhood education, math and science teaching, and English teaching majors. The research instruments are the Grasha and Riechmann learning and teaching styles survey and the students’ happiness in learning survey, based on learning with happiness theory initiated by the Office of the National Education Commission. The results of this study: 1) The most students’ learning styles were participant style, followed by collaborative style, and independent style 2) Most students’ happiness in learning in all subjects areas were at the moderate level: Early Childhood Education subject had the highest scores, while Math subject was at the least scores. 3) No different of student’s happiness in learning were found between students who has learning styles that match and not match to teachers’ teaching styles.

Keywords: learning style, teaching style, learning with happiness

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5336 Learning Styles Difference in Difficulties of Generating Idea

Authors: M. H. Yee, J. Md Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. K. Tee, M. M. Mohamad

Abstract:

The generation of an idea that goes through several phases is affected by individual factors, interests, preferences and motivation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to individual learning styles. A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of developed questionnaires were used in this research. The results showed that the most dominant learning style is among technical students is Doer. A total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced difficulties in solving individual assignments. Most of the problem faced by technical students is the difficulty of generating ideas for solving individual assignments. There was no significant difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to students’ learning styles. Therefore, students need to learn higher order thinking skills enabling students to generate ideas and consequently complete assignments.

Keywords: difference, difficulties, generating idea, learning styles, Kolb Learning Styles Inventory

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5335 An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective

Authors: Radesh Palakurthi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.

Keywords: hospitality competencies, hospitality education, Kolb’s learning style inventory, learning outcomes, study abroad

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5334 The Relation between Learning Styles and English Achievement in the Language Training Centre

Authors: Nurul Yusnita

Abstract:

Many studies have been developed to help the students to get good achievement in English learning. They can be from the teaching method or psychological ones. One of the psychological studies in educational research is learning style. In some ways, learning style can affect the achievement of the students. This study aimed to examine 4 (four) learning styles and their relations to English achievement among the students learning English in Language Training Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (LTC UMY). The method of this study was descriptive analytical. The sample consisted of 39 Accounting students in LTC UMY. The data was collected through questionnaires with Likert-scale. The achievement was obtained from the grade of the students. To analyze the questionnaires and to see the relation between the learning styles and the student achievement, SPSS statistical software of correlational analysis was used. The result showed that both visual and auditory had the same percentage of 35.9% (14 students). 3 students (7.7%) had kinaesthetic learning style and 8 students (20.5%) had visual and auditory ones. Meanwhile, there were 5 students (12.8%) who had visual learning style could increase their grades. Only 1 student (2.5%) who had visual and auditory could improve his grade. Besides grade increase, there were also grade decrease. Students with visual, auditory, visual and auditory, and kinaesthetic learning styles were 3 students (7.7%), 5 students (12%), 4 students (10.2%) and 1 student (2.5%) respectively. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between learning style and English achievement. Most of the good achievers were the students with visual and auditory learning styles and most of them preferred visual method. The implication is the teachers and material designers could improve their method through visual things to achieve effective English teaching learning.

Keywords: accounting students, English achievement, language training centre, learning styles

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5333 Revisiting High School Students’ Learning Styles in English Subject

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

Abstract:

The prime motive for this endeavor was to explore the tenth grade English class students’ preferred learning styles studying in government secondary school so that English subject teachers could tailor their pedagogical strategies in relation to their students learning needs. The further aim of this study was to identify any significance difference among the students on a gender basis, area basis and different categories of school basis. The population of this study consisting of all the secondary level schools working in the government sector and positioned in the province of Punjab. The multi-stage cluster sampling method was employed while selecting the study sample from the population. The scale used for the identification of students’ learning styles in this study was developed by Grasha-Riechmann. The data collected through learning style scale was analyzed by employing descriptive statistics technique. The results from data analysis depict that learning styles of the majority of students found to be Collaborative and Competitive. Overall, no considerable difference was surfaced between male-female, urban-rural, general-other categories of 10th grade English class students learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, learning style scale, grade, government sector

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5332 Learning and Teaching Styles of Student Nurses

Authors: Jefferson S. Galanza, Jewel An Mischelle R.Camcam, Alyssa Karryl C. Co, Stephanie P. De Guzman, Jet Jet K. Dongui-is, Rodolfo Dane C. Frias, Ovelle C. Jueco, Harvey L. Matbagan, Victoria Luzette T. Rillon, Christelle Romyna H. Saruca, Jeanette Roma M. Villasper

Abstract:

Background: Amidst numerous studies conducted on learning styles of students from a variety of courses, levels and school, a recent study recommended a great need for research on learning styles of student nurses. Moreover, related literatures have not been found exploring both the learning and teaching style of student nurses. Aims: The study aimed to determine the learning and teaching styles of student nurses and if there is an association between them. It also intended to discover whether student nurses are unimodal or multimodal in their styles and identified which faculty teaching style affords maximum outcome for student’s learning styles. Methods: Quantitative Descriptive-Correlational design was used. Participants were randomly selected 312 student nurses at School of Nursing X, Baguio City, Philippines. The questionnaire utilized a modified version of an adopted tool from Fleming’s VARK learning style version 7.2 (Visual, Auditory, Reader/Writer, Kinaesthetic) and Grasha’s teaching styles (Formal Authority, Demonstrator, Facilitator, Delegator). SPSS 19 was used for statistical treatment of data, where Chi square was used for the correlation of unimodal learning and teaching styles. Results/Finding: Majority of student nurses’ learning style is Kinesthetic and their teaching style is Demonstrator, which was also found to be significantly associated. Moreover, 8 out of 10 students are Unimodal in their learning and teaching modalities. In general, their preferred faculty teaching style is similar to their teaching style, which supports the concept, that teachers teach the way they learn. Conclusion: Study concludes that student nurses’ learning styles and teaching styles are varied, which exemplifies the uniqueness of every learner.This diversity in styles provided more evidence that a variety of mode of teaching and learning should be used by faculty and students to increase learning outcome and academic achievement. Recommendation: Future studies could be carried out in various schools of nursing utilizing faculty as respondents. Conduct assessment of learning style at the onset of classes/clinical placements so that faculty will become aware of the diversity of learners leading them to deliver diverse teaching methods.

Keywords: learning, learning styles, teaching styles, student nurses

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5331 A Study on Learning Styles and Academic Performance in Relation with Kinesthetic, Verbal and Visual Intelligences

Authors: Salina Budin, Nor Liawati Abu Othman, Shaira Ismail

Abstract:

This study attempts to determine kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences among mechanical engineering undergraduate students and explores any probable relation with students’ learning styles and academic performance. The questionnaire used in this study is based on Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory comprising of five elements of learning style; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Additional questions on students’ perception of learning styles and their academic performance are included in the questionnaire. The results show that one third of the students are strongly dominant in the kinesthetic intelligent (33%), followed by a combination of kinesthetic and visual intelligences (29%) and 21% are strongly dominant in all three types of intelligences. There is a statistically significant correlation between kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences and students learning styles and academic performances. The ANOVA analysis supports that there is a significant relationship between academic performances and level of kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences. In addition, it has also proven a remarkable relationship between academic performances and kinesthetic, verbal and visual learning styles amongst the male and female students. Thus, it can be concluded that, academic achievements can be enhanced by understanding as well as capitalizing the students’ types of intelligences and learning styles.

Keywords: kinesthetic intelligent, verbal intelligent, visual intelligent, learning style, academic performances

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5330 Understanding Learning Styles of Hong Kong Tertiary Students for Engineering Education

Authors: K. M. Wong

Abstract:

Engineering education is crucial to technological innovation and advancement worldwide by generating young talents who are able to integrate scientific principles and design practical solutions for real-world problems. Graduates of engineering curriculums are expected to demonstrate an extensive set of learning outcomes as required in international accreditation agreements for engineering academic qualifications, such as the Washington Accord and the Sydney Accord. On the other hand, students have different learning preferences of receiving, processing and internalizing knowledge and skills. If the learning environment is advantageous to the learning styles of the students, there is a higher chance that the students can achieve the intended learning outcomes. With proper identification of the learning styles of the students, corresponding teaching strategies can then be developed for more effective learning. This research was an investigation of learning styles of tertiary students studying higher diploma programmes in Hong Kong. Data from over 200 students in engineering programmes were collected and analysed to identify the learning characteristics of students. A small-scale longitudinal study was then started to gather academic results of the students throughout their two-year engineering studies. Preliminary results suggested that the sample students were reflective, sensing, visual, and sequential learners. Observations from the analysed data not only provided valuable information for teachers to design more effective teaching strategies, but also provided data for further analysis with the students’ academic results. The results generated from the longitudinal study shed light on areas of improvement for more effective engineering curriculum design for better teaching and learning.

Keywords: learning styles, learning characteristics, engineering education, vocational education, Hong Kong

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5329 Learning Object Interface Adapted to the Learner's Learning Style

Authors: Zenaide Carvalho da Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Ferreira, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel

Abstract:

Learning styles (LS) refer to the ways and forms that the student prefers to learn in the teaching and learning process. Each student has their own way of receiving and processing information throughout the learning process. Therefore, knowing their LS is important to better understand their individual learning preferences, and also, understand why the use of some teaching methods and techniques give better results with some students, while others it does not. We believe that knowledge of these styles enables the possibility of making propositions for teaching; thus, reorganizing teaching methods and techniques in order to allow learning that is adapted to the individual needs of the student. Adapting learning would be possible through the creation of online educational resources adapted to the style of the student. In this context, this article presents the structure of a learning object interface adaptation based on the LS. The structure created should enable the creation of the adapted learning object according to the student's LS and contributes to the increase of student’s motivation in the use of a learning object as an educational resource.

Keywords: adaptation, interface, learning object, learning style

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5328 ILearn, a Pathway to Progress

Authors: Reni Francis

Abstract:

Learning has transcended the classroom boundaries to create a learner centric, interactive, and integrative teaching learning environment. This study analysed the impact of iLearn on the teaching, learning, and evaluation among 100 teacher trainees. The objectives were to cater to the different learning styles of the teacher trainees, to incorporate innovative teaching learning activities, to assist in peer tutoring, to implement different evaluation processes. i: Identifying the learning styles among the teacher trainees through VARK Learning style checklist was followed by planning the teaching-learning process to meet the learning styles of the teacher trainees. L: Leveraging innovations in teaching- learning by planning and creating modules incorporating innovative teaching learning and hence the concept based year plan was prepared. E: Engage learning through constructivism using different teaching methodology to engage the teacher trainees in the learning process through Workshop, Round Robin, Gallery walk, Co-Operative learning, Think-Pair-Share, EDMODO, Course Networking, Concept Map, Brainstorming Sessions, Video Clippings. A: Assessing the learning through an Open Book assignment, Closed book assignment, and Multiple Choice Questions and Seminar presentation. R: Remediation through peer tutoring through Mentor-mentee approach in the tutorial groups, Group work, Library Hours. N: Norming new standards. This was done in the form of extended remediation and tutorials to understand the need of the teacher trainee and support them for further achievements in learning through Face to face interaction, Supervised Study Circle, Mobile (Device) learning. The findings of the study revealed the positive impact of iLearn towards student achievement and enhanced social skills.

Keywords: academic achievement, innovative strategy, learning styles, social skills

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5327 The Grade Six Pupils' Learning Styles and Their Achievements and Difficulties on Fractions Based on Kolb's Model

Authors: Faiza Abdul Latip

Abstract:

One of the ultimate goals of any nation is to produce competitive manpower and this includes Philippines. Inclination in the field of Mathematics has a significant role in achieving this goal. However, Mathematics, as considered by most people, is the most difficult subject matter along with its topics to learn. This could be manifested from the low performance of students in national and international assessments. Educators have been widely using learning style models in identifying the way students learn. Moreover, it could be the frontline in knowing the difficulties held by each learner in a particular topic specifically concepts pertaining to fractions. However, as what many educators observed, students show difficulties in doing mathematical tasks and in great degree in dealing with fractions most specifically in the district of Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao. This study focused on the Datu Odin Sinsuat district grade six pupils’ learning styles along with their achievements and difficulties in learning concepts on fractions. Five hundred thirty-two pupils from ten different public elementary schools of the Datu Odin Sinsuat districts were purposively used as the respondents of the study. A descriptive research using the survey method was employed in this study. Quantitative analysis on the pupils’ learning styles on the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (KLSI) and scores on the mathematics diagnostic test on fraction concepts were made using this method. The simple frequency and percentage counts were used to analyze the pupils’ learning styles and their achievements on fractions. To determine the pupils’ difficulties in fractions, the index of difficulty on every item was determined. Lastly, the Kruskal-Wallis Test was used in determining the significant difference in the pupils’ achievements on fractions classified by their learning styles. This test was set at 0.05 level of significance. The minimum H-Value of 7.82 was used to determine the significance of the test. The results revealed that the pupils of Datu Odin Sinsuat districts learn fractions in varied ways as they are of different learning styles. However, their achievements in fractions are low regardless of their learning styles. Difficulties in learning fractions were found most in the area of Estimation, Comparing/Ordering, and Division Interpretation of Fractions. Most of the pupils find it very difficult to use fraction as a measure, compare or arrange series of fractions and use the concept of fraction as a quotient.

Keywords: difficulties in fraction, fraction, Kolb's model, learning styles

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5326 Navigating the Case-Based Learning Multimodal Learning Environment: A Qualitative Study Across the First-Year Medical Students

Authors: Bhavani Veasuvalingam

Abstract:

Case-based learning (CBL) is a popular instructional method aimed to bridge theory to clinical practice. This study aims to explore CBL mixed modality curriculum in influencing students’ learning styles and strategies that support learning. An explanatory sequential mixed method study was employed with initial phase, 44-itemed Felderman’s Index of Learning Style (ILS) questionnaire employed across year one medical students (n=142) using convenience sampling to describe the preferred learning styles. The qualitative phase utilised three focus group discussions (FGD) to explore in depth on the multimodal learning style exhibited by the students. Most students preferred combination of learning stylesthat is reflective, sensing, visual and sequential i.e.: RSVISeq style (24.64%) from the ILS analysis. The frequency of learning preference from processing to understanding were well balanced, with sequential-global domain (66.2%); sensing-intuitive (59.86%), active- reflective (57%), and visual-verbal (51.41%). The qualitative data reported three major themes, namely Theme 1: CBL mixed modalities navigates learners’ learning style; Theme 2: Multimodal learners active learning strategies supports learning. Theme 3: CBL modalities facilitating theory into clinical knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative study strongly reports the multimodal learning style of the year one medical students. Medical students utilise multimodal learning styles to attain the clinical knowledge when learning with CBL mixed modalities. Educators’ awareness of the multimodal learning style is crucial in delivering the CBL mixed modalities effectively, considering strategic pedagogical support students to engage and learn CBL in bridging the theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

Keywords: case-based learning, learnign style, medical students, learning

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5325 Social Media Data Analysis for Personality Modelling and Learning Styles Prediction Using Educational Data Mining

Authors: Srushti Patil, Preethi Baligar, Gopalkrishna Joshi, Gururaj N. Bhadri

Abstract:

In designing learning environments, the instructional strategies can be tailored to suit the learning style of an individual to ensure effective learning. In this study, the information shared on social media like Facebook is being used to predict learning style of a learner. Previous research studies have shown that Facebook data can be used to predict user personality. Users with a particular personality exhibit an inherent pattern in their digital footprint on Facebook. The proposed work aims to correlate the user's’ personality, predicted from Facebook data to the learning styles, predicted through questionnaires. For Millennial learners, Facebook has become a primary means for information sharing and interaction with peers. Thus, it can serve as a rich bed for research and direct the design of learning environments. The authors have conducted this study in an undergraduate freshman engineering course. Data from 320 freshmen Facebook users was collected. The same users also participated in the learning style and personality prediction survey. The Kolb’s Learning style questionnaires and Big 5 personality Inventory were adopted for the survey. The users have agreed to participate in this research and have signed individual consent forms. A specific page was created on Facebook to collect user data like personal details, status updates, comments, demographic characteristics and egocentric network parameters. This data was captured by an application created using Python program. The data captured from Facebook was subjected to text analysis process using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count dictionary. An analysis of the data collected from the questionnaires performed reveals individual student personality and learning style. The results obtained from analysis of Facebook, learning style and personality data were then fed into an automatic classifier that was trained by using the data mining techniques like Rule-based classifiers and Decision trees. This helps to predict the user personality and learning styles by analysing the common patterns. Rule-based classifiers applied for text analysis helps to categorize Facebook data into positive, negative and neutral. There were totally two models trained, one to predict the personality from Facebook data; another one to predict the learning styles from the personalities. The results show that the classifier model has high accuracy which makes the proposed method to be a reliable one for predicting the user personality and learning styles.

Keywords: educational data mining, Facebook, learning styles, personality traits

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5324 Learning Preference in Nursing Students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri

Authors: B. Wattanakul, G. Ngamwongwan, S. Ngamkham

Abstract:

Exposure to different learning experiences contributes to changing in learning style. Addressing students’ learning preference could help teachers provide different learning activities that encourage the student to learn effectively. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe learning styles of nursing students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri. Sample: The purposive sample was 463 nursing students who were enrolled in a nursing program at different academic levels. The 16-item VARK questionnaire with 4 multiple choices was administered at one time data collection. Choices have consisted with modalities of Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic measured by VARK. Results: Majority of learning preference of students at different levels was visual and read/write learning preference. Almost 67% of students have a multimodal preference, which is visual learning preference associated with read/write or kinesthetic preference. At different academic levels, multimodalities are greater than single preference. Over 30% of students have one dominant learning preference, including visual preference, read/write preference and kinesthetic preference. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment revealed a significant difference between students based on their academic level (p < 0.001). Learning style of the first-grade nursing students differed from the second-grade nursing students (p < 0.001). While learning style of nursing students in the second-grade has significantly varied from the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grade (p < 0.001), learning preference of the 3rd grade has significantly differed from the 4th grade of nursing students (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Nursing students have varied learning styles based on their different academic levels. Learning preference is not fixed attributes. This should help nursing teachers assess the types of changes in students’ learning preferences while developing teaching plans to optimize students’ learning environment and achieve the needs of the courses and help students develop learning preference to meet the need of the course.

Keywords: learning preference, VARK, learning style, nursing

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5323 The Influence of Learning Styles on Learners Grade Achievement in E-Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

Authors: Thomas Yeboah, Gifty Akouko Sarpong

Abstract:

Every learner has a specific learning style that helps him/her to study best. This means that any learning method (e-learning method or traditional face-to-face method) a learner chooses should address the learning style of the learner. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate whether learners’ grade achievement in e-learning environment is improved for learners with a particular learning style. In this research, purposive sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample size of three hundred and twenty (320) students studying a course UGRC 140 Science and Technology in our Lives at Christian Service University College. Data were analyzed by using, percentages, T -test, and one-way ANOVA. A thorough analysis was done on the data collected and the results revealed that learners with the Assimilator learning style and the converger learning style obtained higher grade achievement than both diverger learning style and accommodative learning style. Again, the results also revealed that accommodative learning style was not good enough for e-learning method.

Keywords: e-learning, learning style, grade achievement, accomodative, divergent, convergent, assimilative

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5322 Undergraduates Learning Preferences: A Comparison of Science, Technology and Social Science Academic Disciplines in Relations to Teaching Designs and Strategies

Authors: Salina Budin, Shaira Ismail

Abstract:

Students learn effectively in a learning environment with a suitable teaching approach that matches their learning preferences. The main objective of the study is to examine the learning preferences amongst the students in the Science and Technology (S&T), and Social Science (SS) fields of study at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Pulau Pinang. The measurement instrument is based on the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles which measure five elements of learning styles; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Faculty of Business Management. The respondents comprise of 131 diploma students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and 111 degree students of the Faculty of Business Management. The results indicate that, both S&T and SS students share a similar learning preferences on the environmental aspect, emotional preferences, motivational level, learning responsibility, persistent level in learning and learning structure. Most of the S&T students are concluded as analytical learners and the majority of SS students are global learners. Both S&T and SS students are concluded as visual learners, preferred to be in an active mobility in a relaxing and enjoying mode with some light of refreshments during the learning process and exhibited reflective characteristics in learning. Obviously, the S&T students are considered as left brain dominant, whereas the SS students are right brain dominant. The findings highlighted that both categories of students exhibited similar learning preferences except on psychological preferences.

Keywords: learning preferences, Dunn and Dunn learning style, teaching approach, science and technology, social science

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5321 Innovations in Teaching

Authors: Dilek Turan Eroğlu

Abstract:

Educators have been searching the more effective and appalling methods of teaching for ages. It has always been an issue among the teachers and scientists to improve the quality of education and to ensure that all students have equal opportunities to learn. However, when it comes to the effective ways of learning,the learners are exposed to the ways which are chosen and approved to be effective by their teachers not by the learners themselves. This is the main problem of this study as the learners are not always happy to be in their classes being treated with their teachers’ favourite styles. This paper is telling the results of a study which has been conducted with the university students in Turkey. The students have been interviewed and asked to respond some questions related to best practices to find out their favourite styles, medium, techniques and strategies. The study has been conducted using qualitative research methods i.e one to one interviews and group discussions. The results show that the learners have significantly different views than the educators when it comes to modern teaching styles. Their definition of the term “modern teaching styles” is different than the general understanding. The university students expect their teachers to be “early adopter”. of ICT tools and or the other electronic devices, but a modern teacher must have many other characteristics for them.

Keywords: effective, innovation, teaching, modern teaching styles

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5320 Effective Learning and Testing Methods in School-Aged Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinlou, Reza Kormi-Nouri, Monika Knopf, Kamal Kharrazi

Abstract:

When we teach, we have two critical elements at our disposal to help students: learning styles as well as testing styles. There are many different ways in which educators can effectively teach their students; verbal learning and experience-based learning. Lecture as a form of verbal learning style is a traditional arrangement in which teachers are more active and share information verbally with students. In experienced-based learning as the process of through, students learn actively through hands-on learning materials and observing teachers or others. Meanwhile, standard testing or assessment is the way to determine progress toward proficiency. Teachers and instructors mainly use essay (requires written responses), multiple choice questions (includes the correct answer and several incorrect answers as distractors), or open-ended questions (respondents answers it with own words). The current study focused on exploring an effective teaching style and testing methods as the function of age over school ages. In the present study, totally 410 participants were selected randomly from four grades (2ⁿᵈ, 4ᵗʰ, 6ᵗʰ, and 8ᵗʰ). Each subject was tested individually in one session lasting around 50 minutes. In learning tasks, the participants were presented three different instructions for learning materials (learning by doing, learning by observing, and learning by listening). Then, they were tested via different standard assessments as free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The results revealed that generally students remember more of what they do and what they observe than what they hear. The age effect was more pronounced in learning by doing than in learning by observing, and learning by listening, becoming progressively stronger in the free-recall, cued-recall, and recognition tasks. The findings of this study indicated that learning by doing and free recall task is more age sensitive, suggesting that both of them are more strategic and more affected by developmental differences. Pedagogically, these results denoted that learning by modeling and engagement in program activities have the special role for learning. Moreover, the findings indicated that the multiple-choice questions can produce the best performance for school-aged children but is less age-sensitive. By contrast, the essay as essay can produce the lowest performance but is more age-sensitive. It will be very helpful for educators to know that what types of learning styles and test methods are most effective for students in each school grade.

Keywords: experience-based learning, learning style, school-aged children, testing methods, verbal learning

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5319 Romanian Teachers' Perspectives of Different Leadership Styles

Authors: Ralpian Randolian

Abstract:

Eighty-five Romanian teachers and principals participated on this study to examine their perspectives of different leadership styles. Demographic variables such as the source of degree (Romania, Europe institutes, USA institutes, etc.), gender, region, level taught, years of experience, and specialty were identified. The researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 4 leadership styles. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify which of the variables best predict the leadership styles. Results indicated that the democracy style was the most preferred leadership style by Jordanian parents, while the authoritarian styles ranked second. The results also found statistically significant differences were found related to the study variables. This study ends by putting forward a number of suggestions and recommendation.

Keywords: teachers’ perspectives, leadership styles, gender, structural equation modeling

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5318 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

Abstract:

The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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5317 Strength of Gratitude Determining Subjective Well-Being: Evidence for Mediating Role of Problem-Solving Styles

Authors: Sarwat Sultan, Shahzad Gul

Abstract:

This study was carried out to see the mediating role of problem solving styles (sensing, intuitive, feeling, and thinking) in the predictive relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. A sample of 454 college students aged 20-26 years old participated in this study and provided data on the measures of gratitude, problem solving styles, and subjective well-being. Results indicated the significant relationships of gratitude with subjective well-being and problem solving styles of intuitive and thinking. Results further indicated the positive link of intuitive and thinking styles with subjective well-being. Findings also provided the evidence for the significant mediating role of problem solving styles in the relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. The implication for this study is likely to enhance the medium to long term effects of gratitude on subjective well-being among students and as well as assessing its value in promoting psychological health and problem solving strategies among students.

Keywords: gratitude, subjective well-being, problem solving styles, college students

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5316 The Influence of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance and Innovation: Empirical Study in Information Technology Sector in Spain

Authors: Richard Mababu Mukiur

Abstract:

Leadership is an important drive that plays a key role in the success and development of organizations, particularly in the current context of digital transformation, highly competitivity and globalization. Leaders are persons that hold a dominant and privileged position within an organization, field, or sector of activities and are able to manage, motivate and exercise a high degree of influence over other in order to achieve the institutional goals. They achieve commitment and engagement of others to embrace change, and to make good decisions. Leadership studies in higher education institutions have examined how effective leaders hold their organizations, and also to find approaches which fit best in the organizations context for its better management, transformation and improvement. Moreover, recent studies have highlighted the impact of leadership styles on organizational performance and innovation capacities, since some styles give better results than others. Effective leadership is part of learning process that take place through day-to-day tasks, responsibilities, and experiences that influence the organizational performance, innovation and engagement of employees. The adoption of appropriate leadership styles can improve organization results and encourage learning process, team skills and performance, and employees' motivation and engagement. In the case of case of Information Technology sector, leadership styles are particularly crucial since this sector is leading relevant changes and transformations in the knowledge society. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze managers leadership styles with their relation to organizational performance and innovation that may be mediated by learning organization process and demographic variables. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the transformational and transactional leadership will be the main style adopted in Information Technology sector and will influence organizational performance and innovation capacity. A sample of 540 participants from Information technology sector has been determined in order to achieve the objective of this study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was administered as the principal instrument, Scale of innovation and Learning Organization Questionnaire. Correlations and multiple regression analysis have been used as the main techniques of data analysis. The findings indicate that leadership styles have a relevant impact on organizational performance and innovation capacity. The transformational and transactional leadership are predominant styles in Information technology sector. The effective leadership style tend to be characterized by the capacity of generating and sharing knowledge that improve organization performance and innovation capacity. Managers are adopting and adapting their leadership styles that respond to the new organizational, social and cultural challenges and realities of contemporary society. Managers who encourage innovation, foster learning process, share experience are useful to the organization since they contribute to its development and transformation. Learning process capacity and demographic variables (age, gender, and job tenure) mediate the relationship between leadership styles, innovation capacity and organizational performance. The transformational and transactional leadership tend to enhance the organizational performance due to their significant impact on team-building, employees' engagement and satisfaction. Some practical implications and future lines of research have been proposed.

Keywords: leadership styles, tranformational leadership, organisational performance, organisational innovation

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5315 Investigating Factors Influencing Online Formal and Informal Learning Satisfaction of College Students

Authors: Lei Zhang, Li Ji

Abstract:

Formal learning and informal learning represent two distinct learning styles: one is systematic and organized, another is causal and unstructured. Although there are many factors influencing online learning satisfaction, including self-regulation, self-efficacy, and interaction, factors influencing online formal learning and informal learning satisfaction may differ from each other. This paper investigated and compared influential factors of online formal and informal learning. Two questionnaires were created based on previous studies to explore factors influencing online formal learning and online informal learning satisfaction, respectively. A sample of 105 college students from different departments in a university located in the eastern part of China was selected to participate in this study. They all had an online learning experience and agreed to fill out questionnaires. Correlation analysis, variance analysis, and regression analysis were employed in this study. In addition, five participants were chosen for interviews. The study found that student-content, interaction, self-regulation, and self-efficacy related positively to both online formal learning and informal learning satisfaction. In addition, compared to online formal learning, student-content interaction in informal learning was the most influential factor for online learning satisfaction, perhaps that online informal learning was more goal-oriented and learners paid attention to the quality of content. In addition, results also revealed that interactions among students or teachers had little impact on online informal learning satisfaction. This study compared influential factors in online formal and informal learning satisfaction helped to add discussions to online learning satisfaction and contributed to further practices of online learning.

Keywords: learning satisfaction, formal learning, informal learning, online learning

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5314 The Educational Philosophies and Teaching Style Preferences of College Faculty at Selected Universities in the South of Metro Manila

Authors: Grace D. Severo, Lopita U. Jung

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the educational philosophies and teaching styles of the college faculty of the University of Perpetual Help System DALTA in the campuses of Las-Piñas, Molino, and Calamba, south of Metro Manila. It sought to determine the relationships of educational philosophy and teaching styles of the college faculty vis-à-vis the university system’s educational philosophies and teaching style preferences. A hundred and five faculty members from the Colleges of Education, Arts and Sciences responded to the survey during the academic year 2014-2015. The Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory measured the faculty’s preferred educational philosophies. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale measured the faculty’s teaching style preference. Findings show that there is a similarity between the university system and the faculty members in using the progressive educational philosophy, however both contrasted in the preferred teaching style. Majority of the faculty held progressive educational philosophy but their preference for teacher-centered teaching style did not match. This implies that the majority are certain of having progressive educational philosophy but are not utilizing the learner-centered teaching styles; a high degree of support and commitment to practice a progressive and humanist philosophical orientation in education; and a high degree of support on teacher-centered teaching style promotion from the institution can strengthen a high degree of commitment for the faculty to enunciate their values and practice through these educational philosophies and teaching styles.

Keywords: educational philosophies, teaching styles, philosophy of adult education inventory, principles of adult learning scale

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5313 The Relationship among Attachment Styles, Humor Styles and Communication Patterns in Female Married Students

Authors: Elham Fathi, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Abolfazl Hatami Varzane

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine predict capacity of the relationship among attachment styles, humor styles and communication patterns in female married students. Statistical population consisted of female married students from Allameh Tabataba’i University. The research sample consisted of 104 married students selected through convenience sampling. They responded to study instruments that consisted of attachment styles, humor styles and Communication patterns questionnaires. Data was analyzed by means of correlation method. The results indicated significant positive relationship between secure attachment styles with adaptive humor styles, and anxious attachment styles with maladaptive humor styles. Also a negative relationship between avoidant attachment with affiliative humor, and anxious attachment with self-enhancing humor was found. Furthermore, a negative relationship between self- enhancing humor styles with demand – withdraw communication pattern, and between affiliative humor with mutual avoidant communication pattern and a positive relationship between affiliative humor with mutual constructive communication pattern was observed. The relationship between secure attachment with mutual constructive communication pattern was positive, while relationship between avoidant attachment to mutual constructive communication pattern was negative and significant and its relation with mutual avoidant communication pattern was significantly positive. The result of regression analysis indicated that affliative humor style and secure attachment style, positively predicted mutual constructive communication pattern. Avoidant attachment style positively and affliative humor style negatively predicted the mutual avoidant communication pattern. And self-enhancing humor style negatively predicted the demand – withdraw communication pattern style.

Keywords: attachment styles, communication patterns, humor styles, female married students

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5312 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan

Abstract:

Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

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5311 A Corpus-Based Study on the Styles of Three Translators

Authors: Wang Yunhong

Abstract:

The present paper is preoccupied with the different styles of three translators in their translating a Chinese classical novel Shuihu Zhuan. Based on a parallel corpus, it adopts a target-oriented approach to look into whether and what stylistic differences and shifts the three translations have revealed. The findings show that the three translators demonstrate different styles concerning their word choices and sentence preferences, which implies that identification of recurrent textual patterns may be a basic step for investigating the style of a translator.

Keywords: corpus, lexical choices, sentence characteristics, style

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