Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2636

Search results for: optimal capacitor placement

2636 Intelligent Minimal Allocation of Capacitors in Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam

Abstract:

A distribution system is an interface between the bulk power system and the consumers. Among these systems, radial distributions system is popular because of low cost and simple design. In distribution systems, the voltages at buses reduces when moved away from the substation, also the losses are high. The reason for a decrease in voltage and high losses is the insufficient amount of reactive power, which can be provided by the shunt capacitors. But the placement of the capacitor with an appropriate size is always a challenge. Thus, the optimal capacitor placement problem is to determine the location and size of capacitors to be placed in distribution networks in an efficient way to reduce the power losses and improve the voltage profile of the system. For this purpose, in this paper, two stage methodologies are used. In the first stage, the load flow of pre-compensated distribution system is carried out using ‘dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm (DRDLFA)’. On the basis of this load flow the potential locations of compensation are computed. In the second stage, Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is used to determine the optimal location and size of the capacitors such that the cost of the energy loss and capacitor cost to be a minimum. The above method is tested on IEEE 9 and 34 bus system and compared with other methods in the literature.

Keywords: dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm, DRDLFA, genetic algorithm, electrical distribution network, optimal capacitors placement, voltage profile improvement, loss reduction

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2635 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar

Abstract:

One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

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2634 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ali Ravangard, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Shunt Capacitors have several uses in the electric power systems. They are utilized as sources of reactive power by connecting them in line-to-neutral. Electric utilities have also connected capacitors in series with long lines in order to reduce its impedance. This is particularly common in the transmission level, where the lines have length in several hundreds of kilometers. However, this post will generally discuss shunt capacitors. In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. For solving the problem, a new enhanced cuckoo optimization algorithm is presented.The proposed method is tested on distribution test system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: capacitor placement, power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems

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2633 Global Optimization Techniques for Optimal Placement of HF Antennas on a Shipboard

Authors: Mustafa Ural, Can Bayseferogulari

Abstract:

In this work, radio frequency (RF) coupling between two HF antennas on a shipboard platform is minimized by determining an optimal antenna placement. Unlike the other works, the coupling is minimized not only at single frequency but over the whole frequency band of operation. Similarly, GAO and PSO, are used in order to determine optimal antenna placement. Throughout this work, outputs of two optimization techniques are compared with each other in terms of antenna placements and coupling results. At the end of the work, far-field radiation pattern performances of the antennas at their optimal places are analyzed in terms of directivity and coverage in order to see that.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, antenna placement, optimization, genetic algorithm optimization, particle swarm optimization

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2632 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems

Authors: Sana Ansari, Sirus Mohammadi

Abstract:

In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) has been used to solve the maximization modules using the MINOS optimization software with Linear Programming (LP). The proposed method is tested on 33 node distribution system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems, capacitor

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2631 Optimal Capacitors Placement and Sizing Improvement Based on Voltage Reduction for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Zilaila Zakaria, Muhd Azri Abdul Razak, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Mohd Ainor Yahya, Ismail Musirin, Mat Nasir Kari, Mohd Fazli Osman, Mohd Zaini Hassan, Baihaki Azraee

Abstract:

Energy efficiency can be realized by minimizing the power loss with a sufficient amount of energy used in an electrical distribution system. In this report, a detailed analysis of the energy efficiency of an electric distribution system was carried out with an implementation of the optimal capacitor placement and sizing (OCPS). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) will be used to determine optimal location and sizing for the capacitors whereas energy consumption and power losses minimization will improve the energy efficiency. In addition, a certain number of busbars or locations are identified in advance before the PSO is performed to solve OCPS. In this case study, three techniques are performed for the pre-selection of busbar or locations which are the power-loss-index (PLI). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is designed to provide a new population with improved sizing and location of capacitors. The total cost of power losses, energy consumption and capacitor installation are the components considered in the objective and fitness functions of the proposed optimization technique. Voltage magnitude limit, total harmonic distortion (THD) limit, power factor limit and capacitor size limit are the parameters considered as the constraints for the proposed of optimization technique. In this research, the proposed methodologies implemented in the MATLAB® software will transfer the information, execute the three-phase unbalanced load flow solution and retrieve then collect the results or data from the three-phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems modeled in the SIMULINK® software. Effectiveness of the proposed methods used to improve the energy efficiency has been verified through several case studies and the results are obtained from the test systems of IEEE 13-bus unbalanced electrical distribution system and also the practical electrical distribution system model of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (SSAAS) government building in Shah Alam, Selangor.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, pre-determine of capacitor locations, optimal capacitors placement and sizing, unbalanced electrical distribution system

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2630 Distribution System Planning with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placements

Authors: Nattachote Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents a feeder reconfiguration problem in distribution systems. The objective is to minimize the system power loss and to improve bus voltage profile. The optimization problem is subjected to system constraints consisting of load-point voltage limits, radial configuration format, no load-point interruption, and feeder capability limits. A method based on genetic algorithm, a search algorithm based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics, is proposed to determine the optimal pattern of configuration. The developed methodology is demonstrated by a 33-bus radial distribution system with distributed generations and feeder capacitors. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the minimum power loss while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: network reconfiguration, distributed generation capacitor placement, loss reduction, genetic algorithm

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2629 Optimal Design of Reference Node Placement for Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems in Multi-Floor Building

Authors: Kittipob Kondee, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimization technique that can be used to optimize the placements of reference nodes and improve the location determination performance for the multi-floor building. The proposed technique is based on Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA) and is called MSMR-M. The performance study in this work is based on simulation. We compare other node-placement techniques found in the literature with the optimal node-placement solutions obtained from our optimization. The results show that using the optimal node-placement obtained by our proposed technique can improve the positioning error distances up to 20% better than those of the other techniques. The proposed technique can provide an average error distance within 1.42 meters.

Keywords: indoor positioning system, optimization system design, multi-floor building, wireless sensor networks

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2628 Behaviour of an RC Circuit near Extreme Point

Authors: Tribhuvan N. Soorya

Abstract:

Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor can be shown as exponential curve. Theoretically, it takes infinite time to fully charge or discharge a capacitor. The flow of charge is due to electrons having finite and fixed value of charge. If we carefully examine the charging and discharging process after several time constants, the points on q vs t graph become discrete and curve become discontinuous. Moreover for all practical purposes capacitor with charge (q0-e) can be taken as fully charged, as it introduces an error less than one part per million. Similar is the case for discharge of a capacitor, where the capacitor with the last electron (charge e) can be taken as fully discharged. With this, we can estimate the finite value of time for fully charging and discharging a capacitor.

Keywords: charging, discharging, RC Circuit, capacitor

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2627 A Study on the Optimal Placement and Control Scheme for Multi Terminal HVDC in Korea

Authors: Chur Hee Lee, Ju Sik Kwak, Seung Wan Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals about economics and control of optimal placement of multi-terminal HVDC in Korea. Currently, No.1 and 2 HVDC are installed in Jeju and Mainland, Dangjin Godeok HVDC starts operation in 2020. Jeju No.3 HVDC also starts operation in 2022. HVDC systems in Korea are expanding. Also, super grid projects with China, Japan, and Russia are under consideration. In this situation, it is necessary to study how to install optimal HVDC in Korea and how to control it. After initializing the Optical Polwer Flow (OPF) procudure using lossless economic dispatch, grobal iteration will be set. And then, this will be formed as the Lagrangian function and linearizied. We will also analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode for optimal operating conditions of voltage and current complex HVDC in Korea.

Keywords: economics, HVDC, multi terminal, optimal

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2626 Innovative Three Wire Capacitor Circuit System for Efficiency and Comfort Improvement of Ceiling Fans

Authors: R. K. Saket, K. S. Anand Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system used to increase the efficiency and comfort improvement of permanent split-capacitor ceiling fan. In this innovative circuit, current has been reduced to save electrical power. The system could be used to replace standard single phase motor 2-wire capacitor configuration by cost effective split value X rated of optimized AC capacitors with the auxiliary winding to provide reliable ceiling fan operation and improved machine performance to save power. In basic system operations, comparisons with conventional ceiling fan are described.

Keywords: permanent split-capacitor motor, innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system, standard 2-wire capacitor circuit system, metalized film X-rated capacitor

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2625 A CMOS Capacitor Array for ESPAR with Fast Switching Time

Authors: Jin-Sup Kim, Se-Hwan Choi, Jae-Young Lee

Abstract:

A 8-bit CMOS capacitor array is designed for using in electrically steerable passive array radiator (ESPAR). The proposed capacitor array shows the fast response time in rising and falling characteristics. Compared to other works in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technologies, it shows a comparable tuning range and switching time with low power consumption. Using the 0.18um CMOS, the capacitor array features a tuning range of 1.5 to 12.9 pF at 2.4GHz. Including the 2X4 decoder for control interface, the Chip size is 350um X 145um. Current consumption is about 80 nA at 1.8 V operation.

Keywords: CMOS capacitor array, ESPAR, SOI, SOS, switching time

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2624 Optimal Wind Based DG Placement Considering Monthly Changes Modeling in Wind Speed

Authors: Belal Mohamadi Kalesar, Raouf Hasanpour

Abstract:

Proper placement of Distributed Generation (DG) units such as wind turbine generators in distribution system are still very challenging issue for obtaining their maximum potential benefits because inappropriate placement may increase the system losses. This paper proposes Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique for optimal placement of wind based DG (WDG) in the primary distribution system to reduce energy losses and voltage profile improvement with four different wind levels modeling in year duration. Also, wind turbine is modeled as a DFIG that will be operated at unity power factor and only one wind turbine tower will be considered to install at each bus of network. Finally, proposed method will be implemented on widely used 69 bus power distribution system in MATLAB software environment under four scenario (without, one, two and three WDG units) and for capability test of implemented program it is supposed that all buses of standard system can be candidate for WDG installing (large search space), though this program can consider predetermined number of candidate location in WDG placement to model financial limitation of project. Obtained results illustrate that wind speed increasing in some months will increase output power generated but this can increase / decrease power loss in some wind level, also results show that it is required about 3MW WDG capacity to install in different buses but when this is distributed in overall network (more number of WDG) it can cause better solution from point of view of power loss and voltage profile.

Keywords: wind turbine, DG placement, wind levels effect, PSO algorithm

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2623 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: Satyendra Pratap Singh, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: gravitational search algorithm (GSA), law of motion, law of gravity, observability, phasor measurement unit

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2622 Application Procedure for Optimized Placement of Buckling Restrained Braces in Reinforced Concrete Building Structures

Authors: S. A. Faizi, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

The optimal design procedure of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) in reinforced concrete (RC) building structures can provide the distribution of horizontal stiffness of BRBs at each story, which minimizes story drift response of the structure under the constraint of specified total stiffness of BRBs. In this paper, a simple rule is proposed to convert continuous horizontal stiffness of BRBs into sectional sizes of BRB which are available from standardized section list assuming realistic structural design stage.

Keywords: buckling restrained brace, building engineering, optimal damper placement, structural engineering

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2621 Pareto System of Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Radial Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Sani M. Lawal, Idris Musa, Aliyu D. Usman

Abstract:

The Pareto approach of optimal solutions in a search space that evolved in multi-objective optimization problems is adopted in this paper, which stands for a set of solutions in the search space. This paper aims at presenting an optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) in radial distribution networks with an optimal size for minimization of power loss and voltage deviation as well as maximizing voltage profile of the networks. And these problems are formulated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a constraint nonlinear optimization problem with both locations and sizes of DG being continuous. The objective functions adopted are the total active power loss function and voltage deviation function. The multiple nature of the problem, made it necessary to form a multi-objective function in search of the solution that consists of both the DG location and size. The proposed PSO algorithm is used to determine optimal placement and size of DG in a distribution network. The output indicates that PSO algorithm technique shows an edge over other types of search methods due to its effectiveness and computational efficiency. The proposed method is tested on the standard IEEE 34-bus and validated with 33-bus test systems distribution networks. Results indicate that the sizing and location of DG are system dependent and should be optimally selected before installing the distributed generators in the system and also an improvement in the voltage profile and power loss reduction have been achieved.

Keywords: distributed generation, pareto, particle swarm optimization, power loss, voltage deviation

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2620 Brand Placement Strategies in Turkey: The Case of “Yalan Dünya”

Authors: Burçe Boyraz

Abstract:

This study examines appearances of brand placement as an alternative communication strategy in television series by focusing on Yalan Dünya which is one of the most popular television series in Turkey. Consequently, this study has a descriptive research design and quantitative content analysis method is used in order to analyze frequency and time data of brand placement appearances in first 3 seasons of Yalan Dünya with 16 episodes. Analysis of brand placement practices in Yalan Dünya is dealt in three categories: episode-based analysis, season-based analysis and comparative analysis. At the end, brand placement practices in Yalan Dünya are evaluated in terms of type, form, duration and legal arrangements. As a result of this study, it is seen that brand placement plays a determinant role in Yalan Dünya content. Also, current legal arrangements make brand placement closer to other traditional communication strategies instead of differing brand placement from them distinctly.

Keywords: advertising, alternative communication strategy, brand placement, Yalan Dünya

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2619 Application of Particle Swarm Optimization to Thermal Sensor Placement for Smart Grid

Authors: Hung-Shuo Wu, Huan-Chieh Chiu, Xiang-Yao Zheng, Yu-Cheng Yang, Chien-Hao Wang, Jen-Cheng Wang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Dynamic Thermal Rating (DTR) provides crucial information by estimating the ampacity of transmission lines to improve power dispatching efficiency. To perform the DTR, it is necessary to install on-line thermal sensors to monitor conductor temperature and weather variables. A simple and intuitive strategy is to allocate a thermal sensor to every span of transmission lines, but the cost of sensors might be too high to bear. To deal with the cost issue, a thermal sensor placement problem must be solved. This research proposes and implements a hybrid algorithm which combines proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods. The proposed hybrid algorithm solves a multi-objective optimization problem that concludes the minimum number of sensors and the minimum error on conductor temperature, and the optimal sensor placement is determined simultaneously. The data of 345 kV transmission lines and the hourly weather data from the Taiwan Power Company and Central Weather Bureau (CWB), respectively, are used by the proposed method. The simulated results indicate that the number of sensors could be reduced using the optimal placement method proposed by the study and an acceptable error on conductor temperature could be achieved. This study provides power companies with a reliable reference for efficiently monitoring and managing their power grids.

Keywords: dynamic thermal rating, proper orthogonal decomposition, particle swarm optimization, sensor placement, smart grid

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2618 Optimal Number and Placement of Vertical Links in 3D Network-On-Chip

Authors: Nesrine Toubaline, Djamel Bennouar, Ali Mahdoum

Abstract:

3D technology can lead to a significant reduction in power and average hop-count in Networks on Chip (NoCs). It offers short and fast vertical links which copes with the long wire problem in 2D NoCs. This work proposes heuristic-based method to optimize number and placement of vertical links to achieve specified performance goals. Experiments show that significant improvement can be achieved by using a specific number of vertical interconnect.

Keywords: interconnect optimization, monolithic inter-tier vias, network on chip, system on chip, through silicon vias, three dimensional integration circuits

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2617 Implementation of 4-Bit Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor DAC with Mismatch Shaping Technique

Authors: Anuja Askhedkar, G. H. Agrawal, Madhu Gudgunti

Abstract:

Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor (DCT-SC) DAC is the internal DAC used in Delta-Sigma (∆∑) DAC which works on Over-Sampling concept. The Switched Capacitor DAC mainly suffers from mismatch among capacitors. Mismatch among capacitors in DAC, causes non linearity between output and input. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) technique is used to match the capacitors. According to element selection logic there are many types. In this paper, Data Weighted Averaging (DWA) technique is used for mismatch shaping. In this paper, the 4 bit DCT-SC-DAC with DWA-DEM technique is implemented using WINSPICE simulation software in 180nm CMOS technology. DNL for DAC with DWA is ±0.03 LSB and INL is ± 0.02LSB.

Keywords: ∑-Δ DAC, DCT-SC-DAC, mismatch shaping, DWA, DEM

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2616 Using Adaptive Pole Placement Control Strategy for Active Steering Safety System

Authors: Hadi Adibi-Asl, Alireza Doosthosseini, Amir Taghavipour

Abstract:

This paper studies the design of an adaptive control strategy to tune an active steering system for better drivability and maneuverability. In the first step, adaptive control strategy is applied to estimate the uncertain parameters on-line (e.g. cornering stiffness), then the estimated parameters are fed into the pole placement controller to generate corrective feedback gain to improve the steering system dynamic’s characteristics. The simulations are evaluated for three types of road conditions (dry, wet, and icy), and the performance of the adaptive pole placement control (APPC) are compared with pole placement control (PPC) and a passive system. The results show that the APPC strategy significantly improves the yaw rate and side slip angle of a bicycle plant model.

Keywords: adaptive control, active steering, pole placement, vehicle dynamics

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2615 Optimal Placement and Sizing of Energy Storage System in Distribution Network with Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generation Using Improved Firefly Algorithms

Authors: Ling Ai Wong, Hussain Shareef, Azah Mohamed, Ahmad Asrul Ibrahim

Abstract:

The installation of photovoltaic based distributed generation (PVDG) in active distribution system can lead to voltage fluctuation due to the intermittent and unpredictable PVDG output power. This paper presented a method in mitigating the voltage rise by optimally locating and sizing the battery energy storage system (BESS) in PVDG integrated distribution network. The improved firefly algorithm is used to perform optimal placement and sizing. Three objective functions are presented considering the voltage deviation and BESS off-time with state of charge as the constraint. The performance of the proposed method is compared with another optimization method such as the original firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed optimum BESS location and size improve the voltage stability.

Keywords: BESS, firefly algorithm, PVDG, voltage fluctuation

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2614 Application of Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for Optimal Location and Sizing of Static Compensator Considering Voltage Profile

Authors: Vahid Rashtchi, Ashkan Pirooz

Abstract:

This paper applies the Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) to find the optimal place and size of Static Compensator (STATCOM) in power systems. The output of the algorithm is a two dimensional array which indicates the best bus number and STATCOM's optimal size that minimizes all bus voltage deviations from their nominal value. Simulations are performed on IEEE 5, 14, and 30 bus test systems. Also some comparisons have been done between ICA and the famous Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Results show that how this method can be considered as one of the most precise evolutionary methods for the use of optimum compensator placement in electrical grids.

Keywords: evolutionary computation, imperialist competitive algorithm, power systems compensation, static compensators, voltage profile

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2613 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi

Abstract:

The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

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2612 High Voltage Magnetic Pulse Generation Using Capacitor Discharge Technique

Authors: Mohamed Adel Abdallah

Abstract:

A high voltage magnetic pulse is designed by applying an electrical pulse to the coil. Capacitor banks are developed to generate a pulse current. Switching circuit consisting of DPDT switches, thyristor, and triggering circuit is built and tested. The coil current is measured using a Hall-effect current sensor. The magnetic pulse created is measured and tabulated in the graph. Simulation using FEMM is done to compare the results obtained between experiment and simulation. This technology can be applied to area such as medical equipment, measuring instrument, and military equipment.

Keywords: high voltage, magnetic pulse, capacitor discharge, coil

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2611 Improved Multilevel Inverter with Hybrid Power Selector and Solar Panel Cleaner in a Solar System

Authors: S. Oladoyinbo, A. A. Tijani

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters (MLI) are used at high power application based on their operation. There are 3 main types of multilevel inverters (MLI); diode clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded MLI. A cascaded MLI requires the least number of components to achieve same number of voltage levels when compared to other types of MLI while the flying capacitor has the minimum harmonic distortion. However, maximizing the advantage of cascaded H-bridge MLI and flying capacitor MLI, an improved MLI can be achieved with fewer components and better performance. In this paper an improved MLI is presented by asymmetrically integrating a flying capacitor to a cascaded H-bridge MLI also integrating an auxiliary transformer to the main transformer to decrease the total harmonics distortion (THD) with increased number of output voltage levels. Furthermore, the system is incorporated with a hybrid time and climate based solar panel cleaner and power selector which intelligently manage the input of the MLI and clean the solar panel weekly ensuring the environmental factor effect on the panel is reduced to minimum.

Keywords: multilevel inverter, total harmonics distortion, cascaded h-bridge inverter, flying capacitor

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2610 Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks to Characterize and Predict Job Placement

Authors: Xupin Zhang, Maria Caterina Bramati, Enrest Fokoue

Abstract:

Understanding the career placement of graduates from the university is crucial for both the qualities of education and ultimate satisfaction of students. In this research, we adapt the capabilities of dynamic Bayesian networks to characterize and predict students’ job placement using data from various universities. We also provide elements of the estimation of the indicator (score) of the strength of the network. The research focuses on overall findings as well as specific student groups including international and STEM students and their insight on the career path and what changes need to be made. The derived Bayesian network has the potential to be used as a tool for simulating the career path for students and ultimately helps universities in both academic advising and career counseling.

Keywords: dynamic bayesian networks, indicator estimation, job placement, social networks

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2609 Decision Support System for Optimal Placement of Wind Turbines in Electric Distribution Grid

Authors: Ahmed Ouammi

Abstract:

This paper presents an integrated decision framework to support decision makers in the selection and optimal allocation of wind power plants in the electric grid. The developed approach intends to maximize the benefice related to the project investment during the planning period. The proposed decision model considers the main cost components, meteorological data, environmental impacts, operation and regulation constraints, and territorial information. The decision framework is expressed as a stochastic constrained optimization problem with the aim to identify the suitable locations and related optimal wind turbine technology considering the operational constraints and maximizing the benefice. The developed decision support system is applied to a case study to demonstrate and validate its performance.

Keywords: decision support systems, electric power grid, optimization, wind energy

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2608 Electrolytic Capacitor-Less Transformer-Less AC-DC LED Driver with Current Ripple Canceller

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Li Quan, Shu Wu, Nizam Mohyar, Zachary Nosker, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors which capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the typical current of 350 mA. We are now making the proposed circuit on a universal board in order to measure the experimental characteristics.

Keywords: LED driver, electrolytic, capacitor-less, AC-DC converter, buck-boost converter, current ripple canceller

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2607 A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter

Authors: Bachir Belmadani, Rachid Taleb, Zinelaabidine Boudjema, Adil Yahdou

Abstract:

Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.

Keywords: flying capacitor inverter, multicarrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector modulation, total harmonic distortion, induction motor

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