Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: superconductivity

13 Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond

Authors: J. Mona, R. R. da Silva, C.-L.Cheng, Y. Kopelevich


We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.

Keywords: nanodiamond, sulfur, superconductivity, Raman spectroscopy

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12 Coexistence of Superconductivity and Spin Density Wave in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂

Authors: Tadesse Desta Gidey, Gebregziabher Kahsay, Pooran Singh


This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and Spin Density Wave (SDW)in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and by using quantum field theory Green’s function formalism, we have obtained mathematical expressions for superconducting transition temperature TC), spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), superconductivity order parameter (Sc), and spin density wave order parameter (sdw). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature (TC) versus superconducting order parameter (Sc) and spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), versus spin density wave order parameter (sdw) have been plotted. By combining the two phase diagrams, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and spin density wave (SDW) in ferropnictide Ba1−xKxFe2As2.

Keywords: Superconductivity, Spin density wave, Coexistence, Green function, Pnictides, Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂

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11 The Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides as Materials for Storage Clean Energy: Ab initio Investigations

Authors: S. Meziane, H. I. Faraoun, C. Esling


Transition metal dichalcogenides have potential applications in power generation devices that convert waste heat into electric current by the so-called Seebeck and Hall effects thus providing an alternative energy technology to reduce the dependence on traditional fossil fuels. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of 1T and 2HTaX2 (X= S or Se) dichalcogenide superconductors have been computed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Technologically, the task is to fabricate suitable materials with high efficiency. It is found that 2HTaS2 possesses the largest value of figure of merit ZT= 1.27 at 175 K. From a scientific point of view, we aim to model the underlying materials properties and in particular the transport phenomena as mediated by electrons and lattice vibrations responsible for superconductivity, Charge Density Waves (CDW) and metal/insulator transitions as function of temperature. The goal of the present work is to develop an understanding of the superconductivity of these selected materials using the transport properties at the fundamental level.

Keywords: Ab initio, High efficiency, Power generation devices, Transition metal dichalcogenides

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10 The Study of Magnetic and Transport Properties in Normal State Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ

Authors: Risdiana, D. Suhendar, S. Pratiwi, W. A. Somantri, T. Saragi


Superconductor is a promising material for future applications especially for energy saving because of their advantages properties such as zero electrical resistivity when they are cooled down to sufficiently low temperatures. However, the mechanism describing the role of physical properties in superconductor is far from being understood clearly, so that the application of this material for wider benefit in various industries is very limited. Most of superconductors are cuprate compounds, which has CuO2 as a conducting plane in their crystal structures. The study of physical properties through the partially substitution of impurity for Cu in superconducting cuprates has been one of great interests in relation to the mechanism of superconductivity. Different behaviors between the substitution of nonmagnetic impurity and magnetic impurity for Cu are observed. For examples, the superconductivity and Cu-spin fluctuations in the electron-doped system are suppressed through the substitution of magnetic Ni for Cu more markedly than through the substitution of nonmagnetic Zn for Cu, which is contrary to the result in the hole-doped system. Here, we reported the effect of partially substitution of magnetic impurity Fe for Cu to the magnetic and transport properties in electron-doped superconducting cuprates of Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ (ECCFO) with y = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05, in order to investigate the mechanism of magnetic and transport properties of ECCFO in normal-state. Magnetic properties are investigated by DC magnetic-susceptibility measurements that carried out at low temperatures down to 2 K using a standard SQUID magnetometer in a magnetic field of 5 Oe on field cooling. Transport properties addressed to electron mobility, are extracted from radius of electron localization calculated from temperature dependence of resistivity. For y = 0, temperature dependence of dc magnetic-susceptibility indicated the change of magnetic behavior from paramagnetic to diamagnetic below 15 K. Above 15 K, all samples show paramagnetic behavior with the values of magnetic moment in every volume unit increased with increasing y. Electron mobility decreased with increasing y. Some reasons for these results will be discussed.

Keywords: DC magnetic-susceptibility, electron mobility, Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ, normal state

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9 Strong Antiferromagnetic Super Exchange in AgF2

Authors: Wojciech Grochala


AgF2 is an important two-dimensional antiferromagnet and an analogue of [CuO2]2– sheet. However, the strength of magnetic superexchange as well as magnetic dimensionality have not been explored before . Here we report our recent Raman and neutron scattering experiments which led to better understanding of the magnetic properties of the title compound. It turns out that intra-sheet magnetic superexchange constant reaches 70 meV, thus some 2/3 of the value measured for parent compounds of oxocuprate superconductors which is over 100 meV. The ratio of intra-to-inter-sheet superexchange constants is of the order of 102 rendering AgF2 a quasi-2D material, similar to the said oxocuprates. The quantum mechanical calculations reproduce the abovementioned values quite well and they point out to substantial covalence of the Ag–F bonding. After 3 decades of intense research on layered oxocuprates, AgF2 now stands as a second-to-none analogue of these fascinating systems. It remains to be seen whether this 012 parent compound may be doped in order to achieve superconductivity.

Keywords: antiferromagnets, superexchange, silver, fluorine

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8 Ordinary and Triplet Superconducting Spin Valve Effect in Fe/Pb Based Heterostructures

Authors: P. V. Leksin, A. A. Kamashev, N. N. Garifyanov, I. A. Garifullin, Ya. V. Fominov, J. Schumann, Y. Krupskaya, V. Kataev, O. G. Schmidt, B. Büchner


We report on experimental evidence for the occurrence of the long range triplet correlations (LRTC) of the superconducting (SC) condensate in the spin-valve heterostructures CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Pb. The LRTC generation in this layer sequence is accompanied by a Tc suppression near the orthogonal mutual orientation of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers’ magnetization. This Tc drop reaches its maximum of 60mK at the Fe2 layer thickness dFe2 = 0.6 nm and falls down when dFe2 is increased. The modification of the Fe/Pb interface by using a thin Cu intermediate layer between Fe and Pb layers reduces the SC transition width without preventing the interaction between Pb and Fe2 layers. The dependence of the SSVE magnitude on Fe1 layer thickness dFe1 reveals maximum of the effect when dFe1 and dFe2 are equal and the dFe2 value is minimal. Using the optimal Fe layers thicknesses and the intermediate Cu layer between Pb and Fe2 layer we realized almost full switching from normal to superconducting state due to SSVE.

Keywords: superconductivity, ferromagnetism, heterostructures, proximity effect

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7 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani


The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator

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6 Superconductor-Insulator Transition in Disordered Spin-1/2 Systems

Authors: E. Cuevas, M. Feigel'man, L. Ioffe, M. Mezard


The origin of continuous energy spectrum in large disordered interacting quantum systems is one of the key unsolved problems in quantum physics. While small quantum systems with discrete energy levels are noiseless and stay coherent forever in the absence of any coupling to external world, most large-scale quantum systems are able to produce thermal bath, thermal transport and excitation decay. This intrinsic decoherence is manifested by a broadening of energy levels which acquire a finite width. The important question is: What is the driving force and mechanism of transition(s) between two different types of many-body systems - with and without decoherence and thermal transport? Here, we address this question via two complementary approaches applied to the same model of quantum spin-1/2 system with XY-type exchange interaction and random transverse field. Namely, we develop analytical theory for this spin model on a Bethe lattice and implement numerical study of exact level statistics for the same spin model on random graph. This spin model is relevant to the study of pseudogaped superconductivity and S-I transition in some amorphous materials.

Keywords: strongly correlated electrons, quantum phase transitions, superconductor, insulator

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5 Dielectric Spectroscopy Investigation of Hydrophobic Silica Aerogel

Authors: Deniz Bozoglu, Deniz Deger, Kemal Ulutas, Sahin Yakut


In recent years, silica aerogels have attracted great attention due to their outstanding properties, and their wide variety of potential applications such as microelectronics, nuclear and high-energy physics, optics and acoustics, superconductivity, space-physics. Hydrophobic silica aerogels were successfully synthesized in one-step by surface modification at ambient pressure. FT-IR result confirmed that Si-OH groups were successfully converted into hydrophobic and non-polar Si-CH3 groups by surface modification using trimethylchloro silane (TMCS) as co-precursor. Using Alpha-A High-Resolution Dielectric, Conductivity and Impedance Analyzer, AC conductivity of samples were examined at temperature range 293-423 K and measured over frequency range between 1-106 Hz. The characteristic relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature. The AC conductivity follows σ_AC (ω)=σ_t-σ_DC=Aω^s relation at frequencies higher than 10 Hz, and the dominant conduction mechanism is found to obey the Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) mechanism. At frequencies lower than 10 Hz, the electrical conduction is found to be in accordance with DC conduction mechanism. The activation energies obtained from AC conductivity results and it was observed two relaxation regions.

Keywords: aerogel, synthesis, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, relaxation time

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4 Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure

Authors: Juan Xia, Jiaxu Yan, Ze Xiang Shen


The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.

Keywords: 2D TMDs, electronic property, high pressure, first-principles calculations

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3 Classification on Statistical Distributions of a Complex N-Body System

Authors: David C. Ni


Contemporary models for N-body systems are based on temporal, two-body, and mass point representation of Newtonian mechanics. Other mainstream models include 2D and 3D Ising models based on local neighborhood the lattice structures. In Quantum mechanics, the theories of collective modes are for superconductivity and for the long-range quantum entanglement. However, these models are still mainly for the specific phenomena with a set of designated parameters. We are therefore motivated to develop a new construction directly from the complex-variable N-body systems based on the extended Blaschke functions (EBF), which represent a non-temporal and nonlinear extension of Lorentz transformation on the complex plane – the normalized momentum spaces. A point on the complex plane represents a normalized state of particle momentums observed from a reference frame in the theory of special relativity. There are only two key parameters, normalized momentum and nonlinearity for modelling. An algorithm similar to Jenkins-Traub method is adopted for solving EBF iteratively. Through iteration, the solution sets show a form of σ + i [-t, t], where σ and t are the real numbers, and the [-t, t] shows various distributions, such as 1-peak, 2-peak, and 3-peak etc. distributions and some of them are analog to the canonical distributions. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate continuum-to-discreteness transitions, evolutional invariance of distributions, phase transitions with conjugate symmetry, etc., which manifest the construction as a potential candidate for the unification of statistics. We hereby classify the observed distributions on the finite convergent domains. Continuous and discrete distributions both exist and are predictable for given partitions in different regions of parameter-pair. We further compare these distributions with canonical distributions and address the impacts on the existing applications.

Keywords: blaschke, lorentz transformation, complex variables, continuous, discrete, canonical, classification

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2 Analytical Solutions of Josephson Junctions Dynamics in a Resonant Cavity for Extended Dicke Model

Authors: S.I.Mukhin, S. Seidov, A. Mukherjee


The Dicke model is a key tool for the description of correlated states of quantum atomic systems, excited by resonant photon absorption and subsequently emitting spontaneous coherent radiation in the superradiant state. The Dicke Hamiltonian (DH) is successfully used for the description of the dynamics of the Josephson Junction (JJ) array in a resonant cavity under applied current. In this work, we have investigated a generalized model, which is described by DH with a frustrating interaction term. This frustrating interaction term is explicitly the infinite coordinated interaction between all the spin half in the system. In this work, we consider an array of N superconducting islands, each divided into two sub-islands by a Josephson Junction, taken in a charged qubit / Cooper Pair Box (CPB) condition. The array is placed inside the resonant cavity. One important aspect of the problem lies in the dynamical nature of the physical observables involved in the system, such as condensed electric field and dipole moment. It is important to understand how these quantities behave with time to define the quantum phase of the system. The Dicke model without frustrating term is solved to find the dynamical solutions of the physical observables in analytic form. We have used Heisenberg’s dynamical equations for the operators and on applying newly developed Rotating Holstein Primakoff (HP) transformation and DH we have arrived at the four coupled nonlinear dynamical differential equations for the momentum and spin component operators. It is possible to solve the system analytically using two-time scales. The analytical solutions are expressed in terms of Jacobi's elliptic functions for the metastable ‘bound luminosity’ dynamic state with the periodic coherent beating of the dipoles that connect the two double degenerate dipolar ordered phases discovered previously. In this work, we have proceeded the analysis with the extended DH with a frustrating interaction term. Inclusion of the frustrating term involves complexity in the system of differential equations and it gets difficult to solve analytically. We have solved semi-classical dynamic equations using the perturbation technique for small values of Josephson energy EJ. Because the Hamiltonian contains parity symmetry, thus phase transition can be found if this symmetry is broken. Introducing spontaneous symmetry breaking term in the DH, we have derived the solutions which show the occurrence of finite condensate, showing quantum phase transition. Our obtained result matches with the existing results in this scientific field.

Keywords: Dicke Model, nonlinear dynamics, perturbation theory, superconductivity

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1 Single Crystal Growth in Floating-Zone Method and Properties of Spin Ladders: Quantum Magnets

Authors: Rabindranath Bag, Surjeet Singh


Materials in which the electrons are strongly correlated provide some of the most challenging and exciting problems in condensed matter physics today. After the discovery of high critical temperature superconductivity in layered or two-dimensional copper oxides, many physicists got attention in cuprates and it led to an upsurge of interest in the synthesis and physical properties of copper-oxide based material. The quest to understand superconducting mechanism in high-temperature cuprates, drew physicist’s attention to somewhat simpler compounds consisting of spin-chains or one-dimensional lattice of coupled spins. Low-dimensional quantum magnets are of huge contemporary interest in basic sciences as well emerging technologies such as quantum computing and quantum information theory, and heat management in microelectronic devices. Spin ladder is an example of quasi one-dimensional quantum magnets which provides a bridge between one and two dimensional materials. One of the examples of quasi one-dimensional spin-ladder compounds is Sr14Cu24O41, which exhibits a lot of interesting and exciting physical phenomena in low dimensional systems. Very recently, the ladder compound Sr14Cu24O41 was shown to exhibit long-distance quantum entanglement crucial to quantum information theory. Also, it is well known that hole-compensation in this material results in very high (metal-like) anisotropic thermal conductivity at room temperature. These observations suggest that Sr14Cu24O41 is a potential multifunctional material which invites further detailed investigations. To investigate these properties one must needs a large and high quality of single crystal. But these systems are showing incongruently melting behavior, which brings many difficulties to grow a large and quality of single crystals. Hence, we are using TSFZ (Travelling Solvent Floating Zone) method to grow the high quality of single crystals of the low dimensional magnets. Apart from this, it has unique crystal structure (alternating stacks of plane containing edge-sharing CuO2 chains, and the plane containing two-leg Cu2O3 ladder with intermediate Sr layers along the b- axis), which is also incommensurate in nature. It exhibits abundant physical phenomenon such as spin dimerization, crystallization of charge holes and charge density wave. The maximum focus of research so far involved in introducing defects on A-site (Sr). However, apart from the A-site (Sr) doping, there are only few studies in which the B-site (Cu) doping of polycrystalline Sr14Cu24O41 have been discussed and the reason behind this is the possibility of two doping sites for Cu (CuO2 chain and Cu2O3 ladder). Therefore, in our present work, the crystals (pristine and Cu-site doped) were grown by using TSFZ method by tuning the growth parameters. The Laue diffraction images, optical polarized microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images confirm the quality of the grown crystals. Here, we report the single crystal growth, magnetic and transport properties of Sr14Cu24O41 and its lightly doped variants (magnetic and non-magnetic) containing less than 1% of Co, Ni, Al and Zn impurities. Since, any real system will have some amount of weak disorder, our studies on these ladder compounds with controlled dilute disorder would be significant in the present context.

Keywords: low-dimensional quantum magnets, single crystal, spin-ladder, TSFZ technique

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