Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Pavlína Částková

6 Technical Games Using ICT as a Preparation for Teaching about Technology in Pre-School Age

Authors: Pavlína Částková, Jiří Kropáč, Jan Kubrický

Abstract:

The paper deals with the current issue of Information and Communication Technologies and their implementation into the educational activities of preschool children. The issue is addressed in the context of technical education and the specifics of its implementation in a kindergarten. One of the main topics of this paper is a technical game activity of a preschool child, and its possibilities, benefits and risks. The paper presents games/toys as one of the means of exploring and understanding technology as an essential part of human culture.

Keywords: ICT, technical education, pre-school age, technical games

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5 Particle and Photon Trajectories near the Black Hole Immersed in the Nonstatic Cosmological Background

Authors: Elena M. Kopteva, Pavlina Jaluvkova, Zdenek Stuchlik

Abstract:

The question of constructing a consistent model of the cosmological black hole remains to be unsolved and still attracts the interest of cosmologists as far as it is important in a wide set of research problems including the problem of the black hole horizon dynamics, the problem of interplay between cosmological expansion and local gravity, the problem of structure formation in the early universe etc. In this work, the model of the cosmological black hole is built on the basis of the exact solution of the Einstein equations for the spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust distribution in the approach of the mass function use. Possible trajectories for massive particles and photons near the black hole immersed in the nonstatic dust cosmological background are investigated in frame of the obtained model. The reference system of distant galaxy comoving to cosmological expansion combined with curvature coordinates is used, so that the resulting metric becomes nondiagonal and involves both proper ‘cosmological’ time and curvature spatial coordinates. For this metric the geodesic equations are analyzed for the test particles and photons, and the respective trajectories are built.

Keywords: exact solutions for Einstein equations, Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution, cosmological black holes, particle and photon trajectories

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4 The Generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Solutions in Modeling the Cosmological Black Holes

Authors: Elena M. Kopteva, Pavlina Jaluvkova, Zdenek Stuchlik

Abstract:

In spite of the numerous attempts to close the discussion about the influence of cosmological expansion on local gravitationally bounded systems, this question arises in literature again and again and remains still far from its final resolution. Here one of the main problems is the problem of obtaining a physically adequate model of strongly gravitating object immersed in non-static cosmological background. Such objects are usually called ‘cosmological’ black holes and are of great interest in wide set of cosmological and astrophysical areas. In this work the set of new exact solutions of the Einstein equations is derived for the flat space that generalizes the known Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution for the case of nonzero pressure. The solutions obtained are pretending to describe the black hole immersed in nonstatic cosmological background and give a possibility to investigate the hot problems concerning the effects of the cosmological expansion in gravitationally bounded systems, the structure formation in the early universe, black hole thermodynamics and other related problems. It is shown that each of the solutions obtained contains either the Reissner-Nordstrom or the Schwarzschild black hole in the central region of the space. It is demonstrated that the approach of the mass function use in solving of the Einstein equations allows clear physical interpretation of the resulting solutions, that is of much benefit to any their concrete application.

Keywords: exact solutions of the Einstein equations, cosmological black holes, generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solutions, nonzero pressure

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3 Changes in Serum Neopterin in Workers Exposed to Different Mineral Dust

Authors: Gospodinka Prakova, Pavlina Gidikova, Gergana Sandeva, Kamelia Haracherova, Emil Slavov

Abstract:

Neopterin was demonstrated to be a sensitive marker of cell-mediated immune reactions which plays a key role in the interaction of monocyte / macrophage activation. The purpose of this work was to investigate changes in serum neopterin in workers exposed to different composition of mineral dust. Material and Methods: Serum neopterin was studied in 193 exposed workers, divided into three groups, depending on the mineral dust and content of the quartz in the respirable fraction. The I-st group-coal dust containing less than 2% free crystalline silica (n=44), II-nd group-coal dust containing over 2% free crystalline silica (n=94) and the III-rd group-mixed dust with corundum and carborundum (n=55). The control group was composed of 21 individuals without exposure to dust. Serum neopterin was investigated by Elisa method in ng/ml according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results and Discussion: It was found significantly higher level of serum neopterin in exposed workers of mineral dust (2,10 ± 0,62 ng / ml), compared with that of the control group (1,10 ± 0,85 ng/ml; p < 0,05). Neopterin levels in workers exposed to coal dust (1,87 ± 0,42 ng / ml-I-st and 3,32 ± 0,77 ng / ml-II-nd group) were significantly higher compared with those exposed to a mixed dust (1,31±0,68 mg / ml-third) and control group (p < 0,05). No significant difference in serum neopterin when exposed to a mixed dust composed of corundum and carborundum (III-rd) and a control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate activates a cell-mediated immune response when exposed to a mineral dust. The level of that activation depends mainly on the composition of the dust and is significantly highest in workers exposed to coal dust.

Keywords: mineral dust, neopterin, occupational exposure, respirable crystalline silica

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2 Circadian Expression of MicroRNAs in Colon and Its Changes during Colorectal Tumorigenesis

Authors: Katerina Balounova, Jiri Pacha, Peter Ergang, Martin Vodicka, Pavlina Kvapilova

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs gives the organism a further level of control of the gene-expression program and the disruption of this microRNA regulatory mechanism seems to increase the risk of various pathophysiological conditions including tumorigenesis. To the present day, microRNAs were shown to participate in the mayor signalization pathways leading to tumorigenesis, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis formation. In addition, microRNAs have been found to play important roles in the generation and maintenance of circadian clock. These clocks generate circadian rhythms, which participate in a number of regulatory pathways. Disruption of the circadian signals seems to be associated with the development and the progression of tumours including colorectal cancer. We investigated therefore whether the diurnal profiles of miRNAs linked to tumorigenesis and regulation of circadian clock are changed during tumorigenesis. Based on published data we chose 10 microRNAs linked to tumorigenesis or circadian clock (let-7b-5p, miR 1 3p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p, miR 34a 5p and miR 93 5p) and compared their 24-hr expression profiles in healthy and in chemically induces primary colorectal tumours of 52week-old mice. Using RT-qPCR we proved circadian rhythmicity in let-7b-5p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p and miR 93 5p in healthy colon but not in tumours. The acrophases of miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p and miR 93 5p were reached around CT 24, the acrophases of let-7b-5p and miR-29a-3p were slightly shifted and reached around CT 21. In summary, our results show that circadian regulation of some colonic microRNAs is greatly affected by neoplastic transformation.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, colon, colorectal cancer, microRNA, tumorigenesis

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1 Detection, Analysis and Determination of the Origin of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay (ID/DD) Patients and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Patients by Molecular and Cytogenetic Methods

Authors: Pavlina Capkova, Josef Srovnal, Vera Becvarova, Marie Trkova, Zuzana Capkova, Andrea Stefekova, Vaclava Curtisova, Alena Santava, Sarka Vejvalkova, Katerina Adamova, Radek Vodicka

Abstract:

ASDs are heterogeneous and complex developmental diseases with a significant genetic background. Recurrent CNVs are known to be a frequent cause of ASD. These CNVs can have, however, a variable expressivity which results in a spectrum of phenotypes from asymptomatic to ID/DD/ASD. ASD is associated with ID in ~75% individuals. Various platforms are used to detect pathogenic mutations in the genome of these patients. The performed study is focused on a determination of the frequency of pathogenic mutations in a group of ASD patients and a group of ID/DD patients using various strategies along with a comparison of their detection rate. The possible role of the origin of these mutations in aetiology of ASD was assessed. The study included 35 individuals with ASD and 68 individuals with ID/DD (64 males and 39 females in total), who underwent rigorous genetic, neurological and psychological examinations. Screening for pathogenic mutations involved karyotyping, screening for FMR1 mutations and for metabolic disorders, a targeted MLPA test with probe mixes Telomeres 3 and 5, Microdeletion 1 and 2, Autism 1, MRX and a chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) (Illumina or Affymetrix). Chromosomal aberrations were revealed in 7 (1 in the ASD group) individuals by karyotyping. FMR1 mutations were discovered in 3 (1 in the ASD group) individuals. The detection rate of pathogenic mutations in ASD patients with a normal karyotype was 15.15% by MLPA and CMA. The frequencies of the pathogenic mutations were 25.0% by MLPA and 35.0% by CMA in ID/DD patients with a normal karyotype. CNVs inherited from asymptomatic parents were more abundant than de novo changes in ASD patients (11.43% vs. 5.71%) in contrast to the ID/DD group where de novo mutations prevailed over inherited ones (26.47% vs. 16.18%). ASD patients shared more frequently their mutations with their fathers than patients from ID/DD group (8.57% vs. 1.47%). Maternally inherited mutations predominated in the ID/DD group in comparison with the ASD group (14.7% vs. 2.86 %). CNVs of an unknown significance were found in 10 patients by CMA and in 3 patients by MLPA. Although the detection rate is the highest when using CMA, recurrent CNVs can be easily detected by MLPA. CMA proved to be more efficient in the ID/DD group where a larger spectrum of rare pathogenic CNVs was revealed. This study determined that maternally inherited highly penetrant mutations and de novo mutations more often resulted in ID/DD without ASD in patients. The paternally inherited mutations could be, however, a source of the greater variability in the genome of the ASD patients and contribute to the polygenic character of the inheritance of ASD. As the number of the subjects in the group is limited, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this conclusion. Inherited CNVs have a role in aetiology of ASD possibly in combination with additional genetic factors - the mutations elsewhere in the genome. The identification of these interactions constitutes a challenge for the future. Supported by MH CZ – DRO (FNOl, 00098892), IGA UP LF_2016_010, TACR TE02000058 and NPU LO1304.

Keywords: autistic spectrum disorders, copy number variant, chromosomal microarray, intellectual disability, karyotyping, MLPA, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

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