Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 343

Search results for: audience

343 Powerful Media: Reflection of Professional Audience

Authors: Hamide Farshad, Mohammadreza Javidi Abdollah Zadeh Aval

Abstract:

As a result of the growing penetration of the media into human life, a new role under the title of "audience" is defined in the social life .A kind of role which is dramatically changed since its formation. This article aims to define the audience position in the new media equations which is concluded to the transformation of the media role. By using the Library and Attributive method to study the history, the evolutionary outlook to the audience and the recognition of the audience and the media relation in the new media context is studied. It was perceived in past that public communication would result in receiving the audience. But after the emergence of the interactional media and transformation in the audience social life, a new kind of public communication is formed, and also the imaginary picture of the audience is replaced by the audience impact on the communication process. Part of this impact can be seen in the form of feedback which is one of the public communication elements. In public communication, the audience feedback is completely accepted. But in many cases, and along with the audience feedback, the media changes its direction; this direction shift is known as media feedback. At this state, the media and the audience are both doers and consistently change their positions in an interaction. With the greater number of the audience and the media, this process has taken a new role, and the role of this doer is sometimes taken by an audience while influencing another audience, or a media while influencing another media. In this article, this multiple public communication process is shown through representing a model under the title of ”The bilateral influence of the audience and the media.” Based on this model, the audience and the media power are not the two sides of a coin, and as a result, by accepting these two as the doers, the bilateral power of the audience and the media will be complementary to each other. Also more, the compatibility between the media and the audience is analyzed in the bilateral and interactional relation hypothesis, and by analyzing the action law hypothesis, the dos and don’ts of this role are defined, and media is obliged to know and accept them in order to be able to survive. They also have a determining role in the strategic studies of a media.

Keywords: audience, effect, media, interaction, action laws

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342 The Quality of the Presentation Influence the Audience Perceptions

Authors: Gilang Maulana, Dhika Rahma Qomariah, Yasin Fadil

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Purpose: This research meant to measure the magnitude of the influence of the quality of the presentation to the targeted audience perception in catching information presentation. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research uses a quantitative research method. The kind of data that uses in this research is the primary data. The population in this research are students the economics faculty of Semarang State University. The sampling techniques uses in this research is purposive sampling. The retrieving data uses questionnaire on 30 respondents. The data analysis uses descriptive analysis. Result: The quality of presentation influential positive against perception of the audience. This proved that the more qualified presentation will increase the perception of the audience. Limitation: Respondents were limited to only 30 people.

Keywords: quality of presentation, presentation, audience, perception, semarang state university

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341 Aesthetic Preference and Consciousness in African Theatre: A Performance Appraisal of Tyrone Terrence's a Husband's Wife

Authors: Oluwatayo Isijola

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The destructive influence of Europe on Africa has also taken a tow on the aesthetic essence of the African Art, which centres on morality and value for human life. In a parallel vein, the adverse turn of this influence on the dramaturgy of some contemporary African plays, poses impedance to audience consciousness in performance engagements. Through the spectrum of African Aesthetics, this study attempts a performance appraisal of A Husband’s wife; an unpublished play written by Tyrone Terence for the African audience. The researcher proffers two variant textual interpretations of the play to evaluate performance engagement in its default realistic mode, which holds an unresolved 'Medean-impulse', and another wherein the resolution is treated to a paradigm shift for aesthetic preference. The investigation employs the mixed method, which combines the quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Keen observation on the reactions and responses of audience members that were engaged in both performances, and on-the-spot interview with selected audience members, were the primary sources for the qualitative data. However, quantitative data was captured in an on-the-spot survey with the instrument of the questionnaire served to a sample population of the audience. The study observes that the preference for African aesthetics as exemplified in the second performance which deployed a paradigm shift did enhance audience consciousness. Hinging on performance aesthetic theory, the paper recommends that all such African plays bestowed with the shortcoming of African aesthetics, should be appropriately treated to paradigm shifts for performance engagement, in the interest of enhancing audience consciousness in the Nigerian Theatre.

Keywords: African aesthetics, audience consciousness, paradigm shift, median-impulse

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340 Visual Intelligence: Perception, Image and Manipulation in Visual Communication

Authors: Poojitha Vemula

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Understanding how we use image manipulation to communicate through an audience’s perceptions and conceive visual intelligence. With the use of many software and high-end skills, designers have developed a third eye to combine two different visuals and create the desired image by using photoshop and other software skills. The purpose of visual intelligence is to convey a message to the targeted audience. For instance, the images of models are retouched on their skin to make it more convincing and draw attention from the audience. There are many ways of manipulating an image, such as double exposure, retouching photography inks or paint airbrushing and piecing photos together, or enhancing the brightness and contrast. To understand visual intelligence, a questionnaire survey as well as research was conducted on how image manipulation is used by both the audience and the designers. This depends on the message that needs to be conveyed by the brands. For instance, Fair & Lovely, a brightening cream for ladies use a lot of retouching and effects to show the dramatic change the cream takes effect on dark or dusky faces. Thus the designer’s role is to use their third eye to incorporate the message into visuals. The research and questionnaire survey concludes the perceptions and manipulations used in visual communication. However this is all to make an effortless communication between the designer and the audience by using the skills of the designer and the features provided by the software. The objective of visual intelligence is to covet the message of the brands that advertise their products or services by using visuals through softwares. Conveying a message through visual intelligence requires an audiences perceptions and understanding from the visuals created by the artists or designers. Visual intelligence determines how we use our technical skills to retouch and manipulate an image for a better understanding to convey the message to the targeted audience. This also bridges the communication between the brand and the audience.

Keywords: graphic design, visual communication, convey messages, photoshop, image manipulation

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339 Applying Audience Development Programs in Museums for Raising Community Awareness towards Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Alexandria National Museum

Authors: Samar F. Elkasrawy

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Museums play a significant role in their communities with respect to culture, history, environment, and social development. They are considered as important sites for families, tourists, school groups, cultural visitors and individuals, looking to enjoy, learn and expand their horizons. Aim of audience development programs is to support individuals and organizations to work together to deliver messages that will raise museums' profile for both existing and potential visitors. They recognize the particular role that museums play for communities, the audiences they seek to reach, the experience they seek to offer and the extent and nature of their collections. This study aims at using both the qualitative and quantitative approach to explore the important role that audience development programs in museums can play in raising awareness in their communities concerning cultural heritage preservation and tourism. The Alexandria National Museum is considered as a valuable case study. In depth interviews with museum managers and staff was conducted as well as an online questionnaire. The study also includes suggestions and guidelines for applying audience development programs in Egyptian museums.

Keywords: Alexandria National Museum, audience development programs, cultural heritage, tourism and preservation awareness

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338 Adaptation in Translation of 'Christmas Every Day' Short Story by William Dean Howells

Authors: Mohsine Khazrouni

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The present study is an attempt to highlight the importance of adaptation in translation. To convey the message, the translator needs to take into account not only the text but also extra-linguistic factors such as the target audience. The present paper claims that adaptation is an unavoidable translation strategy when dealing with texts that are heavy with religious and cultural themes. The translation task becomes even more challenging when dealing with children’s literature as the audience are children whose comprehension, experience and world knowledge are limited. The study uses the Arabic translation of the short story ‘Christmas Every Day’ as a case study. The short story will be translated, and the pragmatic problems involved will be discussed. The focus will be on the issue of adaptation. i.e., the source text should be adapted to the target language audience`s social and cultural environment.

Keywords: pragmatic adaptation, Arabic translation, children's literature, equivalence

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337 The Persuasive Influence of Nollywood Film in Cultural Transmission: Negotiating Nigerian Culture in a South African Environment

Authors: Oluwayemisi Onyenankeya

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The popularity and viewership of Nollywood films have expanded across African countries as well as European and American cities especially those with considerable Diaspora population. This appears to underscore the assumption that Nollywood films not only project or transmit the embedded Nigerian cultural values to audience members but also actually make appreciable impression on those audience members. This study sought to ascertain the role of Nollywood film in the transference of Nigerian cultural heritage across other cultures using students at the University of Fort Hare as a case study. This study sought to determine if audience members learn, imbibe or manifest any behavioural tendencies that can be ascribed to the influence of watching Nollywood films. Specifically, the study sought to establish the aspect of Nigerian culture that Nollywood films transmit to audience members. The survey research method was used while data was analysed using descriptive statistics. In all, 400 questionnaires were distributed while 370 were returned. Results show that students who were exposed to Nollywood film could mimic some common Nigerian expressions and exclamations. A small percentage of viewers could actually speak a smattering of some Nigerian language while a few have bought or made dresses in the pattern of what they saw in the films. It could be concluded that Nollywood films do exert significant influence on the viewers in the University of Fort Hare.

Keywords: culture, film, Nollywood, transmission

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336 The Power of Earned Media: Exploring the Key Success of Love Destiny, Thai Smash Hit Television Drama

Authors: Wilaiwan Jongwilaikasaem, Phatteera Sarakornborrirak

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While Thai television producers feel anxious about digital disruption, Love Destiny, Thai television period drama became smash hit in Thailand in 2018. Audience throughout the country not only watched the drama both offline and online but also spread the content of the drama on social media and followed cultural trends from the protagonist. Thus, the main purpose of this article is to examine the secret behind the success of Love Destiny. Data were collected from content analysis and in-depth interview. The result shows that the key success of the drama is from earned media phenomenon from the audience and marketers’ engagement. As Love Destiny has full-flavored content with traditional challenged plot, delicate production, and presentation of Thainess in a positive and tangible way; audience and marketers are enthusiastic about building up the popular trend of Love Destiny on social media and also coming back home to watch televisions when the drama was on the air.

Keywords: Thai drama, earned media, Love Destiny, television

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335 The Audience’s Satisfaction through Radio Channel Broadcasting of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Piyakarn Apichaikul, Thep Muanfoo

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This research study aimed to survey the audience’s satisfaction of the radio channel broadcasting of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University and to investigate the relationship between the satisfaction and the usage of the listeners to the news program. The study was a quantitative research using a survey research method and a cross-sectional description study to examine the satisfaction and the usage of the listeners. The instrument of the research was questionnaires which were delivered to 300 respondents by simple random sampling. For the analytical part, descriptive statistics and inferential statistic were used in this research. The result found that respondents agreed that they were satisfied with the news program (mean = 3.60). Moreover, respondents agreed that they used information from the news program in their daily life (mean = 3.47). However, the relationship between the satisfaction and the usage of the respondents were contrary.

Keywords: news program, radio channel broadcasting, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, audience satisfaction

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334 Examining the Dubbing Strategies Used in the Egyptian Dubbed Version of Mulan (1998)

Authors: Shaza Melies, Saadeya Salem, Seham Kareh

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Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience. Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience.

Keywords: domestication, dubbing, Mulan, translation theories

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333 The Impact of Online Advertising on Generation Y’s Purchase Decision in Malaysia

Authors: Mui Joo Tang, Eang Teng Chan

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Advertising is commonly used to foster sales and reputation of an institution. It is at first the growth of print advertising that has increased the population and number of periodicals of newspaper and its circulation. The rise of Internet and online media has somehow blurred the role of media and advertising though the intention is still to reach out to audience and to increase sales. The relationship between advertising and audience on a product purchase through persuasion has been developing from print media to online media. From the changing media environment and audience, it is the concern of this research to study the impact of online advertising to such a relationship cycle. The content of online advertisements is much of text, multimedia, photo, audio and video. The messages of such content format may indeed bring impacts to its audience and its credibility. This study is therefore reflecting the effectiveness of online advertisement and its influences on generation Y in their purchasing behavior. This study uses Media Dependency Theory to analyze the relationship between the impact of online advertisement and media usage pattern of generation Y. Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model is used as a marketing communication model to study the effectiveness of advertising and further to determine the impact of online advertisement on generation Y in their purchasing decision making. This research uses online survey to reach out the sample of generation Y. The results have shown that online advertisements do not affect much on purchase decision making even though generation Y relies much on the media content including online advertisement for its information and believing in its credibility. There are few other external factors that may interrupt the effectiveness of online advertising. The very obvious influence of purchasing behavior is actually derived from the peers.

Keywords: generation Y, purchase decision, print media, online advertising, persuasion

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332 Classical Improvisation Facilitating Enhanced Performer-Audience Engagement and a Mutually Developing Impulse Exchange with Concert Audiences

Authors: Pauliina Haustein

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Improvisation was part of Western classical concert culture and performers’ skill sets until early 20th century. Historical accounts, as well as recent studies, indicate that improvisatory elements in the programme may contribute specifically towards the audiences’ experience of enhanced emotional engagement during the concert. This paper presents findings from the author’s artistic practice research, which explored re-introducing improvisation to Western classical performance practice as a musician (cellist and ensemble partner/leader). In an investigation of four concert cycles, the performer-researcher sought to gain solo and chamber music improvisation techniques (both related to and independent of repertoire), conduct ensemble improvisation rehearsals, design concerts with an improvisatory approach, and reflect on interactions with audiences after each concert. Data was collected through use of reflective diary, video recordings, measurement of sound parameters, questionnaires, a focus group, and interviews. The performer’s empirical experiences and findings from audience research components were juxtaposed and interrogated to better understand the (1) rehearsal and planning processes that enable improvisatory elements to return to Western classical concert experience and (2) the emotional experience and type of engagement that occur throughout the concert experience for both performer and audience members. This informed the development of a concert model, in which a programme of solo and chamber music repertoire and improvisations were combined according to historically evidenced performance practice (including free formal solo and ensemble improvisations based on audience suggestions). Inspired by historical concert culture, where elements of risk-taking, spontaneity, and audience involvement (such as proposing themes for fantasies) were customary, this concert model invited musicians to contribute to the process personally and creatively at all stages, from programme planning, and throughout the live concert. The type of democratic, personal, creative, and empathetic collaboration that emerged, as a result, appears unique in Western classical contexts, rather finding resonance in jazz ensemble, drama, or interdisciplinary settings. The research identified features of ensemble improvisation, such as empathy, emergence, mutual engagement, and collaborative creativity, that became mirrored in audience’s responses, generating higher levels of emotional engagement, empathy, inclusivity, and a participatory, co-creative experience. It appears that duringimprovisatory moments in the concert programme, audience members started feeling more like active participants in za\\a creative, collaborative exchange and became stakeholders in a deeper phenomenon of meaning-making and narrativization. Examining interactions between all involved during the concert revealed that performer-audience impulse exchange occurred on multiple levels of awareness and seemed to build upon each other, resulting in particularly strong experiences of both performer and audience’s engagement. This impact appeared especially meaningful for audience members who were seldom concertgoers and reported little familiarity with classical music. The study found that re-introducing improvisatory elements to Western classical concert programmes has strong potential in increasing audience’s emotional engagement with the musical performance, enabling audience members to connect more personally with the individual performers, and in reaching new-to-classical-music audiences.

Keywords: artistic research, audience engagement, audience experience, classical improvisation, ensemble improvisation, emotional engagement, improvisation, improvisatory approach, musical performance, practice research

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331 Audience Members' Perspective-Taking Predicts Accurate Identification of Musically Expressed Emotion in a Live Improvised Jazz Performance

Authors: Omer Leshem, Michael F. Schober

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This paper introduces a new method for assessing how audience members and performers feel and think during live concerts, and how audience members' recognized and felt emotions are related. Two hypotheses were tested in a live concert setting: (1) that audience members’ cognitive perspective taking ability predicts their accuracy in identifying an emotion that a jazz improviser intended to express during a performance, and (2) that audience members' affective empathy predicts their likelihood of feeling the same emotions as the performer. The aim was to stage a concert with audience members who regularly attend live jazz performances, and to measure their cognitive and affective reactions during the performance as non-intrusively as possible. Pianist and Grammy nominee Andy Milne agreed, without knowing details of the method or hypotheses, to perform a full-length solo improvised concert that would include an ‘unusual’ piece. Jazz fans were recruited through typical advertising for New York City jazz performances. The event was held at the New School’s Glass Box Theater, the home of leading NYC jazz venue ‘The Stone.’ Audience members were charged typical NYC jazz club admission prices; advertisements informed them that anyone who chose to participate in the study would be reimbursed their ticket price after the concert. The concert, held in April 2018, had 30 attendees, 23 of whom participated in the study. Twenty-two minutes into the concert, the performer was handed a paper note with the instruction: ‘Perform a 3-5-minute improvised piece with the intention of conveying sadness.’ (Sadness was chosen based on previous music cognition lab studies, where solo listeners were less likely to select sadness as the musically-expressed emotion accurately from a list of basic emotions, and more likely to misinterpret sadness as tenderness). Then, audience members and the performer were invited to respond to a questionnaire from a first envelope under their seat. Participants used their own words to describe the emotion the performer had intended to express, and then to select the intended emotion from a list. They also reported the emotions they had felt while listening using Izard’s differential emotions scale. The concert then continued as usual. At the end, participants answered demographic questions and Davis’ interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a 28-item scale designed to assess both cognitive and affective empathy. Hypothesis 1 was supported: audience members with greater cognitive empathy were more likely to accurately identify sadness as the expressed emotion. Moreover, audience members who accurately selected ‘sadness’ reported feeling marginally sadder than people who did not select sadness. Hypotheses 2 was not supported; audience members with greater affective empathy were not more likely to feel the same emotions as the performer. If anything, members with lower cognitive perspective-taking ability had marginally greater emotional overlap with the performer, which makes sense given that these participants were less likely to identify the music as sad, which corresponded with the performer’s actual feelings. Results replicate findings from solo lab studies in a concert setting and demonstrate the viability of exploring empathy and collective cognition in improvised live performance.

Keywords: audience, cognition, collective cognition, emotion, empathy, expressed emotion, felt emotion, improvisation, live performance, recognized emotion

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330 Survival Struggle: To Be a Female Competitor in Survivor

Authors: Gülbuğ Erol, Gamze Beyge, Hakan Ekemen

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In Turkey national TV channels broadcast a wide range of programs to audience attract viewers. Since the year 2000, especially the competition programs were directed towards entertainment and audience has gained. Even today, television channels have just begun to be broadcast on entertainment channels. Except from the news, the TV collects pleasure with its broadcasts aiming to meet the expectation of the Turkish people of TV 8 TV channels. Survivor, one of the TV 8 programs, draws attention with the ratings it receives and the broad target audience it addresses. Survivor, however, is one of the most exciting competitions on the Turkish television scene, which is rightly and ambitiously competitive in television contest programs. It is a format in which women and men struggle their power borders by winning the competition with their names thanks to their intelligence and endurance games. The contestants of the program, which has been running since March 22, 2005, are seen in a platform where they must present their struggle for their various awards. In Survivor, where competition is at stake, courage and strength are reduced by the reduction of sex. In this study, the critical discourse was made taking into consideration the challenges of female competitors competing to the final stage which is behind the male competitors. Secondly, the variables from the beginning to the present day of the adaptation of the judge to Turkey have been debated in a critical context.

Keywords: television, meaning, discourse, contest program

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329 Effecting the Unaffected Through the Effervescent Disk Theory, a Different Perspective of Media Effective Theories

Authors: Tarik Elaujali

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This study examines a new media effective theory was developed by the author, it is called ‘The Effervescent Disk Theory’ (EDT). The theory main goal is to affect the unaffected audience who are either not exposing to a particular message or do not show interest in it. EDT suggest melting down messages that means to be affected within the media materials which are selected willingly by the audience themselves. A certain set of procedures to test EDT hypotheses were taken and illustrated in this study. A sample of 342 respondents (males & females) was collected from Tripoli University in Libya during the academic year 2013-2014. The designated sample is representing students who were failing to pass the English module for beginners’. This study aims to change the students’ negative notion about the importance of learning English, and to put their new idea into action. The theory seeks to affect audience cognition, emotions, and behaviors. EDT was applied in the present study alongside the media dependency theory. EDT hypotheses were confirmed, study results denoted that 73.6 percentage of the students responded positively and passed their English exam for beginners after being exposed selectively to their favorite TV program that contains a dissolved messages about the importance and vitality of learning English language.

Keywords: effervescent disk theory, selective exposure, media dependency, Libyan students

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328 Didactics of Literature within the Brechtian Theatre in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and Ernest Lehman's Screenplay Adaptation from an Audiovisual Perspective

Authors: Angel Mauricio Castillo

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The background to the way theatrical performances and music dramas- as they were known in the mid-nineteenth century, provided the audience with a complete immersion into the feelings of the characters through poetry, music and other artistic representations which create a false sense of reality. However, a novel representation on stage some eighty years later, which is non-cathartic, is significant because it represents the antithesis to the common creations of the period and is originated by the separation of the elements as a dominant. A succinct description of the basic methodologies includes the sense of defamiliarization that results as a near translation of the German word Verfremdung will be referred to along this work as the V-effect (also known as the ‘alienation effect’) and will embody the representation of the performing techniques that enables the audience to watch a play being fully aware of its nature. A play might sometimes present the audience with a constant reminder that it is only a play; therefore, all elements will be introduced to provoke dissimilar reactions and opinions. A clear indication of the major findings of the study is that there is a strong correlation between Hegel, Marx and Brecht as it is disclosed how the didactics of Literature have been influencing not only Brecht’s productions but also every educational context in which these ideas are intertwined. The result is a new dialectical process that is to say, a new thesis that creates independent thinking skills on the part of the audience. Therefore, this model opposes to the Hegelian formula thesis-antithesis-synthesis in that the synthesis in the Brechtian theatre will inevitably fall into the category of a different thesis within an enlightening type of discourse. The confronting ideas of illusion versus reality will create a new dialectical thesis instead of resulting into a synthesis.

Keywords: Brechtian theatre, didactics, literature, education

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327 Traditional versus New Media: Creating Awareness on Environment Protection in Pakistan

Authors: Hafsah Javed

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Environment protection is a major issue grabbing widespread attention of policymakers, both, locally and globally. Pakistan is among the countries most affected by global climate changes; media, besides governments, have a prime responsibility to create awareness among people about its hazards, and managing strategies. Advances in Information Communication Technologies have eased people's access to information and created an interactive space to discuss environment related issues and influence the policy decisions on the issue. This study, therefore, aims to examine, from the perspective of the audience, the contribution of Pakistani traditional and social media in creating awareness about Environment Protection and its implications. The objectives are achieved through quantitative survey method. Young university students are selected as ‘audience’ for the study. The findings show lack of awareness among people regarding environment protection. Neither traditional media outlets like radio, TV and newspapers prioritize the issue on their agenda, nor audience pull information about the issue from social media. A stark indifference and non-serious attitude is being exercised towards the issue from two quarters. People do not know much about local and international laws on environment; media are used more than a source of entertainment than awareness. The study implicates that there is an exigency to launch a nationwide awareness campaign on the issue, and for that media need to be on the driving seat.

Keywords: awareness, climate change, environment protection, new media, role of media, youngsters

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326 A Qualitative Analysis of Audience Interpretations of the Saudi Youtube Soap Opera Takki

Authors: Noor Attar

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This paper proposes a qualitative study to examine the roles of the female characters in the Saudi YouTube soap opera Takki and audience reactions to them. It draws on concepts from Western feminist media studies and information about current portrayals of Saudi women in Saudi TV. The study will identify the themes that Takki presents related to new professional and personal opportunities for Saudi women and investigate Saudi women’s views of those themes. And finally, it will demonstrate how those themes may relate to the evolving positions and aspirations of Saudi women.

Keywords: a qualitative analysis, female characters, Saudi Arabia, Western feminist media

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325 Theoretical Perspective on the Dearth of Investigative Journalism in Nigeria

Authors: John Ayodele Oyewole

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Investigative journalism in Nigeria is increasingly declining as a result of some challenges associated with its practice, where corruption, incessant insecurity, embezzlement, religion, tribalism, and nepotism have indeed become a routine to the detriment of the country in every aspect of life. Investigative journalism is hardly being practised in Nigeria today because journalists fear for their lives. With in-depth interviews, this research uses the theory of media responsibility to examine the nature of investigative journalism in Nigeria, coupled with the exploration of secondary data - looking into how the Nigerian media disseminate news that is supposed to be continuous but is never brought to a conclusive end - where the hope of the audience with the current momentum of such news, as well as the enthusiasm of the audience to follow such stories is dashed, for lack of follow up of such stories. Therefore the paper suggests the need to resuscitate investigative journalism in Nigeria and the need to promulgate special laws to protect journalists.

Keywords: dearth, investigative journalism, Nigeria, journalism

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324 Demographics Are Not Enough! Targeting and Segmentation of Anti-Obesity Campaigns in Mexico

Authors: Dagmara Wrzecionkowska

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Mass media campaigns against obesity are often designed to impact large audiences. This usually means that their audience is defined based on general demographic characteristics like age, gender, occupation etc., not taking into account psychographics like behavior, motivations, wants, etc. Using psychographics, as the base for the audience segmentation, is a common practice in case of successful campaigns, as it allows developing more relevant messages. It also serves a purpose of identifying key segments, those that generate the best return on investment. For a health campaign, that would be segments that have the best chance of being converted into healthy lifestyle at the lowest cost. This paper presents the limitations of the demographic targeting, based on the findings from the reception study of IMSS anti-obesity TV commercials and proposes mothers as the first level of segmentation, in the process of identifying the key segment for these campaigns.

Keywords: anti-obesity campaigns, mothers, segmentation, targeting

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323 Environmental Online Campaigns Through Website Interactivity: The Case of Malaysia Environmental NGOs (MENGO)

Authors: Mohd Fadzil Mohd Idris, Aida Nasirah Abdullah, Kalthom Husain, Hanipah Hussin

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Online campaigns reflect all the advantages; namely speed, low cost, accessibility, customization, interactivity, and persuasive ability over other media channels. Normally via websites, expensive campaigns could be done not only faster and cheaper, but also successfully. Web interactivity seems to be highly beneficial to ENGOs in advocating environmental campaigns and trigger interaction. This paper looks into the environmental online campaigns through websites of the environmental NGOs in Malaysia (MENGO); particularly on how is web interactivity structured and employed by the selected the MENGO to conduct campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience. In this study, a quantitative method for website content analysis was conducted to investigate the availability of the coded units and to determine on which level(s) the units were placed. Twelve (12) interactivity features were coded, including the placement of units of analysis for interactivity category as units of analysis until the fourth level (Level 0-Level 3). The result demonstrates how the MENGO do not effectively structure and employ the web interactivity to conduct campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience. It is suggested that the MENGO should redevelop the interactive website in order to effectively advocate environmental campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience.

Keywords: environmental NGOs (ENGO), Malaysia environmental NGOs (MENGO), internet, website, online campaigns, web interactivity

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322 Content Monetization as a Mark of Media Economy Quality

Authors: Bela Lebedeva

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Characteristics of the Web as a channel of information dissemination - accessibility and openness, interactivity and multimedia news - become wider and cover the audience quickly, positively affecting the perception of content, but blur out the understanding of the journalistic work. As a result audience and advertisers continue migrating to the Internet. Moreover, online targeting allows monetizing not only the audience (as customarily given to traditional media) but also the content and traffic more accurately. While the users identify themselves with the qualitative characteristics of the new market, its actors are formed. Conflict of interests is laid in the base of the economy of their relations, the problem of traffic tax as an example. Meanwhile, content monetization actualizes fiscal interest of the state too. The balance of supply and demand is often violated due to the political risks, particularly in terms of state capitalism, populism and authoritarian methods of governance such social institutions as the media. A unique example of access to journalistic material, limited by monetization of content is a television channel Dozhd' (Rain) in Russian web space. Its liberal-minded audience has a better possibility for discussion. However, the channel could have been much more successful in terms of unlimited free speech. Avoiding state pressure and censorship its management has decided to save at least online performance and monetizing all of the content for the core audience. The study Methodology was primarily based on the analysis of journalistic content, on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the audience. Reconstructing main events and relationships of actors on the market for the last six years researcher has reached some conclusions. First, under the condition of content monetization the capitalization of its quality will always strive to quality characteristics of user, thereby identifying him. Vice versa, the user's demand generates high-quality journalism. The second conclusion follows the previous one. The growth of technology, information noise, new political challenges, the economy volatility and the cultural paradigm change – all these factors form the content paying model for an individual user. This model defines him as a beneficiary of specific knowledge and indicates the constant balance of supply and demand other conditions being equal. As a result, a new economic quality of information is created. This feature is an indicator of the market as a self-regulated system. Monetized information quality is less popular than that of the Public Broadcasting Service, but this audience is able to make decisions. These very users keep the niche sectors which have more potential of technology development, including the content monetization ways. The third point of the study allows develop it in the discourse of media space liberalization. This cultural phenomenon may open opportunities for the development of social and economic relations architecture both locally and regionally.

Keywords: content monetization, state capitalism, media liberalization, media economy, information quality

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321 The Colombian Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Commercial Signs

Authors: Francia Martinez

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This study documents and demonstrates the profound impact of the high status of American English and culture in Colombian commercial landscape due to the globalization and commodification of English. It also documents and describes how Colombian advertisers make use of various language and visual mechanisms in the commercial linguistic landscape to convey messages, create an image with which the target audience can identify, and build a relationship with that target audience. The data (in the form of pictures) were collected in different cities in Colombia and were classified and organized into different categories for the reliability and validity of the analysis. The research questions were: do the ubiquity and high status of American English and culture play a major role in the Colombian commercial linguistic landscape? If so, how?, what roles do national and local culture and language (Spanish) play in the commercial linguistic landscape?, and what different linguistic and visual strategies do Colombian advertisers employ to reach their target audience? Based on data analysis and results, American and local culture and icons play a major role when Colombian advertisers create and design their commercial logos and ads to get consumers’ attention and establish a rapport with them in a successful way. In order to achieve their objectives, Colombian advertisers rely on creative linguistic and visual techniques in their ads, such as puns, humor, irony, comparisons, metaphors, mocking, exaggeration, parody, personification, sarcasm, satire, allusion, onomatopoeias, and imitation (copycat or cloning).

Keywords: Colombian ads, linguistic landscape, rhetorical devices, sociolinguistics

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320 Analyzing the Construction of Collective Memories by History Movies/TV Programs: Case Study of Masters in the Forbidden City

Authors: Lulu Wang, Yongjun Xu, Xiaoyang Qiao

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The Forbidden City is well known for being full of Chinese cultural and historical relics. However, the Masters in the Forbidden City, a documentary film, doesn’t just dwell on the stories of the past. Instead, it focuses on ordinary people—the restorers of the relics and antiquities, which has caught the sight of Chinese audiences. From this popular documentary film, a new way can be considered, that is to show the relics, antiquities and painting with a character of modern humanities by films and TV programs. Of course, it can’t just like a simple explanation from tour guides in museums. It should be a perfect combination of scenes, heritages, stories, storytellers and background music. All we want to do is trying to dig up the humanity behind the heritages and then create a virtual scene for the audience to have emotional resonance from the humanity. It is believed that there are two problems. One is that compared with the entertainment shows, why people prefer to see the boring restoration work. The other is that what the interaction is between those history documentary films, the heritages, the audiences and collective memory. This paper mainly used the methods of text analysis and data analysis. The audiences’ comment texts were collected from all kinds of popular video sites. Through analyzing those texts, there was a word cloud chart about people preferring to use what kind of words to comment the film. Then the usage rate of all comments words was calculated. After that, there was a Radar Chart to show the rank results. Eventually, each of them was given an emotional value classification according their comment tone and content. Based on the above analysis results, an interaction model among the audience, history films/TV programs and the collective memory can be summarized. According to the word cloud chart, people prefer to use such words to comment, including moving, history, love, family, celebrity, tone... From those emotional words, we can see Chinese audience felt so proud and shared the sense of Collective Identity, so they leave such comments: To our great motherland! Chinese traditional culture is really profound! It is found that in the construction of collective memory symbology, the films formed an imaginary system by organizing a ‘personalized audience’. The audience is not just a recipient of information, but a participant of the documentary films and a cooperator of collective memory. At the same time, it is believed that the traditional background music, the spectacular present scenes and the tone of the storytellers/hosts are also important, so it is suggested that the museums could try to cooperate with the producers of movie and TV program to create a vivid scene for the people. Maybe it’s a more artistic way for heritages to be open to all the world.

Keywords: audience, heritages, history movies, TV programs

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319 The Use of Technology in Theatrical Performances as a Tool of Audience’S Engagement

Authors: Chrysoula Bousiouta

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Throughout the history of theatre, technology has played an important role both in influencing the relationship between performance and audience and offering different kinds of experiences. The use of technology dates back in ancient times, when the introduction of artifacts, such as “Deus ex machine” in ancient Greek theatre, started. Taking into account the key techniques and experiences used throughout history, this paper investigates how technology, through new media, influences contemporary theatre. In the context of this research, technology is defined as projections, audio environments, video-projections, sensors, tele-connections, all alongside with the performance, challenging audience’s participation. The theoretical framework of the research covers, except for the history of theatre, the theory of “experience economy” that took over the service and goods economy. The research is based on the qualitative and comparative analysis of two case studies, Contact Theatre in Manchester (United Kingdom) and Bios in Athens (Greece). The data selection includes desk research and is complemented with semi structured interviews. Building on the results of the research one could claim that the intended experience of modern/contemporary theatre is that of engagement. In this context, technology -as defined above- plays a leading role in creating it. This experience passes through and exists in the middle of the realms of entertainment, education, estheticism and escapism. Furthermore, it is observed that nowadays, theatre is not only about acting but also about performing; it is that one where the performances are unfinished without the participation of the audience. Both case studies try to achieve the experience of engagement through practices that promote the attraction of attention, the increase of imagination, the interaction, the intimacy and the true activity. These practices are achieved through the script, the scenery, the language and the environment of a performance. Contact and Bios consider technology as an intimate tool in order to accomplish the above, and they make an extended use of it. The research completes a notable record of technological techniques that modern theatres use. The use of technology, inside or outside the limits of film technique’s, helps to rivet the attention of the audience, to make performances enjoyable, to give the sense of the “unfinished” or to be used for things that take place around the spectators and force them to take action, being spect-actors. The advantage of technology is that it can be used as a hook for interaction in all stages of a performance. Further research on the field could involve exploring alternative ways of binding technology and theatre or analyzing how the performance is perceived through the use of technological artifacts.

Keywords: experience of engagement, interactive theatre, modern theatre, performance, technology

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318 'Utopian Performatives' for Peace: A Radical Approach to Evaluating the Value of Documentary Theatre in Northern Ireland

Authors: Harry Mccallum

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In the last decade, there has been an upsurge in documentary theatre projects that seek to address issues arising from ‘the Troubles’ by theatre and community organisations such as The Playhouse, Kabosh, and The Verbal Arts Centre. This movement has been supported by a variety of funding agencies who have identified the importance of the instrumental use of theatre for generating societal development. However, with this upsurge in interest comes complications surrounding the subjectivity of evaluations and an understanding of their empirical impact on society. This largely theoretical led-discussion promotes the engagement of Jill Dolan’s ‘utopian performatives’ (2005) within the remit of documentary theatre for peacebuilding practices in Northern Ireland.‘Utopian Performatives’ are described as being profound moments in a theatre production that transforms audience members into a state of ‘hopeful feeling’.As a concept, they are situated within the discourse surrounding audience reception and the ‘affective turn’ (Brennan, 2004; Clough and Halley, 2007; Ahmed, 2014), which indicates its persistence on a short-term ephemeral outlook. It is therefore important to understand how this short-term ‘affect’ can expand into a longer-term ‘effect.’ Through this interdisciplinary study between ‘peace’ and ‘theatre’ studies, I am proposinga theoretical framework that examines how these individual ‘utopian performatives’ at the personal level can lead to a change at the societal level. The framework understands that ‘utopian performatives’ have the capacity to generate discussion and empower audience members to actively strive for a ‘positive peace’; something which is evidently absent in a contemporary Northern Ireland.

Keywords: theatre, peacebuilding, conflict transformation, northern Ireland

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317 The Language Use of Middle Eastern Freedom Activists' Speeches: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

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Examining the role of Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech based on gender perspective is considered noteworthy because the society in the Middle East is patriarchal. This research aims to examine the language use of the Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speeches through gender perspective. The data sources are from male and female Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech videos. In analyzing the data, the theories employed are about Language Style from Gender Perspective and The Language for Speech. The result reveals that there are sets of spoken language differences between male and female speakers. In using the language for speech, both male and female speakers produce metaphor, euphemism, the ‘rule of three’, parallelism, and pronouns in random frequency of production, which cannot be separated by genders. Moreover, it cannot be concluded that one gender is more potential than the other to influence the audience in delivering speech. There are other factors, particularly non-verbal factors, existing to give impacts on how a speech can influence the audience.

Keywords: gender perspective, language use, Middle Eastern freedom activists, speech

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316 Enhancing Audience Engagement: Informal Music Learning During Classical Concerts

Authors: Linda Dusman, Linda Baker

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The Bearman Study of Audience Engagement examined the potential for real-time music education during online symphony orchestra concerts. It follows on the promising results of a preliminary study of STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) education during live concerts, funded by the National Science Foundation with the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. For the Bearman Study, audience groups were recruited to attend two previously recorded concerts of the National Orchestral Institute (NOI) in 2020 or the Utah Symphony in 2021. They used a smartphone app called EnCue to present real-time program notes about the music being performed. Short notes along with visual information (photos and score fragments) were designed to provide historical, cultural, biographical, and theoretical information at specific moments in the music where that information would be most pertinent, generally spaced 2-3 minutes apart to avoid distraction. The music performed included Dvorak Symphony No. 8 and Mahler Symphony No. 5 at NOI, and Mendelssohn Scottish Symphony and Richard Strauss Metamorphosen with the Utah Symphony, all standard repertoire for symphony orchestras. During each phase of the study (2020 and 2021), participants were randomly assigned to use the app to view program notes during the first concert or to use the app during the second concert. A total of 139 participants (67 in 2020 and 72 in 2021) completed three online questionnaires, one before attending the first concert, one immediately after the concert, and the third immediately after the second concert. Questionnaires assessed demographic background, expertise in music, engagement during the concert, learning of content about the composers and the symphonies, and interest in the future use of the app. In both phases of the study, participants demonstrated that they learned content presented on the app, evidenced by the fact that their multiple-choice test scores were significantly higher when they used the app than when they did not. In addition, most participants indicated that using the app enriched their experience of the concert. Overall, they were very positive about their experience using the app for real-time learning and they expressed interest in using it in the future at both live and streaming concerts. Results confirmed that informal real-time learning during concerts is possible and can generate enhanced engagement and interest in classical music.

Keywords: audience engagement, informal education, music technology, real-time learning

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315 A Deluge of Disaster, Destruction, Death and Deception: Negative News and Empathy Fatigue in the Digital Age

Authors: Bernard Nnamdi Emenyeonu

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Initially identified as sensationalism in the eras of yellow journalism and tabloidization, the inclusion of news which shock or provoke strong emotional responses among readers and viewers has not only remained a persistent feature of journalism but has also seemingly escalated in the current climate of digital media. Whether in relentless revelation of scandals in high places, or profiles on people displaced by sporadic wars or natural disasters; or gruesome accounts of trucks plowing into pedestrians in a city centre; or the coverage of mourners paying tributes to victims of a mass shooting, mainstream and digital media are often awash with tragedy, tears and trauma. While it may aim at inspiring sympathy, outrage or even remedial reactions, it would appear that the deluge of grief and misery in the news merely generates in the audience a feeling that borders on hearing or seeing too much to care or act. This feeling also appears to be accentuated by the dizzying diffusion of social media news and views, most of whose authenticity is not easily verifiable. Through a survey of regular consumers of news and an in-depth interview of news managers in Oman, this study, therefore, investigates public attitude to the profusion of bad news in mainstream and digital media. Among other targets, it examines whether the profusion of bad news generates empathy fatigue among the audience, and if so, whether there is any association between biographic variables (profession, age, and gender) and an inclination to empathy fatigue. It also seeks to identify which categories of bad news and media are most likely to drag the audience into indifference. In conclusion, the study discusses the implications of the findings for mass mediated advocacies such as campaigns against corruption, nuclear threats, terrorism, gun violence, sexual crimes and human trafficking among other threats to humanity.

Keywords: digital media, empathy fatigue, media campaigns, news selection

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314 Time Bound Parallel Processing of a Disaster Management Alert System Using Random Selection of Target Audience: Bangladesh Context

Authors: Hasan Al Bashar Abul Ulayee, AKM Saifun Nabi, MD Mesbah-Ul-Awal

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Alert system for disaster management is common now a day and can play a vital role reducing devastation and saves lives and costs. An alert in right time can save thousands of human life, help to take shelter, manage other assets including live stocks and above all, a right time alert will help to take preparation to face and early recovery of the situation. In a country like Bangladesh where populations is more than 170 million and always facing different types of natural calamities and disasters, an early right time alert is very effective and implementation of alert system is challenging. The challenge comes from the time constraint of alerting the huge number of population. The other method of existing disaster management pre alert is traditional, sequential and non-selective so efficiency is not good enough. This paper describes a way by which alert can be provided to maximum number of people within the short time bound using parallel processing as well as random selection of selective target audience.

Keywords: alert system, Bangladesh, disaster management, parallel processing, SMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 394